Abstract

An eXtreme Chirped Pulse Oscillator (XCPO) implemented with a Theta cavity and based on a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is presented for generating 10ns frequency-swept pulses and 3.6ps compressed pulses directly from the oscillator. In this experiment, we show the two distinct characteristics of the XCPO which are the scalability of the output energy and the mode-locked spectrum. By using these characteristics, we obtain a pulse energy of 58.4pJ from the stretched pulse and a mode-locked optical bandwidth of 14.6nm (10dB) directly from the oscillator. The laser cavity design allows for low repetition rate operation <100MHz, as well. The cavity, significantly, reduces nonlinear carrier dynamics, integrated self phase modulation (SPM), and fast gain recovery in an SOA. Due to the laser’s ability to generate directly frequency-swept pulses from the oscillator, this oscillator can be used for high speed frequency-swept optical coherence tomography (OCT) and time-stretched photonic analog to digital converters (P-ADC).

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Lee, K. Kim, L. Vaissie, O.V. Smolski, E.G. Johnson, P.J. Delfyett, Jr., “Picosecond pulse generation using a saturable absorber section of grating-coupled surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2676–2678 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, “High-power Passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1268–1275 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Mar, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, D. Mehuys, D. Welch, “Modelocked operation of a master oscillator power amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1067–1069 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Gee, G. Alphonse, J. Connolly, P. J. Delfyett, “High-power mode-locked external cavity semiconductor laser using inverse bow-tie semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 209–215 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, G. A. Alphonse, “High power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2218 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, “Self phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2306 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Resan, P. J. Delfyett, “Dispersion-Managed Breathing-Mode Semiconductor Mode-Locked Ring Laser: Experimental Characterization and Numerical Simulations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 214–221 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. B. Tracy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 454–458 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Kim, S. Lee, P. J. Delfyett, “1.4kW high peak power generation from an all semiconductor mode-locked master oscillator power amplifier system based on eXreme Chirped Pulse amplification (XCPA),” Opt. Express 13, 4600–4606 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4600.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Lee, K. Kim, P. J. Delfyett, “Extreme Chirped Pulse Oscillator (XCPO) Using a Theta Cavity Design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 799–801 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14, 3225–3237 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3225.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. Duhem, M. Douay, “Effect of UV-induced birefringence on long-period grating coupling characteristics,” Electron. Lett. 36, 416–417 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

S. Lee, K. Kim, L. Vaissie, O.V. Smolski, E.G. Johnson, P.J. Delfyett, Jr., “Picosecond pulse generation using a saturable absorber section of grating-coupled surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2676–2678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, S. Lee, P. J. Delfyett, “1.4kW high peak power generation from an all semiconductor mode-locked master oscillator power amplifier system based on eXreme Chirped Pulse amplification (XCPA),” Opt. Express 13, 4600–4606 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4600.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

B. Resan, P. J. Delfyett, “Dispersion-Managed Breathing-Mode Semiconductor Mode-Locked Ring Laser: Experimental Characterization and Numerical Simulations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 214–221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, “High-power Passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1268–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

O. Duhem, M. Douay, “Effect of UV-induced birefringence on long-period grating coupling characteristics,” Electron. Lett. 36, 416–417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Gee, G. Alphonse, J. Connolly, P. J. Delfyett, “High-power mode-locked external cavity semiconductor laser using inverse bow-tie semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 209–215 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Mar, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, D. Mehuys, D. Welch, “Modelocked operation of a master oscillator power amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1067–1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, G. A. Alphonse, “High power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, “Self phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. B. Tracy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 454–458 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, “Self phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Alphonse, G.

S. Gee, G. Alphonse, J. Connolly, P. J. Delfyett, “High-power mode-locked external cavity semiconductor laser using inverse bow-tie semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 209–215 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alphonse, G. A.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, G. A. Alphonse, “High power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andreadakis, N. C.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, G. A. Alphonse, “High power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aschwanden, A.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, “High-power Passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1268–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bhushan, A. S.

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J.

Mar, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, D. Mehuys, D. Welch, “Modelocked operation of a master oscillator power amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1067–1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Connolly, J.

S. Gee, G. Alphonse, J. Connolly, P. J. Delfyett, “High-power mode-locked external cavity semiconductor laser using inverse bow-tie semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 209–215 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coppinger, F.

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P. J.

S. Lee, K. Kim, P. J. Delfyett, “Extreme Chirped Pulse Oscillator (XCPO) Using a Theta Cavity Design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 799–801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, S. Lee, P. J. Delfyett, “1.4kW high peak power generation from an all semiconductor mode-locked master oscillator power amplifier system based on eXreme Chirped Pulse amplification (XCPA),” Opt. Express 13, 4600–4606 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4600.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Resan, P. J. Delfyett, “Dispersion-Managed Breathing-Mode Semiconductor Mode-Locked Ring Laser: Experimental Characterization and Numerical Simulations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 214–221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Gee, G. Alphonse, J. Connolly, P. J. Delfyett, “High-power mode-locked external cavity semiconductor laser using inverse bow-tie semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 209–215 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, G. A. Alphonse, “High power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, Jr., P.J.

S. Lee, K. Kim, L. Vaissie, O.V. Smolski, E.G. Johnson, P.J. Delfyett, Jr., “Picosecond pulse generation using a saturable absorber section of grating-coupled surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2676–2678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

O. Duhem, M. Douay, “Effect of UV-induced birefringence on long-period grating coupling characteristics,” Electron. Lett. 36, 416–417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Duhem, O.

O. Duhem, M. Douay, “Effect of UV-induced birefringence on long-period grating coupling characteristics,” Electron. Lett. 36, 416–417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Florez, L. T.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, G. A. Alphonse, “High power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gee, S.

S. Gee, G. Alphonse, J. Connolly, P. J. Delfyett, “High-power mode-locked external cavity semiconductor laser using inverse bow-tie semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 209–215 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, “High-power Passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1268–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, G. A. Alphonse, “High power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Häring, R.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, “High-power Passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1268–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Helkey, R.

Mar, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, D. Mehuys, D. Welch, “Modelocked operation of a master oscillator power amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1067–1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, G. A. Alphonse, “High power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

Jalali, B.

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, E.G.

S. Lee, K. Kim, L. Vaissie, O.V. Smolski, E.G. Johnson, P.J. Delfyett, Jr., “Picosecond pulse generation using a saturable absorber section of grating-coupled surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2676–2678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, “High-power Passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1268–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

S. Lee, K. Kim, P. J. Delfyett, “Extreme Chirped Pulse Oscillator (XCPO) Using a Theta Cavity Design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 799–801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, K. Kim, L. Vaissie, O.V. Smolski, E.G. Johnson, P.J. Delfyett, Jr., “Picosecond pulse generation using a saturable absorber section of grating-coupled surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2676–2678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, S. Lee, P. J. Delfyett, “1.4kW high peak power generation from an all semiconductor mode-locked master oscillator power amplifier system based on eXreme Chirped Pulse amplification (XCPA),” Opt. Express 13, 4600–4606 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4600.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

S. Lee, K. Kim, P. J. Delfyett, “Extreme Chirped Pulse Oscillator (XCPO) Using a Theta Cavity Design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 799–801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, S. Lee, P. J. Delfyett, “1.4kW high peak power generation from an all semiconductor mode-locked master oscillator power amplifier system based on eXreme Chirped Pulse amplification (XCPA),” Opt. Express 13, 4600–4606 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4600.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lee, K. Kim, L. Vaissie, O.V. Smolski, E.G. Johnson, P.J. Delfyett, Jr., “Picosecond pulse generation using a saturable absorber section of grating-coupled surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2676–2678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mar,

Mar, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, D. Mehuys, D. Welch, “Modelocked operation of a master oscillator power amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1067–1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mehuys, D.

Mar, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, D. Mehuys, D. Welch, “Modelocked operation of a master oscillator power amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1067–1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, “High-power Passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1268–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, “Self phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, “High-power Passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1268–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Resan, B.

B. Resan, P. J. Delfyett, “Dispersion-Managed Breathing-Mode Semiconductor Mode-Locked Ring Laser: Experimental Characterization and Numerical Simulations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 214–221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, G. A. Alphonse, “High power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smolski, O.V.

S. Lee, K. Kim, L. Vaissie, O.V. Smolski, E.G. Johnson, P.J. Delfyett, Jr., “Picosecond pulse generation using a saturable absorber section of grating-coupled surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2676–2678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stoffel, N.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, G. A. Alphonse, “High power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tracy, E. B.

E. B. Tracy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 454–458 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Vaissie, L.

S. Lee, K. Kim, L. Vaissie, O.V. Smolski, E.G. Johnson, P.J. Delfyett, Jr., “Picosecond pulse generation using a saturable absorber section of grating-coupled surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2676–2678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Welch, D.

Mar, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, D. Mehuys, D. Welch, “Modelocked operation of a master oscillator power amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1067–1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Electron. Lett. (1)

O. Duhem, M. Douay, “Effect of UV-induced birefringence on long-period grating coupling characteristics,” Electron. Lett. 36, 416–417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, “High-power Passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1268–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, G. A. Alphonse, “High power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203–2218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, “Self phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. Resan, P. J. Delfyett, “Dispersion-Managed Breathing-Mode Semiconductor Mode-Locked Ring Laser: Experimental Characterization and Numerical Simulations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 214–221 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Tracy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 454–458 (1969).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Gee, G. Alphonse, J. Connolly, P. J. Delfyett, “High-power mode-locked external cavity semiconductor laser using inverse bow-tie semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 209–215 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

S. Lee, K. Kim, L. Vaissie, O.V. Smolski, E.G. Johnson, P.J. Delfyett, Jr., “Picosecond pulse generation using a saturable absorber section of grating-coupled surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2676–2678 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mar, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, D. Mehuys, D. Welch, “Modelocked operation of a master oscillator power amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1067–1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, K. Kim, P. J. Delfyett, “Extreme Chirped Pulse Oscillator (XCPO) Using a Theta Cavity Design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 799–801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Short pulse amplifications of (a) long pulse regime (>2ps) and (b) short pulse regime (<0.5ps). Top: Gain change, Middle: Refractive index change, Bottom: Instantaneous Frequency generation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diagram Theta cavity for Extreme Chirped Pulse Oscillator (XCPO) made with an SOA. CFBG: Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating, SOA: Semiconductor Optical Amplifier, Mod: Intensity Modulator, OC: Output Coupler, PC: Polarization Controller, POL: Polarizer, BPF: Optical Band Pass Filter, T: Repetition Rate.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Stretched pulse performance. (a) Spectrally resolved streak camera traces, (b) Mode-locked spectral bandwidth vs. repetition period, and (c) Energy per pulse for 505MHz, 246MHz, and 102MHz repetition rate. All data are taken at 600 mA DC-biased SOA.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Compressed pulse performance. (a) Sampling scope trace at 102MHz, and (b) second harmonic autocorrelation. Inset is the mode-locked spectrum for generating short pulses.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Mode-locking with 660ps/nm group delay of CFBG. (a) Group delay of CFBG, (b) spectrally resolved streak camera of the stretched pulse, (c) mode-locked spectrum, and (d) sampling scope trace of 99MHz.

Equations (2)

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P s = h ν A Γ α τ ,
E t p τ ,

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