Abstract

Multi-mode absorption spectroscopy, MUMAS, in the near-infra-red is reported for the first time. A diode laser pumped Er/Yb:glass micro-cavity laser emitting multiple longitudinal modes at 1.53 µm was used to detect several transitions in the ν13 overtone band of C2H2.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D S Baer, R K Hanson, M E Newfield and N K J M Gopaul, "Multiplexed diode-laser sensor system for simultaneous H2O, O2 and temperature measurements," Opt. Lett. 19,1900-1902 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. D. Oh, M. E. Paige and D. S. Bomse "Frequency modulation multiplexing for simultaneous detection of multiple gases by use of wavelength modulation spectroscopy with diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 37, 2499-2501 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. L. Upschulte, D. M. Sonnenfroh, and M. G. Allen, "Measurements of CO, CO2, OH, and H2O in room-temperature and combustion gases by use of a broadly current-tuned multisection InGaAsP diode laser," Appl. Opt. 38, 1506-1512 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Boylan, V. Weldon, D. McDonald, J. O’Gorman, and J. Hegarty, "Sampled grating DBR laser as a spectroscopic source in multigas detection at 1.52-1.57 μm," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148,19-24 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. T. Sanders, "Wavelength-agile fiber laser using group-velocity dispersion of pulsed super-continua and application to broadband absorption spectroscopy,"Appl. Phys. B 75, 799-802 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Somesfalean, M. Sjöholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson and S. Svanberg, "Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184102-184104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg and V. Mbele, "Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Nature 445, 627-630 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi and J. Ye, "Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection," Science 311, 1595-1599 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Ewart, Y. Arita, R. Stevens, K. Richard and P. Manson, "Modes for Molecules: Lasers for Optical Diagnostics of Combustion 4th Australian Conference on Optical Diagnostics for Fluid Dynamics and Combustion, ISBN no. 0-9757855-2-4, 9-12 (2005).
  10. Y. Arita and P. Ewart, "Multi-Mode Absorption Spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. (to be published).
  11. Y. Arita, R. Stevens and P. Ewart, "Multi-Mode Absorption Spectroscopy of Oxygen for Measurement of Concentration, Temperature and Pressure," Appl. Phys B 90, 205-211 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto and C. Svelto, "Diode-pumped bulk erbium-ytterbium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 63, 425-436 (1996).
  13. L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Couderth, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S.T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spect. & Rad Trans. 96, 139-204 (2005)
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. Arita, R. Stevens and P. Ewart, "Multi-Mode Absorption Spectroscopy of Oxygen for Measurement of Concentration, Temperature and Pressure," Appl. Phys B 90, 205-211 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg and V. Mbele, "Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Nature 445, 627-630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi and J. Ye, "Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection," Science 311, 1595-1599 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Couderth, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S.T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spect. & Rad Trans. 96, 139-204 (2005)
[CrossRef]

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjöholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson and S. Svanberg, "Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184102-184104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. T. Sanders, "Wavelength-agile fiber laser using group-velocity dispersion of pulsed super-continua and application to broadband absorption spectroscopy,"Appl. Phys. B 75, 799-802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Boylan, V. Weldon, D. McDonald, J. O’Gorman, and J. Hegarty, "Sampled grating DBR laser as a spectroscopic source in multigas detection at 1.52-1.57 μm," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148,19-24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto and C. Svelto, "Diode-pumped bulk erbium-ytterbium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 63, 425-436 (1996).

1994 (1)

Allen, M. G.

Arita, Y.

Y. Arita, R. Stevens and P. Ewart, "Multi-Mode Absorption Spectroscopy of Oxygen for Measurement of Concentration, Temperature and Pressure," Appl. Phys B 90, 205-211 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arita and P. Ewart, "Multi-Mode Absorption Spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Baer, D. S.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Couderth, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S.T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spect. & Rad Trans. 96, 139-204 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Couderth, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S.T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spect. & Rad Trans. 96, 139-204 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Bomse, D. S.

Boylan, K.

K. Boylan, V. Weldon, D. McDonald, J. O’Gorman, and J. Hegarty, "Sampled grating DBR laser as a spectroscopic source in multigas detection at 1.52-1.57 μm," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148,19-24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Couderth, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S.T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spect. & Rad Trans. 96, 139-204 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Couderth, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S.T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spect. & Rad Trans. 96, 139-204 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Chackerian Jr, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Couderth, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S.T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spect. & Rad Trans. 96, 139-204 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Couderth, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S.T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spect. & Rad Trans. 96, 139-204 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg and V. Mbele, "Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Nature 445, 627-630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ewart, P.

Y. Arita, R. Stevens and P. Ewart, "Multi-Mode Absorption Spectroscopy of Oxygen for Measurement of Concentration, Temperature and Pressure," Appl. Phys B 90, 205-211 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arita and P. Ewart, "Multi-Mode Absorption Spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Gao, H.

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjöholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson and S. Svanberg, "Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184102-184104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gopaul, N. K. J. M.

Hanson, R. K.

Hegarty, J.

K. Boylan, V. Weldon, D. McDonald, J. O’Gorman, and J. Hegarty, "Sampled grating DBR laser as a spectroscopic source in multigas detection at 1.52-1.57 μm," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148,19-24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg and V. Mbele, "Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Nature 445, 627-630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Couderth, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S.T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spect. & Rad Trans. 96, 139-204 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi and J. Ye, "Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection," Science 311, 1595-1599 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laporta, P.

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto and C. Svelto, "Diode-pumped bulk erbium-ytterbium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 63, 425-436 (1996).

Longhi, S.

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto and C. Svelto, "Diode-pumped bulk erbium-ytterbium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 63, 425-436 (1996).

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg and V. Mbele, "Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Nature 445, 627-630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonald, D.

K. Boylan, V. Weldon, D. McDonald, J. O’Gorman, and J. Hegarty, "Sampled grating DBR laser as a spectroscopic source in multigas detection at 1.52-1.57 μm," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148,19-24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moll, K. D.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi and J. Ye, "Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection," Science 311, 1595-1599 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newfield, M. E.

O’Gorman, J.

K. Boylan, V. Weldon, D. McDonald, J. O’Gorman, and J. Hegarty, "Sampled grating DBR laser as a spectroscopic source in multigas detection at 1.52-1.57 μm," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148,19-24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oh, B. D.

Paige, M. E.

Persson, L.

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjöholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson and S. Svanberg, "Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184102-184104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Couderth, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S.T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spect. & Rad Trans. 96, 139-204 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Safdi, B.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi and J. Ye, "Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection," Science 311, 1595-1599 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanders, S. T.

S. T. Sanders, "Wavelength-agile fiber laser using group-velocity dispersion of pulsed super-continua and application to broadband absorption spectroscopy,"Appl. Phys. B 75, 799-802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sjöholm, M.

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjöholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson and S. Svanberg, "Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184102-184104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Somesfalean, G.

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjöholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson and S. Svanberg, "Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184102-184104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

Stevens, R.

Y. Arita, R. Stevens and P. Ewart, "Multi-Mode Absorption Spectroscopy of Oxygen for Measurement of Concentration, Temperature and Pressure," Appl. Phys B 90, 205-211 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjöholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson and S. Svanberg, "Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184102-184104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, C.

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto and C. Svelto, "Diode-pumped bulk erbium-ytterbium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 63, 425-436 (1996).

Svelto, O.

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto and C. Svelto, "Diode-pumped bulk erbium-ytterbium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 63, 425-436 (1996).

Svensson, T.

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjöholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson and S. Svanberg, "Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184102-184104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto and C. Svelto, "Diode-pumped bulk erbium-ytterbium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 63, 425-436 (1996).

Thorpe, M. J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi and J. Ye, "Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection," Science 311, 1595-1599 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Upschulte, B. L.

Weldon, V.

K. Boylan, V. Weldon, D. McDonald, J. O’Gorman, and J. Hegarty, "Sampled grating DBR laser as a spectroscopic source in multigas detection at 1.52-1.57 μm," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148,19-24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi and J. Ye, "Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection," Science 311, 1595-1599 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys B (1)

Y. Arita, R. Stevens and P. Ewart, "Multi-Mode Absorption Spectroscopy of Oxygen for Measurement of Concentration, Temperature and Pressure," Appl. Phys B 90, 205-211 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto and C. Svelto, "Diode-pumped bulk erbium-ytterbium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 63, 425-436 (1996).

S. T. Sanders, "Wavelength-agile fiber laser using group-velocity dispersion of pulsed super-continua and application to broadband absorption spectroscopy,"Appl. Phys. B 75, 799-802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjöholm, L. Persson, H. Gao, T. Svensson and S. Svanberg, "Temporal correlation scheme for spectroscopic gas analysis using multimode diode lasers,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184102-184104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

K. Boylan, V. Weldon, D. McDonald, J. O’Gorman, and J. Hegarty, "Sampled grating DBR laser as a spectroscopic source in multigas detection at 1.52-1.57 μm," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148,19-24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spect. & Rad Trans. (1)

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Couderth, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S.T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, G. Wagner, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spect. & Rad Trans. 96, 139-204 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg and V. Mbele, "Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb," Nature 445, 627-630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Arita and P. Ewart, "Multi-Mode Absorption Spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi and J. Ye, "Broadband Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Sensitive and Rapid Molecular Detection," Science 311, 1595-1599 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

P. Ewart, Y. Arita, R. Stevens, K. Richard and P. Manson, "Modes for Molecules: Lasers for Optical Diagnostics of Combustion 4th Australian Conference on Optical Diagnostics for Fluid Dynamics and Combustion, ISBN no. 0-9757855-2-4, 9-12 (2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the infra-red MUMAS experiment. The Er:Yb:glass laser pumped by a 980 nm InGaAs diode laser gives multi-mode output at ~1.53 µm. The modes are scanned by modulating the cavity length using a cylindrical piezo-electric transducer (PZT). MUMAS spectra of C2H2 at 10 Torr are recorded by a digital storage oscilloscope (DSO).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Temporal behavior of the optical spectrum of an Er:Yb:glass laser oscillating over three longitudinal modes centred at 196145 GHz. A succession of 32 spectra at 10 Hz repetition is shown over a period of 3.2 seconds. (a) shows the stability of the unscanned modes and (b) shows the central mode only as it is scanned repeatedly over the mode spacing.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The overtone bands of C2H2 around 1.53 µm showing a region of band probed by a multi-mode laser. (b) Expanded view of probed region of band showing relative position and distribution of the modes from a multi-mode Er:Yb:glass laser (bottom). The dashed line indicates the envelope function used in the modeling of the MUMAS spectrum as the modes are scanned across the transmission spectrum of C2H2 (top).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

MUMAS signal at ~196148 GHz showing individually resolved P- and R-branch lines in the overtone bands of C2H2 at 10 Torr. (a) shows the experimental MUMAS spectrum (solid line) and the fitted model MUMAS spectrum (dashed line). The residual of fit of model MUMAS to experimental data is shown in the upper trace. (b) Stick-spectra indicating the spectral assignment of relevant absorption lines.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Mode spectra of the Er:Yb:glass laser as a function of angle of an intra-cavity plastic etalon. The centre of the laser band is seen to tune over a range of 1300 GHz or 43 cm-1

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