Abstract

The vibrational modes of the explosive related solids 2,4- and 2,6-DNT have been measured with waveguide THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to unprecedented precision. Dramatic sharpening of spectral features upon cooling beyond 80 K to 12 K is observed, illustrating the high quality and alignment of the polycrystalline thin films. Many of the observed features have linewidths below 15 GHz. These linewidths are approximately 8 times narrower than for the corresponding measurements via conventional THz-TDS with cooled pellets. For the 2,4-DNT, the line narrowing resolved 19 absorption features compared to only 7 features with the corresponding pellet measurement.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, "Security applications of terahertz technology," Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications," Proc. IEEE 95, 1514-1527 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L414-417 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy," Vib. Spectrosc. 42,243-248 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Chen, Y. Chen, H. Zhao, G. J. Bastiaans, and X.-C. Zhang, "Absorption coefficients of selected explosives and related compounds in the range of 0.1-2.8 THz," Opt. Express 15, 12060 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Chen, H. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectra of 4-NT and 2,6-DNT," Proc. SPIE 6212, 62120P (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, C. Zhang, "Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives," Phys. Lett. A 359, 728-732 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden,and R. Osiander, "Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives," Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227-230 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A.D. Burnett, W.H. Fan, P.C. Upadhya, J.E. Cunningham, H.G.M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E.H. Linfield, A.G. Davies, "Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives," Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, D. Babikov, "Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 3501-3505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, "Undistorted guided wave propagation of sub-picosecond THz pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 846-848 (2001).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, "High resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of biological molecules," Biophys. J. 94, 1010-1020 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, "Narrow-line waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of aspirin and aspirin precursors," Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 319-326 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J.P. Pinan, R. Ouillon, P. Ranson, M. Becucci, S. Califano, "High resolution Raman study of phonon and vibron bandwidths in isotopically pure and natural benzene crystal," J. Chem. Phys. 109, 5469-5480 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684-1691 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. C. McCrone and S.-M. Tsang, "Crystallographic Data. 88. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene," Anal. Chem. 26, 1848-1849 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. U. Jepsen and S. J. Clark, "Precise ab-initio prediction of terahertz vibrational modes in crystalline systems," Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 275-280 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, "Solid state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX," J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 1951-199 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J.-J. Nie, D.-J. Xu, Z.-Y. Li, and M. Y. Chaing, "2,6-Dinitrotoluene," Acta. Crystallogr. E57, o827 (2001).

2008 (2)

N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, "High resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of biological molecules," Biophys. J. 94, 1010-1020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, "Narrow-line waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of aspirin and aspirin precursors," Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 319-326 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

P. U. Jepsen and S. J. Clark, "Precise ab-initio prediction of terahertz vibrational modes in crystalline systems," Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 275-280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, "High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films," J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 10977-10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Fan, A. Burnett, P. C. Upadhya, J. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Far-infrared spectroscopic characterization of explosives for security applications using broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 638-643 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, Y. Chen, H. Zhao, G. J. Bastiaans, and X.-C. Zhang, "Absorption coefficients of selected explosives and related compounds in the range of 0.1-2.8 THz," Opt. Express 15, 12060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications," Proc. IEEE 95, 1514-1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden,and R. Osiander, "Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives," Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A.D. Burnett, W.H. Fan, P.C. Upadhya, J.E. Cunningham, H.G.M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E.H. Linfield, A.G. Davies, "Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives," Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy," Vib. Spectrosc. 42,243-248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectra of 4-NT and 2,6-DNT," Proc. SPIE 6212, 62120P (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Foltynowicz, R. E. Allman, and E. Zuckerman, "Terahertz absorption measurement for gas-phase 2,4-dinitrotoluene from 0.05 THz to 2.7 THz," Chem. Phys. Lett. 431, 34-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, C. Zhang, "Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives," Phys. Lett. A 359, 728-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, "Line narrowing of terahertz vibrational modes for organic thin polycrystalline films within a parallel plate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, "Solid state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX," J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 1951-199 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, D. Babikov, "Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 3501-3505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, "Waveguide THz time-domain spectroscopy of nm water layers," Opt. Lett. 19, 1617-1619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, "Security applications of terahertz technology," Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J.-J. Nie, D.-J. Xu, Z.-Y. Li, and M. Y. Chaing, "2,6-Dinitrotoluene," Acta. Crystallogr. E57, o827 (2001).

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, "Undistorted guided wave propagation of sub-picosecond THz pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 846-848 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

J.P. Pinan, R. Ouillon, P. Ranson, M. Becucci, S. Califano, "High resolution Raman study of phonon and vibron bandwidths in isotopically pure and natural benzene crystal," J. Chem. Phys. 109, 5469-5480 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684-1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

W. C. McCrone and S.-M. Tsang, "Crystallographic Data. 88. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene," Anal. Chem. 26, 1848-1849 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Allis, D. G.

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, "Solid state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX," J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 1951-199 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allman, R. E.

R. J. Foltynowicz, R. E. Allman, and E. Zuckerman, "Terahertz absorption measurement for gas-phase 2,4-dinitrotoluene from 0.05 THz to 2.7 THz," Chem. Phys. Lett. 431, 34-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, D. Babikov, "Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 3501-3505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Babikov, D.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, D. Babikov, "Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 3501-3505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy," Vib. Spectrosc. 42,243-248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barber, J.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, D. Babikov, "Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 3501-3505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaans, G. J.

Becucci, M.

J.P. Pinan, R. Ouillon, P. Ranson, M. Becucci, S. Califano, "High resolution Raman study of phonon and vibron bandwidths in isotopically pure and natural benzene crystal," J. Chem. Phys. 109, 5469-5480 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, A.

Burnett, A.D.

A.D. Burnett, W.H. Fan, P.C. Upadhya, J.E. Cunningham, H.G.M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E.H. Linfield, A.G. Davies, "Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives," Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Califano, S.

J.P. Pinan, R. Ouillon, P. Ranson, M. Becucci, S. Califano, "High resolution Raman study of phonon and vibron bandwidths in isotopically pure and natural benzene crystal," J. Chem. Phys. 109, 5469-5480 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chaing, M. Y.

J.-J. Nie, D.-J. Xu, Z.-Y. Li, and M. Y. Chaing, "2,6-Dinitrotoluene," Acta. Crystallogr. E57, o827 (2001).

Chen, J.

Chen, Y.

J. Chen, Y. Chen, H. Zhao, G. J. Bastiaans, and X.-C. Zhang, "Absorption coefficients of selected explosives and related compounds in the range of 0.1-2.8 THz," Opt. Express 15, 12060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications," Proc. IEEE 95, 1514-1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectra of 4-NT and 2,6-DNT," Proc. SPIE 6212, 62120P (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S.

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, "High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films," J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 10977-10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, S. J.

P. U. Jepsen and S. J. Clark, "Precise ab-initio prediction of terahertz vibrational modes in crystalline systems," Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 275-280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cluff, J. A.

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, "Security applications of terahertz technology," Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, "Security applications of terahertz technology," Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

Cunningham, J.E.

A.D. Burnett, W.H. Fan, P.C. Upadhya, J.E. Cunningham, H.G.M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E.H. Linfield, A.G. Davies, "Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives," Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

Davies, A.G.

A.D. Burnett, W.H. Fan, P.C. Upadhya, J.E. Cunningham, H.G.M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E.H. Linfield, A.G. Davies, "Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives," Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dodson, C.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, H.G.M.

A.D. Burnett, W.H. Fan, P.C. Upadhya, J.E. Cunningham, H.G.M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E.H. Linfield, A.G. Davies, "Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives," Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W. H.

Fan, W.H.

A.D. Burnett, W.H. Fan, P.C. Upadhya, J.E. Cunningham, H.G.M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E.H. Linfield, A.G. Davies, "Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives," Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, Ch.

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fitch, M. J.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden,and R. Osiander, "Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives," Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, "Security applications of terahertz technology," Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foltynowicz, R. J.

R. J. Foltynowicz, R. E. Allman, and E. Zuckerman, "Terahertz absorption measurement for gas-phase 2,4-dinitrotoluene from 0.05 THz to 2.7 THz," Chem. Phys. Lett. 431, 34-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Funk, D. J.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, D. Babikov, "Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 3501-3505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, I. S.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy," Vib. Spectrosc. 42,243-248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, "High resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of biological molecules," Biophys. J. 94, 1010-1020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, "Narrow-line waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of aspirin and aspirin precursors," Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 319-326 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, "High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films," J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 10977-10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, "Line narrowing of terahertz vibrational modes for organic thin polycrystalline films within a parallel plate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, "Waveguide THz time-domain spectroscopy of nm water layers," Opt. Lett. 19, 1617-1619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, "Undistorted guided wave propagation of sub-picosecond THz pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 846-848 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamsion, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, "THz Waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 851-863 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684-1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, C. Zhang, "Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives," Phys. Lett. A 359, 728-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hangyo, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hargreaves, M.

A.D. Burnett, W.H. Fan, P.C. Upadhya, J.E. Cunningham, H.G.M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E.H. Linfield, A.G. Davies, "Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives," Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harsha, S. S.

N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, "High resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of biological molecules," Biophys. J. 94, 1010-1020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, "Narrow-line waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of aspirin and aspirin precursors," Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 319-326 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, "High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films," J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 10977-10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, "Line narrowing of terahertz vibrational modes for organic thin polycrystalline films within a parallel plate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, L. M.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden,and R. Osiander, "Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives," Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hooks, D. E.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, D. Babikov, "Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 3501-3505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, C. Zhang, "Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives," Phys. Lett. A 359, 728-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, C. Zhang, "Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives," Phys. Lett. A 359, 728-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jamsion, S. P.

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen and S. J. Clark, "Precise ab-initio prediction of terahertz vibrational modes in crystalline systems," Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 275-280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications," Proc. IEEE 95, 1514-1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

Kemp, M. C.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy," Vib. Spectrosc. 42,243-248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, "Security applications of terahertz technology," Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kendrick, J.

A.D. Burnett, W.H. Fan, P.C. Upadhya, J.E. Cunningham, H.G.M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E.H. Linfield, A.G. Davies, "Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives," Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koide, K.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Korter, T. M.

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, "Solid state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX," J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 1951-199 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laman, N.

N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, "High resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of biological molecules," Biophys. J. 94, 1010-1020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, "Narrow-line waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of aspirin and aspirin precursors," Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 319-326 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, "High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films," J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 10977-10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, "Line narrowing of terahertz vibrational modes for organic thin polycrystalline films within a parallel plate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leahy-Hoppa, M. R.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden,and R. Osiander, "Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives," Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.-Y.

J.-J. Nie, D.-J. Xu, Z.-Y. Li, and M. Y. Chaing, "2,6-Dinitrotoluene," Acta. Crystallogr. E57, o827 (2001).

Linfield, E. H.

Linfield, E.H.

A.D. Burnett, W.H. Fan, P.C. Upadhya, J.E. Cunningham, H.G.M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E.H. Linfield, A.G. Davies, "Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives," Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectra of 4-NT and 2,6-DNT," Proc. SPIE 6212, 62120P (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-B.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications," Proc. IEEE 95, 1514-1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo, T.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy," Vib. Spectrosc. 42,243-248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, A.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McCrone, W. C.

W. C. McCrone and S.-M. Tsang, "Crystallographic Data. 88. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene," Anal. Chem. 26, 1848-1849 (1954).
[CrossRef]

McGowan, R. W.

Melinger, J. S.

N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, "High resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of biological molecules," Biophys. J. 94, 1010-1020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, S. Cheng, and D. Grischkowsky, "High-resolution waveguide terahertz spectroscopy of partially oriented organic polycrystalline films," J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 10977-10987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, "Line narrowing of terahertz vibrational modes for organic thin polycrystalline films within a parallel plate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mendis, R.

Minami, Y.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyamaru, F.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Munshi, T.

A.D. Burnett, W.H. Fan, P.C. Upadhya, J.E. Cunningham, H.G.M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E.H. Linfield, A.G. Davies, "Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives," Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nie, J.-J.

J.-J. Nie, D.-J. Xu, Z.-Y. Li, and M. Y. Chaing, "2,6-Dinitrotoluene," Acta. Crystallogr. E57, o827 (2001).

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osiander, R.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden,and R. Osiander, "Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives," Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ouillon, R.

J.P. Pinan, R. Ouillon, P. Ranson, M. Becucci, S. Califano, "High resolution Raman study of phonon and vibron bandwidths in isotopically pure and natural benzene crystal," J. Chem. Phys. 109, 5469-5480 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pinan, J.P.

J.P. Pinan, R. Ouillon, P. Ranson, M. Becucci, S. Califano, "High resolution Raman study of phonon and vibron bandwidths in isotopically pure and natural benzene crystal," J. Chem. Phys. 109, 5469-5480 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorova, D. A.

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, "Solid state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX," J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 1951-199 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranson, P.

J.P. Pinan, R. Ouillon, P. Ranson, M. Becucci, S. Califano, "High resolution Raman study of phonon and vibron bandwidths in isotopically pure and natural benzene crystal," J. Chem. Phys. 109, 5469-5480 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schauki, D.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spicer, J. B.

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taday, P. F.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy," Vib. Spectrosc. 42,243-248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, "Security applications of terahertz technology," Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tatsuno, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, D. Babikov, "Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 3501-3505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tribe, W. R.

T. Lo, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, P. F. Taday, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "The very far-infrared spectra of energetic materials and possible confusion materials using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy," Vib. Spectrosc. 42,243-248 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, "Security applications of terahertz technology," Proc. SPIE 5070, 44-52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, S.-M.

W. C. McCrone and S.-M. Tsang, "Crystallographic Data. 88. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene," Anal. Chem. 26, 1848-1849 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Upadhya, P. C.

Upadhya, P.C.

A.D. Burnett, W.H. Fan, P.C. Upadhya, J.E. Cunningham, H.G.M. Edwards, J. Kendrick, T. Munshi, M. Hargreaves, E.H. Linfield, A.G. Davies, "Broadband terahertz time-domain and Raman spectroscopy of explosives," Proc. SPIE 6549, 654905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684-1691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, C. Zhang, "Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives," Phys. Lett. A 359, 728-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-J.

J.-J. Nie, D.-J. Xu, Z.-Y. Li, and M. Y. Chaing, "2,6-Dinitrotoluene," Acta. Crystallogr. E57, o827 (2001).

Yamaguchi, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L414-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Y. Hu, P. Huang, L. Guo, X. Wang, C. Zhang, "Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of explosives," Phys. Lett. A 359, 728-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, "Waveguide THz time-domain spectroscopy of nm water layers," Opt. Lett. 19, 1617-1619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications," Proc. IEEE 95, 1514-1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, Y. Chen, H. Zhao, G. J. Bastiaans, and X.-C. Zhang, "Absorption coefficients of selected explosives and related compounds in the range of 0.1-2.8 THz," Opt. Express 15, 12060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectra of 4-NT and 2,6-DNT," Proc. SPIE 6212, 62120P (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

Zheng, X.

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden,and R. Osiander, "Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives," Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

H.-B. Liu, H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for defense and security applications," Proc. IEEE 95, 1514-1527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zimdars, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zuckerman, E.

R. J. Foltynowicz, R. E. Allman, and E. Zuckerman, "Terahertz absorption measurement for gas-phase 2,4-dinitrotoluene from 0.05 THz to 2.7 THz," Chem. Phys. Lett. 431, 34-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Acta. Crystallogr. (1)

J.-J. Nie, D.-J. Xu, Z.-Y. Li, and M. Y. Chaing, "2,6-Dinitrotoluene," Acta. Crystallogr. E57, o827 (2001).

Anal. Chem. (1)

W. C. McCrone and S.-M. Tsang, "Crystallographic Data. 88. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene," Anal. Chem. 26, 1848-1849 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. S. Melinger, N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, "Line narrowing of terahertz vibrational modes for organic thin polycrystalline films within a parallel plate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Biophys. J. (1)

N. Laman, S. S. Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, "High resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of biological molecules," Biophys. J. 94, 1010-1020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden,and R. Osiander, "Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives," Chem. Phys. Lett. 434, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Foltynowicz, R. E. Allman, and E. Zuckerman, "Terahertz absorption measurement for gas-phase 2,4-dinitrotoluene from 0.05 THz to 2.7 THz," Chem. Phys. Lett. 431, 34-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen and S. J. Clark, "Precise ab-initio prediction of terahertz vibrational modes in crystalline systems," Chem. Phys. Lett. 442, 275-280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig 1.
Fig 1.

Chemical structures of: a) 2,4-DNT, b) 2,6-DNT, c) 2,4,6-TNT

Fig 2.
Fig 2.

Waveguide THz-TDS. Inset indicates replacement of waveguide with pellet for conventional THz-TDS.

Fig 3.
Fig 3.

Normalized THz pulses transmitted through 2,4-DNT pellet and waveguide at 11 K. Inset shows pulses trailing edges at times of 50 through 60 ps. THz pulses transmitted through waveguide are offset for clarity. Reflection at 30 ps is due to pellet. Reflections at 150 ps and at 227 ps are due to Si lenses and windows respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Amplitude Spectra of THz transmitted through 2,4-DNT pellet as a function of temperature. Spectra at 80 K and 293 K are offset for clarity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Amplitude spectra of THz transmitted through 2,4-DNT waveguide as a function of temperature. Spectra at 20 K through 293 K are offset for clarity. Inset shows detail of 11 K spectrum.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Normalized amplitude absorbance of 2,4-DNT waveguide at 11 K, 2,4-DNT pellet at 11 K and 293 K and 2,4-DNT pellet at 293 K for Ref 3, 6, 8 and 9. The pellet for this work contained 32 mg of 2,4-DNT, whereas the waveguide film contains less than 100 µg of 2,4-DNT. The estimated signal-to-noise ratio for the waveguide measurement is ~10:1 at 0.5 THz, ~70:1 at 1.2 THz and ~8:1 at 2.5 THz. The curves are normalized to unity with the exception of the 11 K waveguide data, which is normalized to two for better visibility.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Optical micrograph of 2,4-DNT film on Al waveguide plate.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Amplitude spectra of THz transmitted through 2,6-DNT pellet as a function of temperature. Spectra at 80 K and 293 K are offset for clarity

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Amplitude spectra of THz transmitted through 2,6-DNT waveguide as a function of temperature. Spectra at 40 K through 293 K are offset for clarity.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Normalized amplitude absorbance of 2,6-DNT waveguide at 12 K, 2,6-DNT pellet at 13 K and 293 K and 2,6-DNT pellet at 293 K for Ref 3, 6 and 7. The estimated signal-to-noise ratio for the waveguide measurement is ~40:1 at 1.18 and 1.68 THz and ~20:1 at 2.10 THz. The curves are normalized to unity with the exception of the 12 K waveguide data, which is normalized to two for better visibility.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Center line frequency and FWHM linewidth for the strongest line in 2,6-DNT pellet and waveguide. The dashed line corresponds to the 6.7 GHz instrument resolution.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of center line frequencies in THza of 2,4-DNT for this work and references 3, 6, 8 and 9.

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