Abstract

Ba2TiGe2O8 crystals were selectively precipitated on femtosecond laser irradiated BaO-TiO2-GeO2 glass surface. Furthermore, the crystal could grow from the surface of glass to the interior towards the laser movement direction when the laser focus was continuously moved. The laser-induced crystal was confirmed to be Ba2TiGe2O8 phase by x-ray diffraction analysis and micro-Raman spectra. We also observed blue light due to double-frequency conversion of the 800nm incident laser in the crystallized regions. We propose the observed phenomena resulted from the femtosecond laser-assisted orientation of precipitation of crystal.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. B. Moore and J. Louisnathan, "Fresnoite: Unusal Titanium Coordination," Science 156, 1361-1362 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Kimura, K. Doi, S. Nanamatsu, and T. Kawamura, "A new piezoelectric crystal: Ba2Ge2TiO8," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 531-532 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Schmid, P. Genequand, H. Tippmann, G. Pouilly, and H. Guédu, "Pyroelectricity and Related Properties in the Fresnoite Pseudobinary System Ba2Ti Ge2O8- Ba2Ti Si2O8," J. Mater. Sci. 13, 2257-2265 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Optical second order nonlinearity of transparent Ba2TiGe2O8 crystallized glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 223-225 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Formation mechanism of ferroelastic Ba2TiGe2O8 and second order optical non-linearity in transparent crystallized glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 320-330 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Masai. T. Fujiwara, Y. Benino, and T. Komatsu, "Large second-order optical nonlinearity in 30BaO-15TiO2-55GeO2 surface crystallized glass with strong orientation," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023526/1-023526/4 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Transition metal atom heat processing for writing of crystal lines in glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231105/1-231105/3 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective growth of frequency-conversion crystals in glasses with ultrashort infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 25, 408-410 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 885-892 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, "Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181109/1-181109/3 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Zhu, Y. Dai, H. Ma, S. Zhang, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, "Femtosecond laser induced space-selective precipitation of nonlinear optical crystals in rare-earth-doped glasses," Opt. Express 15, 6069-6074 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. A. Cabral, V. M. Fokin, and E. D. Zanotto, "Nanocrystallization of fresnoite glass. II. Analysis of homogeneous nucleation kinetics," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 343, 85-90 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Gutzow, R. Pascova, A. Karamanov, and J. Schmelzer, "The kinetics of surface induced sinter crystallization and the formation of glass-ceramic materials," J. Mater. Sci. 33, 5265-5273 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. A. Markgraf, S. K. Sharma, and A. S. Bhalla, "Raman study of fresnoite-type materials: Polarized single crystal, crystalline powers, and glasses," J. Mater. Res. 8, 635-648 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Th. G. Mayerhöfer and H. H. Dunken, "Single-crystal IR spectroscopic investigation on fresnoite, Sr-fresnoite and Ge-fresnoite," Vib. Spectrosc. 25, 185-195 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. J. Lee, J. Park, E. K. Kim, Y. P. Lee, K. M. Kim, H. Cheong, C. S. Yoon,Y. D. Son, and J. Jang, "Microstructure of femtosecond laser-induced grating in amorphous silicon," Opt. Express 13, 6445-6453 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Y. Yang, H. L. Ma, G. H. Ma, B. Lu, and H. Ma, "Phase transformation at the surface of TiO2 single crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. A 88, 801-804 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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2007 (3)

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, "Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181109/1-181109/3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, Y. Dai, H. Ma, S. Zhang, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, "Femtosecond laser induced space-selective precipitation of nonlinear optical crystals in rare-earth-doped glasses," Opt. Express 15, 6069-6074 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Yang, H. L. Ma, G. H. Ma, B. Lu, and H. Ma, "Phase transformation at the surface of TiO2 single crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. A 88, 801-804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. Masai. T. Fujiwara, Y. Benino, and T. Komatsu, "Large second-order optical nonlinearity in 30BaO-15TiO2-55GeO2 surface crystallized glass with strong orientation," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023526/1-023526/4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Transition metal atom heat processing for writing of crystal lines in glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231105/1-231105/3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Formation mechanism of ferroelastic Ba2TiGe2O8 and second order optical non-linearity in transparent crystallized glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 320-330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Optical second order nonlinearity of transparent Ba2TiGe2O8 crystallized glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 223-225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Th. G. Mayerhöfer and H. H. Dunken, "Single-crystal IR spectroscopic investigation on fresnoite, Sr-fresnoite and Ge-fresnoite," Vib. Spectrosc. 25, 185-195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. A. Cabral, V. M. Fokin, and E. D. Zanotto, "Nanocrystallization of fresnoite glass. II. Analysis of homogeneous nucleation kinetics," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 343, 85-90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective growth of frequency-conversion crystals in glasses with ultrashort infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 25, 408-410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

I. Gutzow, R. Pascova, A. Karamanov, and J. Schmelzer, "The kinetics of surface induced sinter crystallization and the formation of glass-ceramic materials," J. Mater. Sci. 33, 5265-5273 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. A. Markgraf, S. K. Sharma, and A. S. Bhalla, "Raman study of fresnoite-type materials: Polarized single crystal, crystalline powers, and glasses," J. Mater. Res. 8, 635-648 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

H. Schmid, P. Genequand, H. Tippmann, G. Pouilly, and H. Guédu, "Pyroelectricity and Related Properties in the Fresnoite Pseudobinary System Ba2Ti Ge2O8- Ba2Ti Si2O8," J. Mater. Sci. 13, 2257-2265 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

M. Kimura, K. Doi, S. Nanamatsu, and T. Kawamura, "A new piezoelectric crystal: Ba2Ge2TiO8," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 531-532 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

P. B. Moore and J. Louisnathan, "Fresnoite: Unusal Titanium Coordination," Science 156, 1361-1362 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arai, A. Y.

Araki, R.

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 885-892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benino, Y.

T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Transition metal atom heat processing for writing of crystal lines in glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231105/1-231105/3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Formation mechanism of ferroelastic Ba2TiGe2O8 and second order optical non-linearity in transparent crystallized glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 320-330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Optical second order nonlinearity of transparent Ba2TiGe2O8 crystallized glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 223-225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bhalla, A. S.

S. A. Markgraf, S. K. Sharma, and A. S. Bhalla, "Raman study of fresnoite-type materials: Polarized single crystal, crystalline powers, and glasses," J. Mater. Res. 8, 635-648 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bovatsek, J.

Cabral, A. A.

A. A. Cabral, V. M. Fokin, and E. D. Zanotto, "Nanocrystallization of fresnoite glass. II. Analysis of homogeneous nucleation kinetics," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 343, 85-90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cao, S.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, "Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181109/1-181109/3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, H.

Dai, Y.

B. Zhu, Y. Dai, H. Ma, S. Zhang, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, "Femtosecond laser induced space-selective precipitation of nonlinear optical crystals in rare-earth-doped glasses," Opt. Express 15, 6069-6074 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, "Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181109/1-181109/3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doi, K.

M. Kimura, K. Doi, S. Nanamatsu, and T. Kawamura, "A new piezoelectric crystal: Ba2Ge2TiO8," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 531-532 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dunken, H. H.

Th. G. Mayerhöfer and H. H. Dunken, "Single-crystal IR spectroscopic investigation on fresnoite, Sr-fresnoite and Ge-fresnoite," Vib. Spectrosc. 25, 185-195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S. M.

Fokin, V. M.

A. A. Cabral, V. M. Fokin, and E. D. Zanotto, "Nanocrystallization of fresnoite glass. II. Analysis of homogeneous nucleation kinetics," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 343, 85-90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 885-892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, T.

T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Transition metal atom heat processing for writing of crystal lines in glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231105/1-231105/3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Formation mechanism of ferroelastic Ba2TiGe2O8 and second order optical non-linearity in transparent crystallized glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 320-330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Optical second order nonlinearity of transparent Ba2TiGe2O8 crystallized glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 223-225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Genequand, P.

H. Schmid, P. Genequand, H. Tippmann, G. Pouilly, and H. Guédu, "Pyroelectricity and Related Properties in the Fresnoite Pseudobinary System Ba2Ti Ge2O8- Ba2Ti Si2O8," J. Mater. Sci. 13, 2257-2265 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Guédu, H.

H. Schmid, P. Genequand, H. Tippmann, G. Pouilly, and H. Guédu, "Pyroelectricity and Related Properties in the Fresnoite Pseudobinary System Ba2Ti Ge2O8- Ba2Ti Si2O8," J. Mater. Sci. 13, 2257-2265 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gutzow, I.

I. Gutzow, R. Pascova, A. Karamanov, and J. Schmelzer, "The kinetics of surface induced sinter crystallization and the formation of glass-ceramic materials," J. Mater. Sci. 33, 5265-5273 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 885-892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective growth of frequency-conversion crystals in glasses with ultrashort infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 25, 408-410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Honma, T.

T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Transition metal atom heat processing for writing of crystal lines in glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231105/1-231105/3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

Karamanov, A.

I. Gutzow, R. Pascova, A. Karamanov, and J. Schmelzer, "The kinetics of surface induced sinter crystallization and the formation of glass-ceramic materials," J. Mater. Sci. 33, 5265-5273 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, T.

M. Kimura, K. Doi, S. Nanamatsu, and T. Kawamura, "A new piezoelectric crystal: Ba2Ge2TiO8," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 531-532 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. K.

Kim, K. M.

Kimura, M.

M. Kimura, K. Doi, S. Nanamatsu, and T. Kawamura, "A new piezoelectric crystal: Ba2Ge2TiO8," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 531-532 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, T.

T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Transition metal atom heat processing for writing of crystal lines in glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231105/1-231105/3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Formation mechanism of ferroelastic Ba2TiGe2O8 and second order optical non-linearity in transparent crystallized glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 320-330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Optical second order nonlinearity of transparent Ba2TiGe2O8 crystallized glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 223-225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G. J.

Lee, Y. P.

Lin, G.

Louisnathan, J.

P. B. Moore and J. Louisnathan, "Fresnoite: Unusal Titanium Coordination," Science 156, 1361-1362 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, B.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, "Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181109/1-181109/3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Yang, H. L. Ma, G. H. Ma, B. Lu, and H. Ma, "Phase transformation at the surface of TiO2 single crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. A 88, 801-804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, G. H.

J. Y. Yang, H. L. Ma, G. H. Ma, B. Lu, and H. Ma, "Phase transformation at the surface of TiO2 single crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. A 88, 801-804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

J. Y. Yang, H. L. Ma, G. H. Ma, B. Lu, and H. Ma, "Phase transformation at the surface of TiO2 single crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. A 88, 801-804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, "Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181109/1-181109/3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, Y. Dai, H. Ma, S. Zhang, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, "Femtosecond laser induced space-selective precipitation of nonlinear optical crystals in rare-earth-doped glasses," Opt. Express 15, 6069-6074 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H. L.

J. Y. Yang, H. L. Ma, G. H. Ma, B. Lu, and H. Ma, "Phase transformation at the surface of TiO2 single crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. A 88, 801-804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Markgraf, S. A.

S. A. Markgraf, S. K. Sharma, and A. S. Bhalla, "Raman study of fresnoite-type materials: Polarized single crystal, crystalline powers, and glasses," J. Mater. Res. 8, 635-648 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Masai, H.

H. Masai. T. Fujiwara, Y. Benino, and T. Komatsu, "Large second-order optical nonlinearity in 30BaO-15TiO2-55GeO2 surface crystallized glass with strong orientation," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023526/1-023526/4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mayerhöfer, Th. G.

Th. G. Mayerhöfer and H. H. Dunken, "Single-crystal IR spectroscopic investigation on fresnoite, Sr-fresnoite and Ge-fresnoite," Vib. Spectrosc. 25, 185-195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

Miura, K.

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 885-892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective growth of frequency-conversion crystals in glasses with ultrashort infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 25, 408-410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moore, P. B.

P. B. Moore and J. Louisnathan, "Fresnoite: Unusal Titanium Coordination," Science 156, 1361-1362 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanamatsu, S.

M. Kimura, K. Doi, S. Nanamatsu, and T. Kawamura, "A new piezoelectric crystal: Ba2Ge2TiO8," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 531-532 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

Pascova, R.

I. Gutzow, R. Pascova, A. Karamanov, and J. Schmelzer, "The kinetics of surface induced sinter crystallization and the formation of glass-ceramic materials," J. Mater. Sci. 33, 5265-5273 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pouilly, G.

H. Schmid, P. Genequand, H. Tippmann, G. Pouilly, and H. Guédu, "Pyroelectricity and Related Properties in the Fresnoite Pseudobinary System Ba2Ti Ge2O8- Ba2Ti Si2O8," J. Mater. Sci. 13, 2257-2265 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Schmelzer, J.

I. Gutzow, R. Pascova, A. Karamanov, and J. Schmelzer, "The kinetics of surface induced sinter crystallization and the formation of glass-ceramic materials," J. Mater. Sci. 33, 5265-5273 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, H.

H. Schmid, P. Genequand, H. Tippmann, G. Pouilly, and H. Guédu, "Pyroelectricity and Related Properties in the Fresnoite Pseudobinary System Ba2Ti Ge2O8- Ba2Ti Si2O8," J. Mater. Sci. 13, 2257-2265 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shah, L.

Sharma, S. K.

S. A. Markgraf, S. K. Sharma, and A. S. Bhalla, "Raman study of fresnoite-type materials: Polarized single crystal, crystalline powers, and glasses," J. Mater. Res. 8, 635-648 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Son, Y. D.

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Formation mechanism of ferroelastic Ba2TiGe2O8 and second order optical non-linearity in transparent crystallized glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 320-330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Optical second order nonlinearity of transparent Ba2TiGe2O8 crystallized glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 223-225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tippmann, H.

H. Schmid, P. Genequand, H. Tippmann, G. Pouilly, and H. Guédu, "Pyroelectricity and Related Properties in the Fresnoite Pseudobinary System Ba2Ti Ge2O8- Ba2Ti Si2O8," J. Mater. Sci. 13, 2257-2265 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. Y.

J. Y. Yang, H. L. Ma, G. H. Ma, B. Lu, and H. Ma, "Phase transformation at the surface of TiO2 single crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. A 88, 801-804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yonesaki, Y.

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 885-892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, C. S.

Yoshino, F.

Yu, B.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, "Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181109/1-181109/3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zanotto, E. D.

A. A. Cabral, V. M. Fokin, and E. D. Zanotto, "Nanocrystallization of fresnoite glass. II. Analysis of homogeneous nucleation kinetics," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 343, 85-90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, S.

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, Y. Dai, H. Ma, S. Zhang, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, "Femtosecond laser induced space-selective precipitation of nonlinear optical crystals in rare-earth-doped glasses," Opt. Express 15, 6069-6074 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, S. Cao, and B. Yu, "Direct writing three-dimensional Ba2TiSi2O8 crystalline pattern in glass with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181109/1-181109/3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

J. Y. Yang, H. L. Ma, G. H. Ma, B. Lu, and H. Ma, "Phase transformation at the surface of TiO2 single crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. A 88, 801-804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Kimura, K. Doi, S. Nanamatsu, and T. Kawamura, "A new piezoelectric crystal: Ba2Ge2TiO8," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 531-532 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Optical second order nonlinearity of transparent Ba2TiGe2O8 crystallized glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 223-225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Transition metal atom heat processing for writing of crystal lines in glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231105/1-231105/3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (2)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Microscopic images of the focal point (a) after and (b) during the laser irradiation on the surface of the glass sample; (c), (d) the depths of the focal point were 30 µm and 100µm respectively, the blue light in the images due to second harmonic generation; (e) the laser-induced crystallization pattern for x-ray diffraction analysis and micro-Raman spectra, the detailed scanning process was described in text. The scaling bars under the images (d) and (e) denoted 20 µm and 50 µm, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

X-ray diffraction pattern for the femtosecond laser-induced crystals.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Micro-Raman spectra for the femtosecond laser-induced crystals and the BaO-TiO2-GeO2 glass respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A cross-section image of femtosecond laser-induced oriented crystallization region. The blue light shown in (a) and (b) due to second harmonic generation, whereas no nonlinear optical crystals precipitated in the region (c). The scaling bar denoted 50 µm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic illustration of the femtosecond laser-assisted crystal precipitation.

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