Abstract

The coherent optical response of semiconductors has been the subject of substantial research over the last couple of decades. The interest has been motivated by unique aspects of the interaction between light and semiconductors that are revealed by coherent techniques. The ability to probe the dynamics of charge carriers has been a significant driver. This paper presents a review of selected results in coherent optical spectroscopy of semiconductors.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008

A. G. V. Spivey, C. N. Borca, and S. T. Cundiff, "Correlation coefficient for dephasing of light-hole excitons and heavy-hole excitons in GaAs quantum wells," Solid State Commun. 145, 303-307 (2008).
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2007

A. G. V. Spivey and S. T. Cundiff, "Inhomogeneous dephasing of heavy-hole and light-hole exciton coherences in GaAs quantum wells," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 664-670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Carter, Z. Chen, and S. T. Cundiff, "Echo peak-shift spectroscopy of non-Markovian exciton dynamics in quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 76, 121303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Kuznetsova, T. Meier, S. T. Cundiff, and P. Thomas, "Determination of homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening in semiconductor nanostructures by two-dimensional Fourier-transform optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 76, 153301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhang, I. Kuznetsova, T. Meier, X. Li, R. Mirin, P. Thomas, and S. Cundiff, "Polarization-dependent optical 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 104, 14,227-14,232 (2007).

I. Kuznetsova, P. Thomas, T. Meier, T. Zhang, X. Li, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, "Signatures of many-particle correlations in two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectra of semiconductor nanostructures," Solid State Comm. 142, 154-158 (2007).
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L. J. Yang, I. V. Schweigert, S. T. Cundiff, and S. Mukamel, "Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy of excitons in semiconductor quantum wells: Liouville-space pathway analysis," Phys. Rev. B 75, 125302 (2007).
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M. Erementchouk, M. N. Leuenberger, and L. J. Sham, "Many-body interaction in semiconductors probed with two-dimensional Fourier spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 76, 115307 (2007).
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2006

K. M. Dani, J. Tignon, M. Breit, D. S. Chemla, E. G. Kavousanaki, and I. E. Perakis, "Ultrafast Dynamics of Coherences in a Quantum Hall System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 057401 (2006).
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X. Q. Li, T. H. Zhang, C. N. Borca, and S. T. Cundiff, "Many-body interactions in semiconductors probed by optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Langbein and B. Patton, "Heterodyne spectral interferometry for multidimensional nonlinear spectroscopy of individual quantum systems," Opt. Lett. 31, 1151-1153 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

T. H. Zhang, C. N. Borca, X. Q. Li, and S. T. Cundiff, "Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy with active interferometric stabilization," Opt. Express 13, 7432-7441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. N. Borca, T. H. Zhang, X. Q. Li, and S. T. Cundiff, "Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors," Chem. Phys. Lett. 416, 311-315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. M. Shacklette and S. T. Cundiff, "Nonperturbative transient four-wave-mixing line shapes due to excitationinduced shift and excitation-induced dephasing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 764-769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hawkins, E. J. Gansen, M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, I. Rumyantsev, R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, R. Binder, and D. G. Steel, "Differential measurements of Raman coherence and two-exciton correlations in quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 68, 035313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Silverman, R. P. Mirin, S. T. Cundiff, and A. G. Norman, "Direct measurement of polarization resolved transition dipole moment in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4552-4554 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, M. Schwab, M. Bayer, S. Fafard, Z. Wasilewski, and P. Hawrylak, "Exciton Dephasing in Quantum Dot Molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 267401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Jonas, "Two-dimensional femtosecond spectroscopy," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 425-463 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

P. Borri, W. Langbein, S. Schneider, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, "Rabi oscillations in the excitonic ground-state transition of InGaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 66, 081306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Shacklette and S. T. Cundiff, "Role of excitation-induced shift in the coherent optical response of semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 66, 045309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Ahn, S. B. Choe, J. C. Woo, D. S. Kim, S. T. Cundiff, J. M. Shacklette, and Y. S. Lim, "Quantum Interference of Virtual and Real Amplitudes in a Semiconductor Exciton System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 237403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

V. M. Axt, S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, and D. S. Chemla, "Evidence of six-particle Coulomb correlations in six-wave-mixing signals from a semiconductor quantum well," Phys. Rev. B 63, 115,303 (2001).
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V. M. Axt, B. Haase, and U. Neukirch, "Influence of Two-Pair Continuum Correlations Following Resonant Excitation of Excitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4620-4623 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Stievater, X. Li, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. J. Sham, "Rabi Oscillations of Excitons in Single Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kamada, H. Gotoh, J. Temmyo, T. Takagahara, and H. Ando, "Exciton Rabi Oscillation in a Single Quantum Dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 246401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Donovan, A. Schülzgen, J. Lee, P.-A. Blanche, N. Peyghambarian, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, I. Rumyantsev, N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, Z. S. Yang, and R. Binder, "Evidence for Intervalence Band Coherences in Semiconductor QuantumWells via Coherently Coupled Optical Stark Shifts," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Borri,W. Langbein, S. Schneider, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, "Ultralong Dephasing Time in InGaAs Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 157401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Birkedal, K. Leosson, and J. M. Hvam, "Long Lived Coherence in Self-Assembled Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 227401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Chemla and J. Shah, "Many-body and correlation effects in semiconductors," Nature 411, 549-557 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Mobius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Ruhle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, "Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 61, 13,088-13,098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Birkedal, J. Bloch, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. West, "Femtosecond dynamics and absorbance of selforganized InAs quantum dots emitting near 1.3 mu m at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2201-2203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, D. S. Chemla, and V. M. Axt, "Demonstration of sixth-order coulomb correlations in a semiconductor single quantum well," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2002-2005 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

N. A. Fromer, C. Schüller, D. S. Chemla, T. V. Shahbazyan, I. E. Perakis, K. Maranowski, and A. C. Gossard, "Electronic Dephasing in the Quantum Hall Regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4646-4649 (1999).
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A. Euteneuer, E. Finger, M. Hofmann, W. Stolz, T. Meier, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, W. W. Rühle, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, "Coherent excitation spectroscopy on inhomogeneous exciton ensembles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2073-2076 (1999).
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T. Aoki, G. Mohs, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and A. A. Yamaguchi, "Influence of Exciton-Exciton Interaction on Quantum Beats," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3108-3111 (1999).
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M. Phillips and H. Wang, "Coherent oscillation in four-wave mixing of interacting excitons," Solid State Commun. 111, 317-321 (1999).
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A. L. Smirl, M. J. Stevens, X. Chen, and O. Buccafusca, "Heavy-hole and light-hole oscillations in the coherent emission from quantum wells: Evidence for exciton-exciton correlations," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8267-8275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. Mørk, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M.-H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, "Dephasing in InAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 60, 7784-7787 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Schulzgen, R. Binder, M. E. Donovan, T. Lindberg, K. Wundke, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, "Direct observation of excitonic Rabi oscillations in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2346-2349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. B. Ferrio and D. G. Steel, "Raman quantum beats of interacting excitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 786-789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Giessen, A. Knorr, S. Haas, S. W. Koch, S. Linden, J. Kuhl, M. Hetterich, M. Grun, and C. Klingshirn, "Selfinduced transmission on a free exciton resonance in a semiconductor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4260-4263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, B. Haase, U. Neukirch, and J. Gutowski, "Identification of Higher-Order Electronic Coherences in Semiconductors by their Signature in Four-Wave-Mixing Signals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5880-5883 (1998).
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T. Östreich, K. Schonhammer, and L. J. Sham, "Theory of exciton-exciton correlation in nonlinear optical response," Phys. Rev. B 58, 12,920-12,936 (1998).
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1997

P. Kner, S. BarAd, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and W. Schafer, "Magnetically enhanced exciton-exciton correlations in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1319-1322 (1997).
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X. Chen, W. J. Walecki, O. Buccafusca, D. N. Fittinghoff, and A. L. Smirl, "Temporally and spectrally resolved amplitude and phase of coherent four-wave-mixing emission from GaAs quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 56, 9738-9743 (1997).
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S. BarAd, M. V. Marquezini, S. Mukamel, and D. S. Chemla, "Quantum confined Fano interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1363-1366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. T. Cundiff, M. Koch, W. H. Knox, J. Shah, and W. Stolz, "Optical coherence in semiconductors: Strong emission mediated by nondegenerate interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1107-1110 (1996).
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M. U. Wehner, D. Steinbach, and M. Wegener, "Ultrafast coherent transients due to exciton-continuum scattering in bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 54, R5211-R5214 (1996).
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D. Birkedal, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, and K. E. Sayed, "Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing due to interaction-induced nonlinearities," Phys. Rev. B 54, 14,250-14,253 (1996).
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K. B. Ferrio and D. G. Steel, "Observation of the ultrafast two-photon coherent biexciton oscillation in a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum well," Phys. Rev. B 54, R5231-R5234 (1996).
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T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Schulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, "Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436-4439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Mecozzi, J. Mørk, and M. Hofmann, "Transient four-wave mixing with a collinear pump and probe," Opt. Lett. 21, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, "On the relation between the echo-peak shift and Brownian-oscillator correlation function," Chem. Phys. Lett. 253, 53-60 (1996).
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T. Joo, Y. Jia, J.-Y. Yu, M. J. Lang, and G. R. Fleming, "Third-order nonlinear time domain probes of solvation dynamics," J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6089-6108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Gobel, "Light-propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple-quantum wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391-2394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lindberg and R. Binder, "Dark States in Coherent Semiconductor Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1403-1406 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Meier, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, H. Vaupel, and K. Maschke, "Signatures of Fano resonances in four-wavemixing experiments," Phys. Rev. B 51, 13,977-13,986 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Siegner, M. A. Mycek, S. Glutsch, and D. S. Chemla, "Ultrafast coherent dynamics of Fano resonances in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 470-473 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Banyai, D. B. T. Thoai, E. Reitsamer, H. Haug, D. Steinbach, M. U. Wehner, M. Wegener, T. Marschner, and W. Stolz, "Exciton-LO-phonon quantum kinetics - evidence of memory effects in bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2188-2191 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Koch, R. Hellmann, G. Bastian, J. Feldmann, E. O. Göbel, and P. Dawson, "Enhanced energy and phase relaxation of excitons in the presence of bare electrons," Phys. Rev. B 51, 13,887-13,890 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. Leitenstorfer, A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, W. Stolz, and K. Ploog, "Excitonic and free-carrier polarizations of bulk GaAs studied by femtosecond coherent spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 49, 16,372-16,380 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, "Effects of correlation between inhomogeneously broadened transitions on quantum beats in transient 4-wave-mixing," Phys. Rev. A 49, 3114-3118 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhu, M. S. Hybertsen, and P. B. Littlewood, "Quantum beats in photon echo from four-waving mixing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 209 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, "Koch, et al., reply," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 210 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, "The role of the biexciton in a dynamic density-matrix theory of the semiconductor band-edge," Z. Für Physik B 93, 205-211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, "Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantumwells," Phys. Rev. B 50, 14,730-14,733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, "A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density-matrices in semiconductor optics," Z. für Physik B 93, 195-204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, "(3) formalism in optically-excited semiconductors and its applications in 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 50, 18,060-18,072 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Maialle and L. J. Sham, "Interacting electron theory of coherent nonlinear response," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3310-3313 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, "Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 49, 14,382-14,386 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, K. B. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, P. R. Berman, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S.W. Koch, "Transient 4-wave-mixing line-shapes - effects of excitation-induced dephasing," Phys. Rev. A 49, R1551-R1554 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jahnke, M. Koch, T. Meier, J. Feldmann, W. Schäfer, H. Nickel, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, "Simultaneous influence of disorder and coulomb interaction on photon-echoes in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 50, 8114-8117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, A. Vinattieri, W. Schafer, and L. N. Pfeiffer, "Femtosecond pulse distortion in GaAs quantum-wells and its effect on pump-probe or 4-wave-mixing experiments," Phys. Rev. B 50, 18,240-18,249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S.W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, "Rabi flopping in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178-1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, R. Eccleston, E. J. Mayer, and J. Kuhl, "Polarization dependence of four-wave-mixing signals in quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 47, 13,485-13,490 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Hellmann, M. Koch, J. Feldmann, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, D. R. Yakovlev, A. Waag, and G. Landwehr, "Homogeneous linewidth of excitons in semimagnetic CdTe/Cd1−xMnxTe multiple-quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 48, 2847-2850 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Yaffe, Y. Prior, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, "Polarization dependence and selection rules of transient four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum-well excitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10(4), 578-583 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, "Transient nonlinear-optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261-1264 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. T. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, "Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical-response in GaAs quantum-wells," Phys. Rev. B 48, 17,418-17,426 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, A. Leitenstorfer, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, and W. Stolz, "Coherent optical polarization of bulk GaAs studied by femtosecond photon-echo spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 77-80 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feldmann, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Gobel, P. Thomas, G. Bacher, C. Hartmann, H. Schweizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, "Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave-packets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3027-3030 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Lyssenko, J. Erland, I. Balslev, K. H. Pantke, B. S. Razbirin, and J. M. Hvam, "Nature of nonlinear 4-wavemixing beats in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 48, 5720-5723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Schafer, F. Jahnke, and S. Schmitt-Rink, "Many-particle effects on transient 4-wave-mixing signals in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 47, 1217-1220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. Weiss, M. A. Mycek, J. Y. Bigot, S. Schmitt-Rink, and D. S. Chemla, "Collective effects in excitonic free induction decay - do semiconductors and atoms emit coherent-light in different ways," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2685-2688 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schafer, F. Jahnke, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Kohler, "Unusually slow temporal evolution of femtosecond 4-wave-mixing signals in intrinsic GaAs quantum-wells - direct evidence for the dominance of interaction effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2725-2728 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, "Quantum beats versus polarization interference - an experimental distinction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3631-3634 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bar-Ad and I. Bar-Joseph, "Exciton spin dynamics in GaAs heterostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 349-352 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lindberg, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, "Theory of the semiconductor photon-echo," Phys. Rev. A 45, 1865-1875 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, "Giant excitonic resonance in time-resolved 4-wave-mixing in quantum-wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006-1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, "Polarization-dependent picosecond excitonic nonlinearities and the complexities of disorder," Phys. Rev. B 46, 7248-7251 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff and D. G. Steel, "Coherent transient spectroscopy of excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2423-2433 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. D. Webb, S. T. Cundiff, and D. G. Steel, "Observation of time-resolved picosecond stimulated photon-echoes and free polarization decay in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum-wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 934-937 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Webb, S. T. Cundiff, and D. G. Steel, "Stimulated-picosecond-photon-echo studies of localized exciton relaxation and dephasing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum-wells," Phys. Rev. B 43, 12,658-12,661 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, "Biexcitonic contribution to the degenerate-4-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum-well," Phys. Rev. B 43, 2439-2441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Bigot, M. T. Portella, R. W. Schoenlein, J. E. Cunningham, and C. V. Shank, "Two-dimensional carriercarrier screening in a quantum well," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 636-639 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

E. O. Göbel, K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schafer, J. F. Muller, and K. Kohler, "Quantum beats of excitons in quantum-wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1801-1804 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, E. O. Göbel, and K. Kohler, "Quantum beats of light hole and heavy hole excitons in quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 19-21 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, R. Eccleston, and K. Ploog, "Quantum Beats between the Light and Heavy Hole Excitons in a Quantum Well," Solid State Commun. 74, 1279-1283 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Leo, M. Wegener, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, E. O. Gobel, T. C. Damen, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schafer, "Effects of coherent polarization interactions on time-resolved degenerate 4-wave-mixing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1340-1343 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wegener, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schafer, "Line-shape of time-resolved 4-wave-mixing," Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675-5683 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. Jiang, and D. G. Steel, "Measurement of phonon-assisted migration of localized excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1255-1258 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Noll, U. Siegner, S. G. Shevel, and E. O. Göbel, "Picosecond stimulated photon-echo due to intrinsic excitations in semiconductor mixed-crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 792-795 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Binder, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, N. Peyghambarian, and W. Sch¨afer, "Ultrafast adiabatic following in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 899-902 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

T. Takagahara, "Excitonic relaxation processes in quantum well structures," J. Luminescence 44, 347-366 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Lonsky, P. Thomas, and A. Weller, "Optical dephasing in disordered semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 652-655 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Honold, L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, and C. W. Tu, "Collision broadening of two-dimensional excitons in a GaAs single quantum well," Phys. Rev. B 40, 6442-6445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

M. Lindberg and S. W. Koch, "Effective Bloch equations for semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 38, 3342-3350 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. B. Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond photon-echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647-1649 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Honold, L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, and C. W. Tu, "Reflected degenerate 4-wave mixing on GaAs single quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2105-2107 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, C. B. A. Laguillaume, N. Peyghambarian, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, "Coherent effects in pump probe spectroscopy of excitons," Opt. Lett. 13, 276-278 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, A. Honold, and C. W. Tu, "Picosecond phase coherence and orientational relaxation of excitons in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1797-1800 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Schultheis, A. Honold, J. Kuhl, K. Köhler, and C. W. Tu, "Optical dephasing of homogeneously broadened two-dimensional exciton-transitions in GaAs quantum-wells," Phys. Rev. B 34, 9027-9030 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

L. Schultheis, M. D. Sturge, and J. Hegarty, "Photon-echoes from two-dimensional excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 995-997 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt-Rink, D. S. Chemla, and D. A. B. Miller, "Theory of transient excitonic optical nonlinearities in semiconductor quantum-well structures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 6601-6609 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, S. D. Silvestri, and E. P. Ippen, "3-pulse scattering for femtosecond dephasing studies - theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 654-662 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Hegarty and M. D. Sturge, "Studies of exciton localization in quantum-well structures by nonlinear-optical techniques," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1143-1154 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. Takagahara, "Localization and homogeneous dephasing relaxation of quasi-2-dimensional excitons in quantum-well heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 32, 7013-7015 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. Takagahara, "Localization and energy-transfer of quasi-2-dimensional excitons in GaAs-AlAs quantum-well heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 31, 6552-6573 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Adachi, "GaAs, AlAs and AlxGa1−xAs: Material Parameters for use in research and device applications," J. Appl. Phys. 58, R1-R29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

R. L. Greene, K. K. Bajaj, and D. E. Phelps, "Energy levels of Wannier excitons in GaAs-Ga1−xAlxAs quantumwell structures," Phys. Rev. B 29, 1807-1812 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Hegarty, L. Goldner, and M. D. Sturge, "Localized and delocalized two-dimensional excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well structures," Phys. Rev. B 30, 7346-7348 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

D. A. Kleinman, "Binding energy of biexcitons and bound excitons in quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 28, 871-879 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. Hegarty, M. D. Sturge, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, "Resonant degenerate 4-wave mixing in GaAs multiquantum well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 132-134 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

C. Weisbuch, R. Dingle, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, "Optical characterization of interface disorder in GaAs-Ga1−xAlxAs multi-quantum well structures," Solid State Commun. 38, 709-712 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

T. Yajima and Y. Taira, "Spatial optical parametric coupling of picosecond light-pulses and transverse relaxation effect in resonant media," J. Phys. Soc. Japan 47, 1620-1626 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1958

P. W. Anderson, "Absence of Diffusion in Certain Random Lattices," Phys. Rev. 109, 1492-1505 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1957

R. J. Elliott, "Intensity of Optical Absorption by Excitons," Phys. Rev. 108, 1384-1389 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1949

N. Mott, "The basis of the electron theory of metals, with special reference to the transition metals," Proc. Phys. Soc. London 62, 416 (1949).
[CrossRef]

1937

I. I. Rabi, "Space Quantization in a Gyrating Magnetic Field," Phys. Rev. 51, 652-654 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

S. Adachi, "GaAs, AlAs and AlxGa1−xAs: Material Parameters for use in research and device applications," J. Appl. Phys. 58, R1-R29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, Y. H.

Y. H. Ahn, S. B. Choe, J. C. Woo, D. S. Kim, S. T. Cundiff, J. M. Shacklette, and Y. S. Lim, "Quantum Interference of Virtual and Real Amplitudes in a Semiconductor Exciton System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 237403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albrecht, T. F.

T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Schulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, "Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436-4439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, P. W.

P. W. Anderson, "Absence of Diffusion in Certain Random Lattices," Phys. Rev. 109, 1492-1505 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Ando, H.

H. Kamada, H. Gotoh, J. Temmyo, T. Takagahara, and H. Ando, "Exciton Rabi Oscillation in a Single Quantum Dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 246401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anthony, C.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Gobel, "Light-propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple-quantum wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391-2394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonetti, A.

Aoki, T.

T. Aoki, G. Mohs, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and A. A. Yamaguchi, "Influence of Exciton-Exciton Interaction on Quantum Beats," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3108-3111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Axt, V. M.

V. M. Axt, B. Haase, and U. Neukirch, "Influence of Two-Pair Continuum Correlations Following Resonant Excitation of Excitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4620-4623 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Axt, S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, and D. S. Chemla, "Evidence of six-particle Coulomb correlations in six-wave-mixing signals from a semiconductor quantum well," Phys. Rev. B 63, 115,303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, D. S. Chemla, and V. M. Axt, "Demonstration of sixth-order coulomb correlations in a semiconductor single quantum well," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2002-2005 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, B. Haase, U. Neukirch, and J. Gutowski, "Identification of Higher-Order Electronic Coherences in Semiconductors by their Signature in Four-Wave-Mixing Signals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5880-5883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, "The role of the biexciton in a dynamic density-matrix theory of the semiconductor band-edge," Z. Für Physik B 93, 205-211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, "A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density-matrices in semiconductor optics," Z. für Physik B 93, 195-204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bacher, G.

J. Feldmann, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Gobel, P. Thomas, G. Bacher, C. Hartmann, H. Schweizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, "Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave-packets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3027-3030 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajaj, K. K.

R. L. Greene, K. K. Bajaj, and D. E. Phelps, "Energy levels of Wannier excitons in GaAs-Ga1−xAlxAs quantumwell structures," Phys. Rev. B 29, 1807-1812 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Balslev, I.

V. G. Lyssenko, J. Erland, I. Balslev, K. H. Pantke, B. S. Razbirin, and J. M. Hvam, "Nature of nonlinear 4-wavemixing beats in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 48, 5720-5723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Banyai, L.

L. Banyai, D. B. T. Thoai, E. Reitsamer, H. Haug, D. Steinbach, M. U. Wehner, M. Wegener, T. Marschner, and W. Stolz, "Exciton-LO-phonon quantum kinetics - evidence of memory effects in bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2188-2191 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bar-Ad, S.

S. Bar-Ad and I. Bar-Joseph, "Exciton spin dynamics in GaAs heterostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 349-352 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bar-Joseph, I.

S. Bar-Ad and I. Bar-Joseph, "Exciton spin dynamics in GaAs heterostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 349-352 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, G.

G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, B. Haase, U. Neukirch, and J. Gutowski, "Identification of Higher-Order Electronic Coherences in Semiconductors by their Signature in Four-Wave-Mixing Signals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5880-5883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bastian, G.

M. Koch, R. Hellmann, G. Bastian, J. Feldmann, E. O. Göbel, and P. Dawson, "Enhanced energy and phase relaxation of excitons in the presence of bare electrons," Phys. Rev. B 51, 13,887-13,890 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, M.

P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, M. Schwab, M. Bayer, S. Fafard, Z. Wasilewski, and P. Hawrylak, "Exciton Dephasing in Quantum Dot Molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 267401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. B. Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond photon-echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647-1649 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennhardt, D.

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, "Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantumwells," Phys. Rev. B 50, 14,730-14,733 (1994).
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P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, M. Schwab, M. Bayer, S. Fafard, Z. Wasilewski, and P. Hawrylak, "Exciton Dephasing in Quantum Dot Molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 267401 (2003).
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R. Hellmann, M. Koch, J. Feldmann, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, D. R. Yakovlev, A. Waag, and G. Landwehr, "Homogeneous linewidth of excitons in semimagnetic CdTe/Cd1−xMnxTe multiple-quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 48, 2847-2850 (1993).
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M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, "Quantum beats versus polarization interference - an experimental distinction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3631-3634 (1992).
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B. F. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, "Biexcitonic contribution to the degenerate-4-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum-well," Phys. Rev. B 43, 2439-2441 (1991).
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S. A. Hawkins, E. J. Gansen, M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, I. Rumyantsev, R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, R. Binder, and D. G. Steel, "Differential measurements of Raman coherence and two-exciton correlations in quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 68, 035313 (2003).
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M. E. Donovan, A. Schülzgen, J. Lee, P.-A. Blanche, N. Peyghambarian, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, I. Rumyantsev, N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, Z. S. Yang, and R. Binder, "Evidence for Intervalence Band Coherences in Semiconductor QuantumWells via Coherently Coupled Optical Stark Shifts," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237402 (2001).
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A. Schulzgen, R. Binder, M. E. Donovan, T. Lindberg, K. Wundke, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, "Direct observation of excitonic Rabi oscillations in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2346-2349 (1999).
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H. Giessen, A. Knorr, S. Haas, S. W. Koch, S. Linden, J. Kuhl, M. Hetterich, M. Grun, and C. Klingshirn, "Selfinduced transmission on a free exciton resonance in a semiconductor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4260-4263 (1998).
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T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Gobel, "Light-propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple-quantum wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391-2394 (1995).
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J. Feldmann, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Gobel, P. Thomas, G. Bacher, C. Hartmann, H. Schweizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, "Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave-packets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3027-3030 (1993).
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K. Leo, M. Wegener, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, E. O. Gobel, T. C. Damen, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schafer, "Effects of coherent polarization interactions on time-resolved degenerate 4-wave-mixing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1340-1343 (1990).
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T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Schulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, "Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436-4439 (1996).
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M. Koch, R. Hellmann, G. Bastian, J. Feldmann, E. O. Göbel, and P. Dawson, "Enhanced energy and phase relaxation of excitons in the presence of bare electrons," Phys. Rev. B 51, 13,887-13,890 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S.W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, "Rabi flopping in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178-1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jahnke, M. Koch, T. Meier, J. Feldmann, W. Schäfer, H. Nickel, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, "Simultaneous influence of disorder and coulomb interaction on photon-echoes in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 50, 8114-8117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, "Koch, et al., reply," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 210 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hellmann, M. Koch, J. Feldmann, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, D. R. Yakovlev, A. Waag, and G. Landwehr, "Homogeneous linewidth of excitons in semimagnetic CdTe/Cd1−xMnxTe multiple-quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 48, 2847-2850 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, "Quantum beats versus polarization interference - an experimental distinction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3631-3634 (1992).
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E. O. Göbel, K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schafer, J. F. Muller, and K. Kohler, "Quantum beats of excitons in quantum-wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1801-1804 (1990).
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K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, E. O. Göbel, and K. Kohler, "Quantum beats of light hole and heavy hole excitons in quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 19-21 (1990).
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G. Noll, U. Siegner, S. G. Shevel, and E. O. Göbel, "Picosecond stimulated photon-echo due to intrinsic excitations in semiconductor mixed-crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 792-795 (1990).
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J. Hegarty, L. Goldner, and M. D. Sturge, "Localized and delocalized two-dimensional excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well structures," Phys. Rev. B 30, 7346-7348 (1984).
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N. A. Fromer, C. Schüller, D. S. Chemla, T. V. Shahbazyan, I. E. Perakis, K. Maranowski, and A. C. Gossard, "Electronic Dephasing in the Quantum Hall Regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4646-4649 (1999).
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J. Hegarty, M. D. Sturge, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, "Resonant degenerate 4-wave mixing in GaAs multiquantum well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 132-134 (1982).
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C. Weisbuch, R. Dingle, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, "Optical characterization of interface disorder in GaAs-Ga1−xAlxAs multi-quantum well structures," Solid State Commun. 38, 709-712 (1981).
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H. Kamada, H. Gotoh, J. Temmyo, T. Takagahara, and H. Ando, "Exciton Rabi Oscillation in a Single Quantum Dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 246401 (2001).
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H. Giessen, A. Knorr, S. Haas, S. W. Koch, S. Linden, J. Kuhl, M. Hetterich, M. Grun, and C. Klingshirn, "Selfinduced transmission on a free exciton resonance in a semiconductor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4260-4263 (1998).
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G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, B. Haase, U. Neukirch, and J. Gutowski, "Identification of Higher-Order Electronic Coherences in Semiconductors by their Signature in Four-Wave-Mixing Signals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5880-5883 (1998).
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H. Giessen, A. Knorr, S. Haas, S. W. Koch, S. Linden, J. Kuhl, M. Hetterich, M. Grun, and C. Klingshirn, "Selfinduced transmission on a free exciton resonance in a semiconductor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4260-4263 (1998).
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V. M. Axt, B. Haase, and U. Neukirch, "Influence of Two-Pair Continuum Correlations Following Resonant Excitation of Excitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4620-4623 (2001).
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G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, B. Haase, U. Neukirch, and J. Gutowski, "Identification of Higher-Order Electronic Coherences in Semiconductors by their Signature in Four-Wave-Mixing Signals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5880-5883 (1998).
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Harbison, J. P.

Hartmann, C.

J. Feldmann, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Gobel, P. Thomas, G. Bacher, C. Hartmann, H. Schweizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, "Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave-packets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3027-3030 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartmann, M.

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, "Giant excitonic resonance in time-resolved 4-wave-mixing in quantum-wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006-1009 (1992).
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L. Banyai, D. B. T. Thoai, E. Reitsamer, H. Haug, D. Steinbach, M. U. Wehner, M. Wegener, T. Marschner, and W. Stolz, "Exciton-LO-phonon quantum kinetics - evidence of memory effects in bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2188-2191 (1995).
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S. A. Hawkins, E. J. Gansen, M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, I. Rumyantsev, R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, R. Binder, and D. G. Steel, "Differential measurements of Raman coherence and two-exciton correlations in quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 68, 035313 (2003).
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Hawrylak, P.

P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, M. Schwab, M. Bayer, S. Fafard, Z. Wasilewski, and P. Hawrylak, "Exciton Dephasing in Quantum Dot Molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 267401 (2003).
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J. Hegarty and M. D. Sturge, "Studies of exciton localization in quantum-well structures by nonlinear-optical techniques," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1143-1154 (1985).
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J. Hegarty, L. Goldner, and M. D. Sturge, "Localized and delocalized two-dimensional excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well structures," Phys. Rev. B 30, 7346-7348 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Hegarty, M. D. Sturge, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, "Resonant degenerate 4-wave mixing in GaAs multiquantum well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 132-134 (1982).
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M. Koch, R. Hellmann, G. Bastian, J. Feldmann, E. O. Göbel, and P. Dawson, "Enhanced energy and phase relaxation of excitons in the presence of bare electrons," Phys. Rev. B 51, 13,887-13,890 (1995).
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R. Hellmann, M. Koch, J. Feldmann, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, D. R. Yakovlev, A. Waag, and G. Landwehr, "Homogeneous linewidth of excitons in semimagnetic CdTe/Cd1−xMnxTe multiple-quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 48, 2847-2850 (1993).
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P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. B. Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, "Femtosecond photon-echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647-1649 (1988).
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H. Giessen, A. Knorr, S. Haas, S. W. Koch, S. Linden, J. Kuhl, M. Hetterich, M. Grun, and C. Klingshirn, "Selfinduced transmission on a free exciton resonance in a semiconductor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4260-4263 (1998).
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E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, "Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantumwells," Phys. Rev. B 50, 14,730-14,733 (1994).
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A. Euteneuer, E. Finger, M. Hofmann, W. Stolz, T. Meier, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, W. W. Rühle, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, "Coherent excitation spectroscopy on inhomogeneous exciton ensembles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2073-2076 (1999).
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E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, "Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantumwells," Phys. Rev. B 50, 14,730-14,733 (1994).
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Hu, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, "Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 49, 14,382-14,386 (1994).
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H. Wang, K. B. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, P. R. Berman, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S.W. Koch, "Transient 4-wave-mixing line-shapes - effects of excitation-induced dephasing," Phys. Rev. A 49, R1551-R1554 (1994).
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M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, "(3) formalism in optically-excited semiconductors and its applications in 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 50, 18,060-18,072 (1994).
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H. L. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, "Transient nonlinear-optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261-1264 (1993).
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D. Birkedal, K. Leosson, and J. M. Hvam, "Long Lived Coherence in Self-Assembled Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 227401 (2001).
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Jahnke, F.

F. Jahnke, M. Koch, T. Meier, J. Feldmann, W. Schäfer, H. Nickel, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, "Simultaneous influence of disorder and coulomb interaction on photon-echoes in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 50, 8114-8117 (1994).
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W. Schafer, F. Jahnke, and S. Schmitt-Rink, "Many-particle effects on transient 4-wave-mixing signals in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 47, 1217-1220 (1993).
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D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schafer, F. Jahnke, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Kohler, "Unusually slow temporal evolution of femtosecond 4-wave-mixing signals in intrinsic GaAs quantum-wells - direct evidence for the dominance of interaction effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2725-2728 (1992).
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T. Joo, Y. Jia, J.-Y. Yu, M. J. Lang, and G. R. Fleming, "Third-order nonlinear time domain probes of solvation dynamics," J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6089-6108 (1996).
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A. Schulzgen, R. Binder, M. E. Donovan, T. Lindberg, K. Wundke, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, "Direct observation of excitonic Rabi oscillations in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2346-2349 (1999).
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D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schafer, F. Jahnke, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Kohler, "Unusually slow temporal evolution of femtosecond 4-wave-mixing signals in intrinsic GaAs quantum-wells - direct evidence for the dominance of interaction effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2725-2728 (1992).
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Klingshirn, C.

H. Giessen, A. Knorr, S. Haas, S. W. Koch, S. Linden, J. Kuhl, M. Hetterich, M. Grun, and C. Klingshirn, "Selfinduced transmission on a free exciton resonance in a semiconductor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4260-4263 (1998).
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H. Giessen, A. Knorr, S. Haas, S. W. Koch, S. Linden, J. Kuhl, M. Hetterich, M. Grun, and C. Klingshirn, "Selfinduced transmission on a free exciton resonance in a semiconductor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4260-4263 (1998).
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T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Gobel, "Light-propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple-quantum wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391-2394 (1995).
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S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S.W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, "Rabi flopping in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178-1181 (1994).
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Knox, W.

M. Koch, S. Cundiff, W. Knox, J. Shah, and W. Stolz, "Magnetoexciton quantum beats: influence of Coulomb correlations," Solid State Commun. 111, 553-558 (1999).

Knox, W. H.

S. T. Cundiff, M. Koch, W. H. Knox, J. Shah, and W. Stolz, "Optical coherence in semiconductors: Strong emission mediated by nondegenerate interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1107-1110 (1996).
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Koch, M.

S. T. Cundiff, M. Koch, W. H. Knox, J. Shah, and W. Stolz, "Optical coherence in semiconductors: Strong emission mediated by nondegenerate interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1107-1110 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Schulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, "Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436-4439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Gobel, "Light-propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple-quantum wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391-2394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Koch, R. Hellmann, G. Bastian, J. Feldmann, E. O. Göbel, and P. Dawson, "Enhanced energy and phase relaxation of excitons in the presence of bare electrons," Phys. Rev. B 51, 13,887-13,890 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Jahnke, M. Koch, T. Meier, J. Feldmann, W. Schäfer, H. Nickel, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, "Simultaneous influence of disorder and coulomb interaction on photon-echoes in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 50, 8114-8117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, "Koch, et al., reply," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 210 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hellmann, M. Koch, J. Feldmann, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, D. R. Yakovlev, A. Waag, and G. Landwehr, "Homogeneous linewidth of excitons in semimagnetic CdTe/Cd1−xMnxTe multiple-quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 48, 2847-2850 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Feldmann, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Gobel, P. Thomas, G. Bacher, C. Hartmann, H. Schweizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, "Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave-packets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3027-3030 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, "Quantum beats versus polarization interference - an experimental distinction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3631-3634 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Koch, S. Cundiff, W. Knox, J. Shah, and W. Stolz, "Magnetoexciton quantum beats: influence of Coulomb correlations," Solid State Commun. 111, 553-558 (1999).

Koch, S. W.

S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Mobius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Ruhle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, "Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 61, 13,088-13,098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Euteneuer, E. Finger, M. Hofmann, W. Stolz, T. Meier, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, W. W. Rühle, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, "Coherent excitation spectroscopy on inhomogeneous exciton ensembles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2073-2076 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Giessen, A. Knorr, S. Haas, S. W. Koch, S. Linden, J. Kuhl, M. Hetterich, M. Grun, and C. Klingshirn, "Selfinduced transmission on a free exciton resonance in a semiconductor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4260-4263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Schulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, "Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436-4439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Gobel, "Light-propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple-quantum wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391-2394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jahnke, M. Koch, T. Meier, J. Feldmann, W. Schäfer, H. Nickel, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, "Simultaneous influence of disorder and coulomb interaction on photon-echoes in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 50, 8114-8117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, "(3) formalism in optically-excited semiconductors and its applications in 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 50, 18,060-18,072 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, "Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 49, 14,382-14,386 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, "Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantumwells," Phys. Rev. B 50, 14,730-14,733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, "Transient nonlinear-optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261-1264 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lindberg, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, "Theory of the semiconductor photon-echo," Phys. Rev. A 45, 1865-1875 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Binder, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, N. Peyghambarian, and W. Sch¨afer, "Ultrafast adiabatic following in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 899-902 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, C. B. A. Laguillaume, N. Peyghambarian, M. Lindberg, and S. W. Koch, "Coherent effects in pump probe spectroscopy of excitons," Opt. Lett. 13, 276-278 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lindberg and S. W. Koch, "Effective Bloch equations for semiconductors," Phys. Rev. B 38, 3342-3350 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S.W.

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S.W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, "Rabi flopping in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178-1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, K. B. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, P. R. Berman, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S.W. Koch, "Transient 4-wave-mixing line-shapes - effects of excitation-induced dephasing," Phys. Rev. A 49, R1551-R1554 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohler, K.

M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, "Koch, et al., reply," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 210 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, "Quantum beats versus polarization interference - an experimental distinction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3631-3634 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schafer, F. Jahnke, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Kohler, "Unusually slow temporal evolution of femtosecond 4-wave-mixing signals in intrinsic GaAs quantum-wells - direct evidence for the dominance of interaction effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2725-2728 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, E. O. Göbel, and K. Kohler, "Quantum beats of light hole and heavy hole excitons in quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 19-21 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. O. Göbel, K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schafer, J. F. Muller, and K. Kohler, "Quantum beats of excitons in quantum-wells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1801-1804 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Köhler, K.

L. Schultheis, A. Honold, J. Kuhl, K. Köhler, and C. W. Tu, "Optical dephasing of homogeneously broadened two-dimensional exciton-transitions in GaAs quantum-wells," Phys. Rev. B 34, 9027-9030 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

H. Giessen, A. Knorr, S. Haas, S. W. Koch, S. Linden, J. Kuhl, M. Hetterich, M. Grun, and C. Klingshirn, "Selfinduced transmission on a free exciton resonance in a semiconductor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4260-4263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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H. Haug and P. S. Koch, Quantum Theory of the Electronic and Optical Properties of Semiconductors, 2nd ed., (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).

J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).

M. Wegener and W. Schäfer, Semiconductor Optics and Transport Phenomena (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002).

T. Takagahara, ed., Quantum Coherence, Correlation and Decoherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures (Academic Press, San Diego, 2003).

T. Meier, P. Thomas, and S. Koch, Coherent Semiconductor Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Madelung, Semiconductor Data Handbook (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2006).

Sometimes T is defined as the time between the second pulse (ka for τ >0 or kb for τ <0) and kc. This definition is the same as the one in the text for τ > 0 and T > 0 however will differ for τ < 0 and can will even have a different pulse ordering for τ < 0 and T < |τ|.

R. Ernst, G. Bodenhausen, and A. Wokaun, Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in One and Two Dimensions (Oxford Science Publications, Oxford, 1987).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Band structure of GaAs near the fundamental gap.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical linear absorption spectrum of a GaAs quantum well.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental schematic for transient four wave-mixing.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental schematics for 3 different geometries for 3P-TFWM. The geometry shown in (a) does not have a specific name while (b) is known as the phase conjugate geometry and (c) is the the box geometry.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The pulse sequence for 2DFTS and phase evolution. The initial pulse, with wave vector k a , excites an initial coherence that evolves during time period τ. The second pulse, with wavevector k b stores the phase of the initial coherence in a population state. The third pulse, with wavevector k c , generates the coherence that radiates the signal during time period t. The overall phase of the radiating coherence is determined by the phase evolution during time period τ. By taking a two-dimensional Fourier transform of the signal with respect to τ and t the frequencies of both the initial coherence and the emitting coherence can be determined. For uncoupled resonances, these two frequencies will always be the same, whereas they can be different if two resonances are coupled, for example, the two transitions of a 3-level system.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(Left) Experimental (solid line) and theoretical(dotted line) TFWM signal from bulk GaAs layer (top) and two single quantum wells at 2K. The fitting the theory to the experiment yields the dephasing time, T 2. (Right) Temperature dependence of the homogeneous linewidths for the heavy-hole and light hole exciton transitions in the single quantum wells. (Reproduced from ref. [29])

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(Left) TFWM signal from a GaAs quantum well as function of temperature showing signals for negative delays. (Right) The rise and fall times obtained from an exponential fit, showing that they differ by a factor of 2. (Reproduced from ref. [58])

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

SR-TFWM signal as a function of photon energy and delay for (a) TFWM with identical broad-band excitation pulses and (b) TFWM with the first pulse spectrally filtered to only excite the continuum states. The laser spectrum (thick line) and linear absorption spectrum (thin line) are plotted on the front panel; the spectrally integrated TFWM signal is plotted on the side panel. Insets are the experimental geometry (Reproduced from ref. [85]).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

TI-TFWM signal as a function of magnetic field. From bottom to top, B=0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 T. The increasing signal for negative delays shows the increasing contribution from many-body interactions at higher magnetic field (Reproduced from ref. [89]).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra of the heavy- and light-hole exciton resonances in a GaAs quantum well for the rephasing excitation sequence. The left panel shows the experimental results while the right three panels show theory at three different levels of approximation. Clearly only the full theory matches the experiment. The upper panels show the absorption spectra (black lines) and the spectra of the excitation pulses (red lines). (After ref. [49].)

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Schematic of a quantum well showing width fluctuations that result in exciton localization and inhomogeneous broadening.

Equations (6)

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P = χ ( 1 ) E + χ ( 2 ) E 2 + χ ( 3 ) E 3 + ...
I s ( τ ) θ ( τ ) e 2 γ p h τ
I s ( τ ) θ ( τ ) e 4 γ p h τ .
I s ( τ , T ) θ ( τ ) θ ( T ) e 2 γ p h τ e γ g r T .
I s ( τ ) = μ 8 h 6 N 2 128 I a 2 I b γ p h 0 [ ( 1 + 2 γ N γ p o p + 2 γ p h 0 ) θ ( τ ) e 2 γ p h τ
+ N 2 [ γ 2 + ( 2 μ 2 L h + ω ) 2 ] ( γ p o p + 2 γ p h ) ( γ p o p + γ p h ) ( θ ( τ ) e 2 γ p h τ + θ ( τ ) e + 4 γ p h τ ) ]

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