Abstract

We demonstrate a junction between a silicon strip waveguide and an ultra-compact silicon microring resonator that minimizes spurious light scattering and increases the critical dimensions of the geometry. We show cascaded silicon microring resonators with radii around 1.5 µm and effective mode volumes around 1.0 µm3 that are critically coupled to a waveguide with coupled Q’s up to 9,000. The radius of 1.5 µm is smaller than the operational wavelength, and is close to the theoretical size limit of the silicon microring ring resonator for the same Q. The device is fabricated with a widely-available SEM-based lithography system using a stitch-free design based on a U-shaped waveguide.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express 14, 9203-9210 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. W. Fang, R. Jones, H. Park, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "Integrated AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent race track laser and photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 2315-2322 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and E. Pluk, "A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 15, 1567-1578 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, and M. Qi, "A highly compact third-order silicon microring add-drop filter with a very large free spectral range, a flat passband and a low delay dispersion," Opt. Express 15, 14765-14771 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Unlu, "High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175-177 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15, 430-436 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9431-9435 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymer Micro-Ring Filters and Modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1968 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Express 12, 1622-1631 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. H. Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, and W. Henschel, "Ultrahigh-quality-factor silicon-on-insulator microring resonator," Opt. Lett. 29, 2861-2863 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Mode conversion losses in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based racetrack resonators," Opt. Express 14, 3872-3886 (2006) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-9-3872.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2005

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Unlu, "High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175-177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Express 12, 1622-1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2000

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Bogaerts, W.

Bolivar, P. H.

Bowers, J. E.

Cannon, D. D.

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Unlu, "High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175-177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

Dalton, L. R.

Dosunmu, O. I.

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Unlu, "High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175-177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Emsley, M. K.

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Unlu, "High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175-177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

Foresi, J.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, J. S.

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henschel, W.

Jones, R.

Kamins, T. I.

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, M. H.

Kimerling, L. C.

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Unlu, "High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175-177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. K.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, D. R.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T.

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H.-C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Manipatruni, S.

McNab, S. J.

Miller, D. A. B.

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nawrocka, M. S.

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niehusmann, J.

Panepucci, R. R.

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Pluk, E.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, M.

Rabiei, P.

Raday, O.

Ren, S.

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, J. E.

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Sekaric, L.

Shakya, J.

Shen, H.

Steier, W. H.

Taillaert, D.

Unlu, M. S.

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Unlu, "High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175-177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Vörckel, A.

Wahlbrink, T.

Wang, X.

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

Xiao, S.

Xu, Q.

Zhang, C.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Unlu, "High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175-177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nature

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, Y. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Express 12, 1622-1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Mode conversion losses in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based racetrack resonators," Opt. Express 14, 3872-3886 (2006) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-9-3872.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express 14, 9203-9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9431-9435 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15, 430-436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and E. Pluk, "A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 15, 1567-1578 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, R. Jones, H. Park, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "Integrated AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent race track laser and photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 2315-2322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, and M. Qi, "A highly compact third-order silicon microring add-drop filter with a very large free spectral range, a flat passband and a low delay dispersion," Opt. Express 15, 14765-14771 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The optical quality factor Q and waveguide bending loss versus the radius of a microring resonator obtained from a 3D FDTD simulation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

FDTD simulated field coupling from a curved waveguide with 1.5-µm radius to a straight waveguide at the wavelength of 1.55 µm. The plotted field component is Hz at the central plane of the waveguide and the ring. Deeper red means more positive field and deeper blue means more negative field. (a): both straight and bent waveguides are 450-nm wide. The gap between them is 100 nm. (b) the straight waveguide is 250-nm wide and the bent waveguide is 450-nm wide, with a 200 nm gap between them

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a): An SEM picture with 40° titled view of the microring resonator with 1.5-µm radius coupled to a waveguide with reduced width. (b): A microscope picture of the cascaded microring resonators coupled to a U-shaped waveguide at the edge of the chip.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a): Schematic of the experimental setup for measuring the transmission spectrum of the device. (b): The transmission spectrum of five cascaded microring resonators, showing the resonant dips from all 5 rings. (c): Zoom-in spectrum around the second resonance in (b).

Metrics