Abstract

We demonstrate a continuously-variable bit-rate receiver from 10 to 40 Gbit/s for DPSK demodulation. Unlike previous DPSK demodulators, this receiver is also capable of passing intensity modulated waveforms without distortion. Degradations imposed by receiver imperfections are presented and compared with a traditional DPSK delay-line interferometer.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. K. Lize, M. Faucher, E. Jarry, P. Ouellette, E. Villenueve, A Wetter, and F. Sequin, "Phase-tunable low-loss, S-, C-, and L-band DPSK and DQPSK demodulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19,1886-1888 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Awaji, T. Kuri, and W. Chujo, "Error-free detection of OC-192 DPSK signal using differential-phase-to-intensity conversion (DPIC) based on injection locking of semiconductor laser," in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2001), pp. 500.
  3. I. Lyubomirsky and C.-C. Chien, "DPSK Demodulator Based on Optical Discriminator Filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 492-494 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Christen, Y. Lize, S. Nuccio, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, A. E. Willner, and L. Paraschis, "Fiber Bragg Grating balanced DPSK demodulation," in Proceedings of IEEE LEOS Annual Meetings (IEEE, 2006), pp. 563-564.
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Christen, Y. Lize, S. Nuccio, J.-Y. Yang, N. Jayachandran, P. Ebrahimi, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and L. Paraschis, "Multi-format continuously variable bitrate DPSK/OOK demodulation receiver design," presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Cannes, France, paper Tu3.2.4, (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Ciaramella, G. Contestabile, and A. D'Errico, "A novel scheme to detect optical DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2138-2140 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. W. Chow and H. K. Tsang, "Polarization-independent DPSK demodulation using a birefringent fiber loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1313-1315 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. R. Minch, D. Townsend, and D. Gervais, "Rate adjustable NRZ-DPSK modulation scheme with a fixed interferometer," in Proceedings of IEEE LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 43-44.
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, S. Nuccio, P. Saghari, R. Gomma, J.-Y. Yang, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Power penalty in multibit differential phase shift keying demodulation," presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Cannes, France, paper Tu3.2.3, (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron Lett. 42, 1363-1363 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. R. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Free-spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion," Opt. Express 15, 6817-6822 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115-130, (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Penninckx, H. Bissessur, P. Brindel, E. Gohin, and F. Bakhti, "Optical differential phase shift keying (DPSK) direct detection considered as a duobinary signal," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications, Cannes, France (IEEE, 2001), pp. 456-457.
  14. J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, "A DWDM demonstration of 3.73 Tb/s over 11 000 km using 373 RZ-DPSK channels at 10 Gb/s," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE/OSA, 2003), paper PD22-P1-3.
  15. L. Christen, S. R. Nuccio, X. Wu, A. E. Willner, and L. Paraschis, "Experimental demonstration of reduced complexity 43-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK rate-tunable receiver," presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Berlin, Germany, paper TH9.3.3, (2007).
  16. L. Christen, S. Nuccio, Y. K. Lize, A. E. Willner, and L. Paraschis, "Simultaneous balanced DPSK demodulation of multiple 40 Gbit/s WDM channels using a single periodic FBG," presented at the Conference of Laser and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, paper CMJJ3, (2007).
  17. L. Christen, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, and A. E. Willner, "Polarization-based 43 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK receiver design employing a single delay-line interferometer," presented at the Conference of Laser and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, paper CMJJ6, (2007).
  18. L. C. Christen, Y. K. Lize, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and L. Paraschis, "Enhanced sensitivity and compensation of transmission impairments using multi-bit DPSK error correction," in proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (IEEE/OSA, 2007), paper JThA50.
  19. M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. K. Lize, and A. E. Willner, "Self-coherent multi-symbol detection of optical differential phase-shift-keying," J. Lightwave Technol., publication accepted.
  20. Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, M. Nazarathy, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, "Combination of Optical and Electronic Logic Gates for Error Correction in Multipath Differential Demodulation," Opt. Express 15, 6831-6839 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, and A. E. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK Receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-830 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (4)

Y. K. Lize, M. Faucher, E. Jarry, P. Ouellette, E. Villenueve, A Wetter, and F. Sequin, "Phase-tunable low-loss, S-, C-, and L-band DPSK and DQPSK demodulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19,1886-1888 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. R. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Free-spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion," Opt. Express 15, 6817-6822 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, M. Nazarathy, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, "Combination of Optical and Electronic Logic Gates for Error Correction in Multipath Differential Demodulation," Opt. Express 15, 6831-6839 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, and A. E. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK Receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron Lett. 42, 1363-1363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

C. W. Chow and H. K. Tsang, "Polarization-independent DPSK demodulation using a birefringent fiber loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1313-1315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Lyubomirsky and C.-C. Chien, "DPSK Demodulator Based on Optical Discriminator Filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 492-494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115-130, (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

E. Ciaramella, G. Contestabile, and A. D'Errico, "A novel scheme to detect optical DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2138-2140 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C.-C.

I. Lyubomirsky and C.-C. Chien, "DPSK Demodulator Based on Optical Discriminator Filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 492-494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chow, C. W.

C. W. Chow and H. K. Tsang, "Polarization-independent DPSK demodulation using a birefringent fiber loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1313-1315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Christen, L.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. R. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Free-spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion," Opt. Express 15, 6817-6822 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, M. Nazarathy, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, "Combination of Optical and Electronic Logic Gates for Error Correction in Multipath Differential Demodulation," Opt. Express 15, 6831-6839 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, and A. E. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK Receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. K. Lize, and A. E. Willner, "Self-coherent multi-symbol detection of optical differential phase-shift-keying," J. Lightwave Technol., publication accepted.

Ciaramella, E.

E. Ciaramella, G. Contestabile, and A. D'Errico, "A novel scheme to detect optical DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2138-2140 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Contestabile, G.

E. Ciaramella, G. Contestabile, and A. D'Errico, "A novel scheme to detect optical DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2138-2140 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D'Errico, A.

E. Ciaramella, G. Contestabile, and A. D'Errico, "A novel scheme to detect optical DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2138-2140 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Faucher, M.

Y. K. Lize, M. Faucher, E. Jarry, P. Ouellette, E. Villenueve, A Wetter, and F. Sequin, "Phase-tunable low-loss, S-, C-, and L-band DPSK and DQPSK demodulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19,1886-1888 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

Jarry, E.

Y. K. Lize, M. Faucher, E. Jarry, P. Ouellette, E. Villenueve, A Wetter, and F. Sequin, "Phase-tunable low-loss, S-, C-, and L-band DPSK and DQPSK demodulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19,1886-1888 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

Liu, F.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron Lett. 42, 1363-1363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, and A. E. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK Receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. K. Lize, and A. E. Willner, "Self-coherent multi-symbol detection of optical differential phase-shift-keying," J. Lightwave Technol., publication accepted.

Lize, Y. K.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. R. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Free-spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion," Opt. Express 15, 6817-6822 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Lize, M. Faucher, E. Jarry, P. Ouellette, E. Villenueve, A Wetter, and F. Sequin, "Phase-tunable low-loss, S-, C-, and L-band DPSK and DQPSK demodulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19,1886-1888 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, and A. E. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK Receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, M. Nazarathy, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, "Combination of Optical and Electronic Logic Gates for Error Correction in Multipath Differential Demodulation," Opt. Express 15, 6831-6839 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. K. Lize, and A. E. Willner, "Self-coherent multi-symbol detection of optical differential phase-shift-keying," J. Lightwave Technol., publication accepted.

Lyubomirsky, I.

I. Lyubomirsky and C.-C. Chien, "DPSK Demodulator Based on Optical Discriminator Filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 492-494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mamyshev, P.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron Lett. 42, 1363-1363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, B.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron Lett. 42, 1363-1363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nazarathy, M.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, M. Nazarathy, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, "Combination of Optical and Electronic Logic Gates for Error Correction in Multipath Differential Demodulation," Opt. Express 15, 6831-6839 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, and A. E. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK Receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. K. Lize, and A. E. Willner, "Self-coherent multi-symbol detection of optical differential phase-shift-keying," J. Lightwave Technol., publication accepted.

Nuccio, S.

Nuccio, S. R.

Ouellette, P.

Y. K. Lize, M. Faucher, E. Jarry, P. Ouellette, E. Villenueve, A Wetter, and F. Sequin, "Phase-tunable low-loss, S-, C-, and L-band DPSK and DQPSK demodulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19,1886-1888 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, C.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron Lett. 42, 1363-1363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sequin, F.

Y. K. Lize, M. Faucher, E. Jarry, P. Ouellette, E. Villenueve, A Wetter, and F. Sequin, "Phase-tunable low-loss, S-, C-, and L-band DPSK and DQPSK demodulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19,1886-1888 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

C. W. Chow and H. K. Tsang, "Polarization-independent DPSK demodulation using a birefringent fiber loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1313-1315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Villenueve, E.

Y. K. Lize, M. Faucher, E. Jarry, P. Ouellette, E. Villenueve, A Wetter, and F. Sequin, "Phase-tunable low-loss, S-, C-, and L-band DPSK and DQPSK demodulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19,1886-1888 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wetter, A

Y. K. Lize, M. Faucher, E. Jarry, P. Ouellette, E. Villenueve, A Wetter, and F. Sequin, "Phase-tunable low-loss, S-, C-, and L-band DPSK and DQPSK demodulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19,1886-1888 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, X. Wu, J.-Y. Yang, S. R. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Free-spectral range optimization of return-to-zero differential phase shift keyed demodulation in the presence of chromatic dispersion," Opt. Express 15, 6817-6822 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, M. Nazarathy, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, "Combination of Optical and Electronic Logic Gates for Error Correction in Multipath Differential Demodulation," Opt. Express 15, 6831-6839 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, and A. E. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK Receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. K. Lize, and A. E. Willner, "Self-coherent multi-symbol detection of optical differential phase-shift-keying," J. Lightwave Technol., publication accepted.

Winzer, P. J.

Wu, T.

Wu, X.

Yang, J.-Y.

Electron Lett. (1)

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron Lett. 42, 1363-1363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, and A. E. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK Receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-830 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Lize, M. Faucher, E. Jarry, P. Ouellette, E. Villenueve, A Wetter, and F. Sequin, "Phase-tunable low-loss, S-, C-, and L-band DPSK and DQPSK demodulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19,1886-1888 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Lyubomirsky and C.-C. Chien, "DPSK Demodulator Based on Optical Discriminator Filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 492-494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Ciaramella, G. Contestabile, and A. D'Errico, "A novel scheme to detect optical DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2138-2140 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chow and H. K. Tsang, "Polarization-independent DPSK demodulation using a birefringent fiber loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1313-1315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Other (12)

D. Penninckx, H. Bissessur, P. Brindel, E. Gohin, and F. Bakhti, "Optical differential phase shift keying (DPSK) direct detection considered as a duobinary signal," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications, Cannes, France (IEEE, 2001), pp. 456-457.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, "A DWDM demonstration of 3.73 Tb/s over 11 000 km using 373 RZ-DPSK channels at 10 Gb/s," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (IEEE/OSA, 2003), paper PD22-P1-3.

L. Christen, S. R. Nuccio, X. Wu, A. E. Willner, and L. Paraschis, "Experimental demonstration of reduced complexity 43-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK rate-tunable receiver," presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Berlin, Germany, paper TH9.3.3, (2007).

L. Christen, S. Nuccio, Y. K. Lize, A. E. Willner, and L. Paraschis, "Simultaneous balanced DPSK demodulation of multiple 40 Gbit/s WDM channels using a single periodic FBG," presented at the Conference of Laser and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, paper CMJJ3, (2007).

L. Christen, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, and A. E. Willner, "Polarization-based 43 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK receiver design employing a single delay-line interferometer," presented at the Conference of Laser and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, paper CMJJ6, (2007).

L. C. Christen, Y. K. Lize, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and L. Paraschis, "Enhanced sensitivity and compensation of transmission impairments using multi-bit DPSK error correction," in proceedings of Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (IEEE/OSA, 2007), paper JThA50.

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. K. Lize, and A. E. Willner, "Self-coherent multi-symbol detection of optical differential phase-shift-keying," J. Lightwave Technol., publication accepted.

J. R. Minch, D. Townsend, and D. Gervais, "Rate adjustable NRZ-DPSK modulation scheme with a fixed interferometer," in Proceedings of IEEE LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 43-44.
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, S. Nuccio, P. Saghari, R. Gomma, J.-Y. Yang, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Power penalty in multibit differential phase shift keying demodulation," presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Cannes, France, paper Tu3.2.3, (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Christen, Y. Lize, S. Nuccio, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, A. E. Willner, and L. Paraschis, "Fiber Bragg Grating balanced DPSK demodulation," in Proceedings of IEEE LEOS Annual Meetings (IEEE, 2006), pp. 563-564.
[CrossRef]

L. Christen, Y. Lize, S. Nuccio, J.-Y. Yang, N. Jayachandran, P. Ebrahimi, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and L. Paraschis, "Multi-format continuously variable bitrate DPSK/OOK demodulation receiver design," presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Cannes, France, paper Tu3.2.4, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Awaji, T. Kuri, and W. Chujo, "Error-free detection of OC-192 DPSK signal using differential-phase-to-intensity conversion (DPIC) based on injection locking of semiconductor laser," in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2001), pp. 500.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Conceptual block diagram of optical receiver capable of receiving and demodulating optical DPSK or intensity modulated signals: (a) configuration for demodulation of DPSK and (b) configuration for passage of OOK.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental Setup. PC: polarization controller, MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator, VOA: variable optical attenuator, BPF: bandpass filter, DGD: differential group delay.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission response of receiver when aligned for DPSK detection of rate: (a) 10 Gb/s, (b) 20 Gb/s, and (c) 40 Gb/s. Adequate extinction ratio of >20 dB observed.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). DPSK bit error rate performance relative to detection using a traditional delayline interferometer. (b) OOK bit error rate performance relative to detection without the demodulator.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Power penalty incurred from polarization misalignment: (a) input polarization misalignment to DGD principal axes (b) polarization misalignment to PBS axes, and (c) DGD to bit-rate mismatch

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ E x E y ] = [ 1 ± 1 ± 1 1 ] [ e j φ 0 0 1 ] [ e + j ω T 0 0 1 ] ( E x e j ψ E y )
± 45 ° beam splitter polarization birefringent input + Constructive rotation of φ delay of T field Destructive between states between states
E + 45 ° E y + E x e j ( ω T + φ + ψ )
E 45 ° E y + E x e j ( ω T + φ + ψ )
E + 45 ° ( const ) 1 + e j ω T
E 45 ° ( dest ) 1 e j ω T

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