Abstract

We report a liquid crystal (LC) lens with a large aperture but low driving voltages with a thin layer of weakly conductive material. The effect of the conductive layer is demonstrated. A LC lens is realized with a diameter as large as 15 mm and with driving voltages as low as 11 Vrms. The properties of the LC lens are electrically tunable, and high optical quality is observed over the entire voltage range. The lens power decreases monotonically with the controlling voltage.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Sato, "Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1679-1684 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. T. Kowel, D. S. Cleverly, and P. G. Kornreich, "Focusing by electrical modulation of refraction in a liquid crystal cell," Appl. Opt. 23, 278-289 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Nose and S. Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens obtained with a non-uniform electric field," Liq. Cryst. 5, 1425-1433 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. A. Riza and M. C. DeJule, "Three-terminal adaptive nematic liquid-crystal lens device," Opt. Lett. 19, 1013-1015 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. F. Naumov, M. Yu. Loktev, I. R. Guralnik, and G. Vdovin, "Liquid-crystal adaptive lenses with modal control," Opt. Lett. 23, 992-994, (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Ye and S. Sato, "Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L571-L573 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Wang, M. Ye, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with spherical electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1232-L1233 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. A. Riza and S. A. Khan, "Programmable high speed polarization multiplexed optical scanner," Opt. Lett. 28, 561-563, (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Ren and S. T. Wu, "Tunable electronic lens using a gradient polymer network liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 22-24 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Wang, M. Ye, and S. Sato, "Lens of electrically controllable focal length made by a glass lens and liquid-crystal layers," Appl. Opt. 43, 3420-3425 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with a focal length that is variable in a wide range," Appl. Opt. 43, 6407-6412 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. V. V. Presnyakov and T. V. Galstian, "Electrically tunable polymer stabilized liquid-crystal lens," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103101-103101-6 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100-6104 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Ye, Y. Yokoyama, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens prepared utilizing patterned molecular orientations on cell walls," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141112-141114-3 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159 -163 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. C. Cheng and J. A. Yeh, "Dielectrically actuated liquid lens," Opt. Express 15, 7140-7145 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Ye, B. Wang, T. Takahashi, and S. Sato, "Properties of variable-focus liquid crystal lens and its application in focusing system," Opt. Rev. 14, 173-175 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Kawamura, and S. Sato, "Image formation using liquid crystal lens," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6776-6777 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, "Effects of dielectric constant of glass substrates on properties of liquid crystal lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1295-1297 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (4)

C. C. Cheng and J. A. Yeh, "Dielectrically actuated liquid lens," Opt. Express 15, 7140-7145 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ye, B. Wang, T. Takahashi, and S. Sato, "Properties of variable-focus liquid crystal lens and its application in focusing system," Opt. Rev. 14, 173-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Kawamura, and S. Sato, "Image formation using liquid crystal lens," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6776-6777 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, "Effects of dielectric constant of glass substrates on properties of liquid crystal lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1295-1297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100-6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

N. A. Riza and S. A. Khan, "Programmable high speed polarization multiplexed optical scanner," Opt. Lett. 28, 561-563, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, "Tunable electronic lens using a gradient polymer network liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 22-24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Ye and S. Sato, "Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L571-L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, M. Ye, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with spherical electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1232-L1233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159 -163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

1989 (1)

T. Nose and S. Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens obtained with a non-uniform electric field," Liq. Cryst. 5, 1425-1433 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1979 (1)

S. Sato, "Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1679-1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ayras, P.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100-6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berge, B.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159 -163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. C.

Cleverly, D. S.

DeJule, M. C.

Galstian, T. V.

V. V. Presnyakov and T. V. Galstian, "Electrically tunable polymer stabilized liquid-crystal lens," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103101-103101-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giridhar, M. S.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100-6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guralnik, I. R.

Haddock, J. N.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100-6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honkanen, S.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100-6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honma, M.

B. Wang, M. Ye, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with spherical electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1232-L1233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, M.

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Kawamura, and S. Sato, "Image formation using liquid crystal lens," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6776-6777 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khan, S. A.

Kippelen, B.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100-6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kornreich, P. G.

Kowel, S. T.

Li, G. Q.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100-6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loktev, M. Yu.

Mathine, D. L.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100-6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meredith, G. R.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100-6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naumov, A. F.

Nose, T.

B. Wang, M. Ye, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with spherical electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1232-L1233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Nose and S. Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens obtained with a non-uniform electric field," Liq. Cryst. 5, 1425-1433 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Peseux, J.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159 -163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100-6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Presnyakov, V. V.

V. V. Presnyakov and T. V. Galstian, "Electrically tunable polymer stabilized liquid-crystal lens," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103101-103101-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, "Tunable electronic lens using a gradient polymer network liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 22-24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riza, N. A.

Sato, S.

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Kawamura, and S. Sato, "Image formation using liquid crystal lens," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6776-6777 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, "Effects of dielectric constant of glass substrates on properties of liquid crystal lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1295-1297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, B. Wang, T. Takahashi, and S. Sato, "Properties of variable-focus liquid crystal lens and its application in focusing system," Opt. Rev. 14, 173-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, M. Ye, and S. Sato, "Lens of electrically controllable focal length made by a glass lens and liquid-crystal layers," Appl. Opt. 43, 3420-3425 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with a focal length that is variable in a wide range," Appl. Opt. 43, 6407-6412 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, M. Ye, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with spherical electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1232-L1233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye and S. Sato, "Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L571-L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Nose and S. Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens obtained with a non-uniform electric field," Liq. Cryst. 5, 1425-1433 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Sato, "Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1679-1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, Y. Yokoyama, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens prepared utilizing patterned molecular orientations on cell walls," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141112-141114-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwiegerling, J.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100-6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, T.

M. Ye, B. Wang, T. Takahashi, and S. Sato, "Properties of variable-focus liquid crystal lens and its application in focusing system," Opt. Rev. 14, 173-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Valley, P.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100-6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vdovin, G.

Wang, B.

M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, "Effects of dielectric constant of glass substrates on properties of liquid crystal lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1295-1297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Kawamura, and S. Sato, "Image formation using liquid crystal lens," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6776-6777 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, B. Wang, T. Takahashi, and S. Sato, "Properties of variable-focus liquid crystal lens and its application in focusing system," Opt. Rev. 14, 173-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, M. Ye, and S. Sato, "Lens of electrically controllable focal length made by a glass lens and liquid-crystal layers," Appl. Opt. 43, 3420-3425 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with a focal length that is variable in a wide range," Appl. Opt. 43, 6407-6412 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, M. Ye, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with spherical electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1232-L1233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Williby, G.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100-6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, "Tunable electronic lens using a gradient polymer network liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 22-24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ye, M.

M. Ye, B. Wang, T. Takahashi, and S. Sato, "Properties of variable-focus liquid crystal lens and its application in focusing system," Opt. Rev. 14, 173-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Kawamura, and S. Sato, "Image formation using liquid crystal lens," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6776-6777 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, "Effects of dielectric constant of glass substrates on properties of liquid crystal lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1295-1297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, M. Ye, and S. Sato, "Lens of electrically controllable focal length made by a glass lens and liquid-crystal layers," Appl. Opt. 43, 3420-3425 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with a focal length that is variable in a wide range," Appl. Opt. 43, 6407-6412 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, M. Ye, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with spherical electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1232-L1233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye and S. Sato, "Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L571-L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, Y. Yokoyama, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens prepared utilizing patterned molecular orientations on cell walls," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141112-141114-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, J. A.

Yokoyama, Y.

M. Ye, Y. Yokoyama, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens prepared utilizing patterned molecular orientations on cell walls," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141112-141114-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, "Tunable electronic lens using a gradient polymer network liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 22-24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. E (1)

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159 -163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, "Effects of dielectric constant of glass substrates on properties of liquid crystal lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1295-1297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

S. Sato, "Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1679-1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye and S. Sato, "Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L571-L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, M. Ye, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens with spherical electrode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1232-L1233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Kawamura, and S. Sato, "Image formation using liquid crystal lens," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6776-6777 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

T. Nose and S. Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens obtained with a non-uniform electric field," Liq. Cryst. 5, 1425-1433 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Rev. (1)

M. Ye, B. Wang, T. Takahashi, and S. Sato, "Properties of variable-focus liquid crystal lens and its application in focusing system," Opt. Rev. 14, 173-175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayras, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 6100-6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Ye, Y. Yokoyama, and S. Sato, "Liquid crystal lens prepared utilizing patterned molecular orientations on cell walls," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141112-141114-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Presnyakov and T. V. Galstian, "Electrically tunable polymer stabilized liquid-crystal lens," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103101-103101-6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Structure of the LC cell. (b) Structure of the patterned electrode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Interference pattern when the chamber is filled with air, and voltages of amplitudes V 1=15 Vrms and V 2=4 Vrms, and of frequency f=1 kHz are applied. (b) Photo of the cell captured by the interferometer when liquid glycerin is partly injected into the chamber and no voltages are applied. (c) Interference pattern when the chamber is partly filled with glycerin and voltages of amplitudes V 1=15 Vrms and V 2=4 Vrms, and of frequency f=1 kHz are applied.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Interference patterns changing with the amplitude of V 2 when the chamber is completely filled with glycerin and voltages of amplitude V 1=11 Vrms and of frequency f=400 Hz are applied.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Phase retardation at various values of V 2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Lens power at various values of V 2.

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