Abstract

We demonstrate and analyze the acousto-optic coupling between two optical polarization modes of the LP01 mode propagating in a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber. The coupling is realized based on wavelength selective acousto-optic coupling by traveling torsional acoustic wave in an all-fiber tunable polarization filter configuration. The dispersion properties of the torsional acoustic wave in the photonic crystal fiber and the influence of axial non-uniformity in the modal birefringence on the filter transmission are discussed in detail.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Herrmann and St. Schmid, "Integrated acousto-optical mode-convertors with weighted coupling using surface acoustic wave directional couplers," Electron. Lett. 28, 979-980 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. Warzanskyj, F. Heismann, and R. C. Alferness, "Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13-15 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (4)

2004 (1)

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Furusawa, D. R. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, "Fundamentals and applications of silica and nonsilica holey fibers," Proc. SPIE 5350, 35-49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

2001 (2)

F. Chollet, J. P. Goedgebuer, and G. Ramantoko, "Limitations imposed by birefringence uniformity on narrow-linewidth filters based on mode coupling," Opt. Eng. 40, 2763-2770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Johnson and J. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basis," Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-8-3-173.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

D. A. Smith, A. d'Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Herrmann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Herrmann and St. Schmid, "Integrated acousto-optical mode-convertors with weighted coupling using surface acoustic wave directional couplers," Electron. Lett. 28, 979-980 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

W. Warzanskyj, F. Heismann, and R. C. Alferness, "Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13-15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurell and G. Arvidsson, "Frequency doubling in Ti:MgO:LiNbO3 channel waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 292-299 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, "Propagation and optical interaction of guided acoustic waves in two-mode optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 428-436 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R. C.

W. Warzanskyj, F. Heismann, and R. C. Alferness, "Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13-15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Arvidsson, G.

Baran, J. E.

D. A. Smith, A. d'Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Herrmann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

J. Lægsgaard and A. Bjarklev, "Microstructured optical fibers - fundamentals and applications," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blake, J. N.

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, "Propagation and optical interaction of guided acoustic waves in two-mode optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 428-436 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bløtekjær, K.

Chollet, F.

F. Chollet, J. P. Goedgebuer, and G. Ramantoko, "Limitations imposed by birefringence uniformity on narrow-linewidth filters based on mode coupling," Opt. Eng. 40, 2763-2770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

d'Alessandro, A.

D. A. Smith, A. d'Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Herrmann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Diez, A.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Furusawa, D. R. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, "Fundamentals and applications of silica and nonsilica holey fibers," Proc. SPIE 5350, 35-49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Engan, H. E.

Furusawa, K.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Furusawa, D. R. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, "Fundamentals and applications of silica and nonsilica holey fibers," Proc. SPIE 5350, 35-49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goedgebuer, J. P.

F. Chollet, J. P. Goedgebuer, and G. Ramantoko, "Limitations imposed by birefringence uniformity on narrow-linewidth filters based on mode coupling," Opt. Eng. 40, 2763-2770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haakestad, M. W.

Heismann, F.

W. Warzanskyj, F. Heismann, and R. C. Alferness, "Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13-15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, H.

D. A. Smith, A. d'Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Herrmann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Herrmann and St. Schmid, "Integrated acousto-optical mode-convertors with weighted coupling using surface acoustic wave directional couplers," Electron. Lett. 28, 979-980 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, I. K.

Joannopoulos, J.

Johnson, S.

Kim, B. Y.

Kim, H. S.

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lægsgaard, J.

J. Lægsgaard and A. Bjarklev, "Microstructured optical fibers - fundamentals and applications," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Langli, B.

Laurell, F.

Lee, K. J.

Lim, S. D.

Mangan, B. J.

Monro, T. M.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Furusawa, D. R. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, "Fundamentals and applications of silica and nonsilica holey fibers," Proc. SPIE 5350, 35-49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Östling, D.

Park, H. C.

Ramantoko, G.

F. Chollet, J. P. Goedgebuer, and G. Ramantoko, "Limitations imposed by birefringence uniformity on narrow-linewidth filters based on mode coupling," Opt. Eng. 40, 2763-2770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, W. H.

Richardson, D. R.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Furusawa, D. R. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, "Fundamentals and applications of silica and nonsilica holey fibers," Proc. SPIE 5350, 35-49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Schmid, St.

H. Herrmann and St. Schmid, "Integrated acousto-optical mode-convertors with weighted coupling using surface acoustic wave directional couplers," Electron. Lett. 28, 979-980 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, and H. J. Shaw, "Propagation and optical interaction of guided acoustic waves in two-mode optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 428-436 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. A.

D. A. Smith, A. d'Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Herrmann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Steinvurzel, P.

Warzanskyj, W.

W. Warzanskyj, F. Heismann, and R. C. Alferness, "Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13-15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, D. -I.

Yun, S. H.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. A. Smith, A. d'Alessandro, J. E. Baran, and H. Herrmann, "Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 814-816 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Warzanskyj, F. Heismann, and R. C. Alferness, "Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13-15 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Herrmann and St. Schmid, "Integrated acousto-optical mode-convertors with weighted coupling using surface acoustic wave directional couplers," Electron. Lett. 28, 979-980 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

J. Lægsgaard and A. Bjarklev, "Microstructured optical fibers - fundamentals and applications," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Chollet, J. P. Goedgebuer, and G. Ramantoko, "Limitations imposed by birefringence uniformity on narrow-linewidth filters based on mode coupling," Opt. Eng. 40, 2763-2770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Furusawa, D. R. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, "Fundamentals and applications of silica and nonsilica holey fibers," Proc. SPIE 5350, 35-49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

K. F. Graff, Wave Motion in Elastic Solids (Ohio State University Press, 1975), Chap. 2.

S. P. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity (McGrow-Hill, 1970), Chap. 10.

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, "The MIT photonic-bands (MPB) package," http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/MIT_Photonic_Bands.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Differential element of the HB PCF subjected to end torque. θ denotes the angle of twist.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the cross-section a HB PCF, showing the period of hole-lattice and the diameters of the large hole and the small hole, and (b) Modal birefringence between two polarization eigenmodes of the LP01 mode in the HB PCF as a function of the optical wavelength.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transverse electric (TE) field distributions of the two polarization eigenmodes of LP01 mode. The color level and the arrow denote the amplitude and the direction of the electric field, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic of an all-fiber acousto-optic tunable polarization filter.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured transmission spectra of the all-fiber AOTPF operating as (a) the notch type and as (b) the bandpass type at the acoustic frequency of 1.24 MHz. The measured and calculated transmission spectra for the quadratic Δn profile are shown with the ideal transmission curve in Fig. 5(b).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Center wavelength of the all-fiber AOTPF as a function of the acoustic wavelength.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C 2 θ x 2 = ρ J 2 θ t 2 ,
V s = C ρ J ,
G ( r ) = { G , pure silica region 0 , air-hole region and ρ ( r ) = { ρ , pure silica region 0 , air-hole region ,
C s G ( r ) r 2 dA = G s r 2 dA ,
ρ J s ρ ( r ) r 2 dA = ρ s r 2 dA ,
β 01 , x β 01 , y = 2 π L B ,
Δ n = Δ n 0 + l = 1 ( l ) z ( l ) Δ n · ( z L 2 ) l l ! ,

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