Abstract

We present a numerical method based on the detection of the zero-crossing points in an OCT signal for the measurement of the Doppler frequency in a laminar flow. This method is compared to other processing approaches currently used in Doppler OCT. The results show that in the case of laminar flow the zero-crossing method gives the most precise results, especially in the higher velocity regime.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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  4. Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, "Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity, " Opt. Lett. 25, 114-116 (2000).
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  9. R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
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  18. R. A. Leitgeb, A. Szkulmowska, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, and A. F. Fercher, "Resonant Doppler imaging with Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Proc. SPIE 5690, 440-445 (2005).
  19. J. F. De Boer, B. Cense, B. Hyle Park, M. C. Pearce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  24. K. R. Sreenivasan, A. Prabhu, and R. Narasimha, "Zero-crossings in turbulent signals," J. Fluid Mech. 137, 251-270 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. J. Adrian, "Statistics of laser Doppler velocimeter signals: frequency measurements," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 5, 91-95 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. L. Franklin, W. Schlegel, and R. F. Rushmer, "Blood flow measured by Doppler frequency shift of back-scattered ultrasound," Science 134, 564-565 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. M. Zeiher, H. Drexler, H. Wollschlager, and H. Just, "Endothelial dysfunction of the coronary microvasculature is associated with coronary blood flow regulation in patients with early atherosclerosis," Circulation 84, 1984-1992 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
  30. M. J. Lunt, "Accuracy and limitations of the ultrasonic Doppler blood velocimeter and zero crossing detector," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 2, 1-10 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  31. G. L. Cote and M. D. Fox, "Comparison of zero-crossing counter to FFT spectrum of ultrasound Doppler," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35, 498-502 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  32. B. Kedem, "Spectral analysis and discrimination by zero-crossings," Proc. IEEE 74, pp. 1477-1493 (1986).
  33. I. Popov, "Accuracy of zero crossing counting in laser Doppler velocimetry," Proc. SPIE 4827, 394-402 (2002).
  34. C. Xu, F. Kamalabadi, and S. Boppart, "Comparative performance analysis of time-frequency distributions for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 44, 1813-1822 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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2007 (3)

2005 (3)

2004 (5)

S. G. Proskurin, Y. He, and R. K. Wang, "Doppler optical coherence imaging of converging flow," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1265-1276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, "High-resolution visualization of fluid dynamics with Doppler optical coherence tomography," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 725-733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Wu, "Simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and Doppler angle by the use of Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Laser Eng. 42, 303-313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, W. Xu, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and Z. P. Chen, "Phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography for imaging flow dynamics in microfluidic channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1855-1857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time measurement of in-vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 171-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

2002 (3)

I. Popov, "Accuracy of zero crossing counting in laser Doppler velocimetry," Proc. SPIE 4827, 394-402 (2002).

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123-129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, "Flow velocity measurement by frequency domain short coherence interferometry," Proc. SPIE 4619, 16-21 (2002).

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

I. Imai and K. Tanaka, "Direct velocity sensing of flow distribution based on low-coherence interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2007-2012 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Chen, Y. H. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, "Optical Doppler Tomography," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134-1142 (1999).

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

C. Di Mario, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, P. deJaegere, D. T. Linker, J. Oomen, and P. W. Serruys, "Limitations of the zero crossing detector in the analysis of intracoronary Doppler: A comparison with fast Fourier transform analysis of basal, hyperemic, and transstenotic blood flow velocity measurements in patients with coronary artery disease," Cath. Cardiovasc. Diagn. 28, 56-64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Zeiher, H. Drexler, H. Wollschlager, and H. Just, "Endothelial dysfunction of the coronary microvasculature is associated with coronary blood flow regulation in patients with early atherosclerosis," Circulation 84, 1984-1992 (1991).

1988 (1)

G. L. Cote and M. D. Fox, "Comparison of zero-crossing counter to FFT spectrum of ultrasound Doppler," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35, 498-502 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

B. Kedem, "Spectral analysis and discrimination by zero-crossings," Proc. IEEE 74, pp. 1477-1493 (1986).

1983 (1)

K. R. Sreenivasan, A. Prabhu, and R. Narasimha, "Zero-crossings in turbulent signals," J. Fluid Mech. 137, 251-270 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

J. Ohtsubo, "Exact solution of the zero crossing rate of a differentiated speckle pattern," Opt. Commun. 42, 13-18 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Masuda, H. Miyano, and T. Sadoyama, "The measurement of muscle fiber conduction velocity using a gradient threshold zero-crossing method," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-29, 673-678 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. J. Lunt, "Accuracy and limitations of the ultrasonic Doppler blood velocimeter and zero crossing detector," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 2, 1-10 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. J. Adrian, "Statistics of laser Doppler velocimeter signals: frequency measurements," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 5, 91-95 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

R. W. A. Scarr, "Zero crossings as a means of obtaining spectral information in speech analysis," IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoustics AU-16, 247-255 (1968).

1961 (1)

D. L. Franklin, W. Schlegel, and R. F. Rushmer, "Blood flow measured by Doppler frequency shift of back-scattered ultrasound," Science 134, 564-565 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Adrian, R. J.

R. J. Adrian, "Statistics of laser Doppler velocimeter signals: frequency measurements," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 5, 91-95 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bachman, M.

L. Wang, W. Xu, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and Z. P. Chen, "Phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography for imaging flow dynamics in microfluidic channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1855-1857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bajraszewski, T.

Barton, J. K.

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123-129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berisha, F.

Bonesi, M.

M. Bonesi, D. Churmakov, and I. Meglinski, "Study of flow dynamics in complex vessels using Doppler optical coherence tomography," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3279-3286 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S.

Bouma, B. E.

Carrion, L.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z.

Chen, Z. P.

L. Wang, W. Xu, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and Z. P. Chen, "Phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography for imaging flow dynamics in microfluidic channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1855-1857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Chen, Y. H. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, "Optical Doppler Tomography," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134-1142 (1999).

Churmakov, D.

M. Bonesi, D. Churmakov, and I. Meglinski, "Study of flow dynamics in complex vessels using Doppler optical coherence tomography," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3279-3286 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cote, G. L.

G. L. Cote and M. D. Fox, "Comparison of zero-crossing counter to FFT spectrum of ultrasound Doppler," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35, 498-502 (1988).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

deJaegere, P.

C. Di Mario, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, P. deJaegere, D. T. Linker, J. Oomen, and P. W. Serruys, "Limitations of the zero crossing detector in the analysis of intracoronary Doppler: A comparison with fast Fourier transform analysis of basal, hyperemic, and transstenotic blood flow velocity measurements in patients with coronary artery disease," Cath. Cardiovasc. Diagn. 28, 56-64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Di Mario, C.

C. Di Mario, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, P. deJaegere, D. T. Linker, J. Oomen, and P. W. Serruys, "Limitations of the zero crossing detector in the analysis of intracoronary Doppler: A comparison with fast Fourier transform analysis of basal, hyperemic, and transstenotic blood flow velocity measurements in patients with coronary artery disease," Cath. Cardiovasc. Diagn. 28, 56-64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, H.

A. M. Zeiher, H. Drexler, H. Wollschlager, and H. Just, "Endothelial dysfunction of the coronary microvasculature is associated with coronary blood flow regulation in patients with early atherosclerosis," Circulation 84, 1984-1992 (1991).

Drexler, W.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fox, M. D.

G. L. Cote and M. D. Fox, "Comparison of zero-crossing counter to FFT spectrum of ultrasound Doppler," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35, 498-502 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Franklin, D. L.

D. L. Franklin, W. Schlegel, and R. F. Rushmer, "Blood flow measured by Doppler frequency shift of back-scattered ultrasound," Science 134, 564-565 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Frostig, R. D.

Z. P. Chen, Y. H. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, "Optical Doppler Tomography," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134-1142 (1999).

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, E.

R. A. Leitgeb, A. Szkulmowska, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, and A. F. Fercher, "Resonant Doppler imaging with Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Proc. SPIE 5690, 440-445 (2005).

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

S. G. Proskurin, Y. He, and R. K. Wang, "Doppler optical coherence imaging of converging flow," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1265-1276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hyle Park, B.

Imai, I.

Izatt, J. A.

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123-129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Just, H.

A. M. Zeiher, H. Drexler, H. Wollschlager, and H. Just, "Endothelial dysfunction of the coronary microvasculature is associated with coronary blood flow regulation in patients with early atherosclerosis," Circulation 84, 1984-1992 (1991).

Kamalabadi, F.

Kedem, B.

B. Kedem, "Spectral analysis and discrimination by zero-crossings," Proc. IEEE 74, pp. 1477-1493 (1986).

Kolios, M. C.

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, "Flow velocity measurement by frequency domain short coherence interferometry," Proc. SPIE 4619, 16-21 (2002).

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, G. P.

L. Wang, W. Xu, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and Z. P. Chen, "Phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography for imaging flow dynamics in microfluidic channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1855-1857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Linker, D. T.

C. Di Mario, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, P. deJaegere, D. T. Linker, J. Oomen, and P. W. Serruys, "Limitations of the zero crossing detector in the analysis of intracoronary Doppler: A comparison with fast Fourier transform analysis of basal, hyperemic, and transstenotic blood flow velocity measurements in patients with coronary artery disease," Cath. Cardiovasc. Diagn. 28, 56-64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lunt, M. J.

M. J. Lunt, "Accuracy and limitations of the ultrasonic Doppler blood velocimeter and zero crossing detector," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 2, 1-10 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Maciejko, R.

Masuda, T.

T. Masuda, H. Miyano, and T. Sadoyama, "The measurement of muscle fiber conduction velocity using a gradient threshold zero-crossing method," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-29, 673-678 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Meglinski, I.

M. Bonesi, D. Churmakov, and I. Meglinski, "Study of flow dynamics in complex vessels using Doppler optical coherence tomography," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3279-3286 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

Miyano, H.

T. Masuda, H. Miyano, and T. Sadoyama, "The measurement of muscle fiber conduction velocity using a gradient threshold zero-crossing method," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-29, 673-678 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Morofke, D.

Narasimha, R.

K. R. Sreenivasan, A. Prabhu, and R. Narasimha, "Zero-crossings in turbulent signals," J. Fluid Mech. 137, 251-270 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Ohtsubo, J.

J. Ohtsubo, "Exact solution of the zero crossing rate of a differentiated speckle pattern," Opt. Commun. 42, 13-18 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Oomen, J.

C. Di Mario, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, P. deJaegere, D. T. Linker, J. Oomen, and P. W. Serruys, "Limitations of the zero crossing detector in the analysis of intracoronary Doppler: A comparison with fast Fourier transform analysis of basal, hyperemic, and transstenotic blood flow velocity measurements in patients with coronary artery disease," Cath. Cardiovasc. Diagn. 28, 56-64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Park, B. H.

Pearce, M. C.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

R. A. Leitgeb, A. Szkulmowska, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, and A. F. Fercher, "Resonant Doppler imaging with Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Proc. SPIE 5690, 440-445 (2005).

Popov, I.

I. Popov, "Accuracy of zero crossing counting in laser Doppler velocimetry," Proc. SPIE 4827, 394-402 (2002).

Prabhu, A.

K. R. Sreenivasan, A. Prabhu, and R. Narasimha, "Zero-crossings in turbulent signals," J. Fluid Mech. 137, 251-270 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Prakash, N.

Z. P. Chen, Y. H. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, "Optical Doppler Tomography," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134-1142 (1999).

Proskurin, S. G.

S. G. Proskurin, Y. He, and R. K. Wang, "Doppler optical coherence imaging of converging flow," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1265-1276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Roelandt, J. R. T. C.

C. Di Mario, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, P. deJaegere, D. T. Linker, J. Oomen, and P. W. Serruys, "Limitations of the zero crossing detector in the analysis of intracoronary Doppler: A comparison with fast Fourier transform analysis of basal, hyperemic, and transstenotic blood flow velocity measurements in patients with coronary artery disease," Cath. Cardiovasc. Diagn. 28, 56-64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A. M.

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123-129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rushmer, R. F.

D. L. Franklin, W. Schlegel, and R. F. Rushmer, "Blood flow measured by Doppler frequency shift of back-scattered ultrasound," Science 134, 564-565 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Sadoyama, T.

T. Masuda, H. Miyano, and T. Sadoyama, "The measurement of muscle fiber conduction velocity using a gradient threshold zero-crossing method," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-29, 673-678 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Saxer, C.

Scarr, R. W. A.

R. W. A. Scarr, "Zero crossings as a means of obtaining spectral information in speech analysis," IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoustics AU-16, 247-255 (1968).

Schlegel, W.

D. L. Franklin, W. Schlegel, and R. F. Rushmer, "Blood flow measured by Doppler frequency shift of back-scattered ultrasound," Science 134, 564-565 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Schmetterer, L.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Serruys, P. W.

C. Di Mario, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, P. deJaegere, D. T. Linker, J. Oomen, and P. W. Serruys, "Limitations of the zero crossing detector in the analysis of intracoronary Doppler: A comparison with fast Fourier transform analysis of basal, hyperemic, and transstenotic blood flow velocity measurements in patients with coronary artery disease," Cath. Cardiovasc. Diagn. 28, 56-64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sreenivasan, K. R.

K. R. Sreenivasan, A. Prabhu, and R. Narasimha, "Zero-crossings in turbulent signals," J. Fluid Mech. 137, 251-270 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Srinivas, S. M.

Z. P. Chen, Y. H. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, "Optical Doppler Tomography," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134-1142 (1999).

Sticker, M.

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, "Flow velocity measurement by frequency domain short coherence interferometry," Proc. SPIE 4619, 16-21 (2002).

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Szkulmowska, A.

R. A. Leitgeb, A. Szkulmowska, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, and A. F. Fercher, "Resonant Doppler imaging with Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Proc. SPIE 5690, 440-445 (2005).

Tanaka, K.

Tearney, G. J.

Vakoc, B. J.

Vitkin, I. A.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, W. Xu, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and Z. P. Chen, "Phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography for imaging flow dynamics in microfluidic channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1855-1857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang, "High-resolution visualization of fluid dynamics with Doppler optical coherence tomography," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 725-733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Proskurin, Y. He, and R. K. Wang, "Doppler optical coherence imaging of converging flow," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1265-1276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. J.

White, B. R.

Wojtkowski, M.

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time measurement of in-vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 171-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, "Flow velocity measurement by frequency domain short coherence interferometry," Proc. SPIE 4619, 16-21 (2002).

Wollschlager, H.

A. M. Zeiher, H. Drexler, H. Wollschlager, and H. Just, "Endothelial dysfunction of the coronary microvasculature is associated with coronary blood flow regulation in patients with early atherosclerosis," Circulation 84, 1984-1992 (1991).

Wu, L.

L. Wu, "Simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and Doppler angle by the use of Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Laser Eng. 42, 303-313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, S.

Xu, C.

Xu, W.

L. Wang, W. Xu, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and Z. P. Chen, "Phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography for imaging flow dynamics in microfluidic channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1855-1857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Yang, V. X. D.

Yazdanfar, S.

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123-129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zeiher, A. M.

A. M. Zeiher, H. Drexler, H. Wollschlager, and H. Just, "Endothelial dysfunction of the coronary microvasculature is associated with coronary blood flow regulation in patients with early atherosclerosis," Circulation 84, 1984-1992 (1991).

Zhao, Y.

Zhao, Y. H.

Z. P. Chen, Y. H. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, "Optical Doppler Tomography," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134-1142 (1999).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Wang, W. Xu, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, and Z. P. Chen, "Phase-resolved optical Doppler tomography for imaging flow dynamics in microfluidic channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1855-1857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cath. Cardiovasc. Diagn. (1)

C. Di Mario, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, P. deJaegere, D. T. Linker, J. Oomen, and P. W. Serruys, "Limitations of the zero crossing detector in the analysis of intracoronary Doppler: A comparison with fast Fourier transform analysis of basal, hyperemic, and transstenotic blood flow velocity measurements in patients with coronary artery disease," Cath. Cardiovasc. Diagn. 28, 56-64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Circulation (1)

A. M. Zeiher, H. Drexler, H. Wollschlager, and H. Just, "Endothelial dysfunction of the coronary microvasculature is associated with coronary blood flow regulation in patients with early atherosclerosis," Circulation 84, 1984-1992 (1991).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. P. Chen, Y. H. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, "Optical Doppler Tomography," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134-1142 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoustics (1)

R. W. A. Scarr, "Zero crossings as a means of obtaining spectral information in speech analysis," IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoustics AU-16, 247-255 (1968).

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (2)

T. Masuda, H. Miyano, and T. Sadoyama, "The measurement of muscle fiber conduction velocity using a gradient threshold zero-crossing method," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-29, 673-678 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Cote and M. D. Fox, "Comparison of zero-crossing counter to FFT spectrum of ultrasound Doppler," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35, 498-502 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123-129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

K. R. Sreenivasan, A. Prabhu, and R. Narasimha, "Zero-crossings in turbulent signals," J. Fluid Mech. 137, 251-270 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. J. Adrian, "Statistics of laser Doppler velocimeter signals: frequency measurements," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 5, 91-95 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

M. Bonesi, D. Churmakov, and I. Meglinski, "Study of flow dynamics in complex vessels using Doppler optical coherence tomography," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3279-3286 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, "High-resolution visualization of fluid dynamics with Doppler optical coherence tomography," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 725-733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Ohtsubo, "Exact solution of the zero crossing rate of a differentiated speckle pattern," Opt. Commun. 42, 13-18 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

L. Wu, "Simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and Doppler angle by the use of Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Laser Eng. 42, 303-313 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. G. Proskurin, Y. He, and R. K. Wang, "Doppler optical coherence imaging of converging flow," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1265-1276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

B. Kedem, "Spectral analysis and discrimination by zero-crossings," Proc. IEEE 74, pp. 1477-1493 (1986).

Proc. SPIE (3)

I. Popov, "Accuracy of zero crossing counting in laser Doppler velocimetry," Proc. SPIE 4827, 394-402 (2002).

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, "Flow velocity measurement by frequency domain short coherence interferometry," Proc. SPIE 4619, 16-21 (2002).

R. A. Leitgeb, A. Szkulmowska, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, and A. F. Fercher, "Resonant Doppler imaging with Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Proc. SPIE 5690, 440-445 (2005).

Science (2)

D. L. Franklin, W. Schlegel, and R. F. Rushmer, "Blood flow measured by Doppler frequency shift of back-scattered ultrasound," Science 134, 564-565 (1961).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

M. J. Lunt, "Accuracy and limitations of the ultrasonic Doppler blood velocimeter and zero crossing detector," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 2, 1-10 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

L. Cohen, Time-Frequency Analysis, (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1995).

F. Auger, P. Flandrin, P. Gonçalvès, and O. Lemoine, "Time-Frequency Toolbox tutorial," CNRS (France), Rice U. (U.S.A.), http://tftb.nongnu.org/ (2005) and http://gdr-isis.org/tftb/tutorial/tutorial.html.

S. O. Rice, Selected Papers on Noise and Stochastic Processes, Part III, N. Wax, ed., (Dover, N.Y., 1954).

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