Abstract

This study investigates the feasibility of ultrasound imaging to monitor temperature changes during photothermal treatment. Experiments were performed on tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex-vivo animal tissue samples. Gold nanoparticles were utilized as photoabsorbers. Prior to laser irradiation, structural features of the phantoms and tissue were visualized by ultrasound imaging. Ultrasound thermal imaging, performed during laser heating, showed that the temperature elevation was localized to the region of embedded or injected nanoparticles. The results of our study suggest that ultrasound imaging is a candidate approach to remotely guide photothermal therapy.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  8. W. Teh and A. R. M. Wilson, “The role of ultrasound in breast cancer screening. A consensus statement by the European Group for breast cancer screening,” European Journal of Cancer 34, 449–450 (1998).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Srinivasan, R. Righetti, and J. Ophir, “Trade-offs between the axial resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio in elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 29, 847–866 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. Park, S. Mallidi, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Aglyamov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic Imaging Using Array Transducer,” Proc. SPIE 6437, 643714 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M.-L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. Thomsen, “Pathologic analysis of photothermal and photomechanical effects of laser-tissue interactions,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 825–835 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  28. C. Simon, P. D. VanBaren, and E. S. Ebbini, “Motion compensation algorithm for noninvasive two-dimensional temperature estimation using diagnostic pulse-echo ultrasound,” SPIE- Surgical Applications of Energy 3249, 182–192 (1998).
  29. S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott, “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 405–415 (2006).
  30. A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogenesis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Y. Wang, X. Xie, X. Wang, G. Ku, K. L. Gill, D. P. O’Neal, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of a nanoshell contrast agent in the in vivo rat brain,” Nano Lett. 4, 1689–1692 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, and F. T. Lee, Jr., “Elastographic imaging of thermal lesions in the liver in vivo following radiofrequency ablation: preliminary results,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 28, 1467–1473 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Park, S. Mallidi, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Aglyamov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic Imaging Using Array Transducer,” Proc. SPIE 6437, 643714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M.-L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott, “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 405–415 (2006).

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano. Lett. 5, 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Y. Wang, X. Xie, X. Wang, G. Ku, K. L. Gill, D. P. O’Neal, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of a nanoshell contrast agent in the in vivo rat brain,” Nano Lett. 4, 1689–1692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

S. Srinivasan, R. Righetti, and J. Ophir, “Trade-offs between the axial resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio in elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 29, 847–866 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63, 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Kharine, S. Manohar, R. Seeton, R. G. Kolkman, R. A. Bolt, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. d. Mul, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography,” Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 357–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Jr., “Ultrasound monitoring of temperature change during radiofrequency ablation: preliminary in-vivo results,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 28, 321–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, and F. T. Lee, Jr., “Elastographic imaging of thermal lesions in the liver in vivo following radiofrequency ablation: preliminary results,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 28, 1467–1473 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. Weissleder, “A clearer vision for in vivo imaging,” Nature Biotechnology 19, 316–317 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, S. V. Solomatin, E. V. Savateeva, V. A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. N. Goldberg, G. S. Gazelle, and P. R. Mueller, “Thermal ablation therapy for focal malignancy: A unified approach to underlying principles, techniques, and diagnostic imaging guidance,” Am. J. Roentgenol. 174, 323–331 (2000).

C. M. Hassan and N. A. Peppas, “Structure and applications of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels produced by conventional crosslinking or by freezing/thawing methods,” Advances in polymer science 153, 37–65 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc Inst Mech Eng 213, 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Lubinski, S. Y. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, “Speckle tracking methods for ultrasonic elasticity imaging using short-time correlation,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 46, 82–96 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogenesis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. Simon, P. D. VanBaren, and E. S. Ebbini, “Motion compensation algorithm for noninvasive two-dimensional temperature estimation using diagnostic pulse-echo ultrasound,” SPIE- Surgical Applications of Energy 3249, 182–192 (1998).

W. Teh and A. R. M. Wilson, “The role of ultrasound in breast cancer screening. A consensus statement by the European Group for breast cancer screening,” European Journal of Cancer 34, 449–450 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

R. Maass-Moreno and C. A. Damianou, “Noninvasive temperature estimation in tissue via ultrasound echo-shifts. Part I. Analytical model,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2514–2521 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Maass-Moreno, C. A. Damianou, and N. T. Sanghvi, “Noninvasive temperature estimation in tissue via ultrasound echo-shifts. Part II. In vitro study,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2522–2530 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (4)

B. Y. Karlan and L. D. Platt, “Ovarian cancer screening. The role of ultrasound in early detection.,” Cancer 76, 2011–2015 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Seip and E. S. Ebbini, “Non-invasive monitoring of ultrasound phased array hyperthermia and surgery treatments,” Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 1, 663–664 (1995).

W. R. Chen, R. L. Adams, S. Heaton, D. T. Dickey, K. E. Bartels, and R. E. Nordquist, “Chromophoreenhanced laser-tumor tissue photothermal interaction using an 808-nm diode laser,” Cancer Letters 88, 15–19 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Seip, P. VanBaren, C. Simon, and E. S. Ebbini, “Non-invasive spatio-temporal temperature estimation using diagnostic ultrasound,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium 2, 1613–1616 (1995).

1991 (1)

S. Thomsen, “Pathologic analysis of photothermal and photomechanical effects of laser-tissue interactions,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 825–835 (1991).
[PubMed]

1979 (1)

J. C. Bamber and C. R. Hill, “Ultrasonic attenuation and propagation speed in mammalian tissues as a function of temperature,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 5, 149–157 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

G. Frens, “Controlled nucleation for the regulation of the particle size in monodisperse gold suspensions,” Nature Physical Science 241, 20–22 (1973).

Aaron, J.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63, 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Adams, R. L.

W. R. Chen, R. L. Adams, S. Heaton, D. T. Dickey, K. E. Bartels, and R. E. Nordquist, “Chromophoreenhanced laser-tumor tissue photothermal interaction using an 808-nm diode laser,” Cancer Letters 88, 15–19 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aglyamov, S.

S. Park, S. Mallidi, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Aglyamov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic Imaging Using Array Transducer,” Proc. SPIE 6437, 643714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aglyamov, S. R.

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott, “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 405–415 (2006).

J. Shah, S. R. Aglyamov, K. Sokolov, T. E. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Ultrasound-based thermal and elasticity imaging to assist photothermal cancer therapy - Preliminary study,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 1029–1032 (2006).

Alam, S. K.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc Inst Mech Eng 213, 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, V. A.

A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, S. V. Solomatin, E. V. Savateeva, V. A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogenesis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bamber, J. C.

J. C. Bamber and C. R. Hill, “Ultrasonic attenuation and propagation speed in mammalian tissues as a function of temperature,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 5, 149–157 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bankson, J. A.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, K. E.

W. R. Chen, R. L. Adams, S. Heaton, D. T. Dickey, K. E. Bartels, and R. E. Nordquist, “Chromophoreenhanced laser-tumor tissue photothermal interaction using an 808-nm diode laser,” Cancer Letters 88, 15–19 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bitton, R.

R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M.-L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolt, R. A.

A. Kharine, S. Manohar, R. Seeton, R. G. Kolkman, R. A. Bolt, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. d. Mul, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography,” Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 357–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Jr., “Ultrasound monitoring of temperature change during radiofrequency ablation: preliminary in-vivo results,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 28, 321–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. R.

W. R. Chen, R. L. Adams, S. Heaton, D. T. Dickey, K. E. Bartels, and R. E. Nordquist, “Chromophoreenhanced laser-tumor tissue photothermal interaction using an 808-nm diode laser,” Cancer Letters 88, 15–19 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Damianou, C. A.

R. Maass-Moreno and C. A. Damianou, “Noninvasive temperature estimation in tissue via ultrasound echo-shifts. Part I. Analytical model,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2514–2521 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Maass-Moreno, C. A. Damianou, and N. T. Sanghvi, “Noninvasive temperature estimation in tissue via ultrasound echo-shifts. Part II. In vitro study,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2522–2530 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickey, D. T.

W. R. Chen, R. L. Adams, S. Heaton, D. T. Dickey, K. E. Bartels, and R. E. Nordquist, “Chromophoreenhanced laser-tumor tissue photothermal interaction using an 808-nm diode laser,” Cancer Letters 88, 15–19 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbini, E. S.

C. Simon, P. D. VanBaren, and E. S. Ebbini, “Motion compensation algorithm for noninvasive two-dimensional temperature estimation using diagnostic pulse-echo ultrasound,” SPIE- Surgical Applications of Energy 3249, 182–192 (1998).

R. Seip, P. VanBaren, C. Simon, and E. S. Ebbini, “Non-invasive spatio-temporal temperature estimation using diagnostic ultrasound,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium 2, 1613–1616 (1995).

R. Seip and E. S. Ebbini, “Non-invasive monitoring of ultrasound phased array hyperthermia and surgery treatments,” Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 1, 663–664 (1995).

El-Sayed, I. H.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S. Y.

S. Park, S. Mallidi, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Aglyamov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic Imaging Using Array Transducer,” Proc. SPIE 6437, 643714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott, “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 405–415 (2006).

M. A. Lubinski, S. Y. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, “Speckle tracking methods for ultrasonic elasticity imaging using short-time correlation,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 46, 82–96 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Shah, S. R. Aglyamov, K. Sokolov, T. E. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Ultrasound-based thermal and elasticity imaging to assist photothermal cancer therapy - Preliminary study,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 1029–1032 (2006).

Esenaliev, R. O.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogenesis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, D. R.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogenesis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, R. D.

A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, S. V. Solomatin, E. V. Savateeva, V. A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Follen, M.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63, 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Frank, G.

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Jr., “Ultrasound monitoring of temperature change during radiofrequency ablation: preliminary in-vivo results,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 28, 321–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frens, G.

G. Frens, “Controlled nucleation for the regulation of the particle size in monodisperse gold suspensions,” Nature Physical Science 241, 20–22 (1973).

Garra, B.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc Inst Mech Eng 213, 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gatalica, Z.

A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, S. V. Solomatin, E. V. Savateeva, V. A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogenesis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gazelle, G. S.

S. N. Goldberg, G. S. Gazelle, and P. R. Mueller, “Thermal ablation therapy for focal malignancy: A unified approach to underlying principles, techniques, and diagnostic imaging guidance,” Am. J. Roentgenol. 174, 323–331 (2000).

Gill, K. L.

Y. Wang, X. Xie, X. Wang, G. Ku, K. L. Gill, D. P. O’Neal, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of a nanoshell contrast agent in the in vivo rat brain,” Nano Lett. 4, 1689–1692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, S. N.

S. N. Goldberg, G. S. Gazelle, and P. R. Mueller, “Thermal ablation therapy for focal malignancy: A unified approach to underlying principles, techniques, and diagnostic imaging guidance,” Am. J. Roentgenol. 174, 323–331 (2000).

Griffith, L.

S. K. Hobbs, W. L. Monsky, F. Yuan, W. G. Roberts, L. Griffith, V. P. Torchilin, and R. K. Jain, “Regulation of transport pathways in tumor vessels: role of tumor type and microenvironment,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, 4607–4612 (1998).

Halas, N. J.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hassan, C. M.

C. M. Hassan and N. A. Peppas, “Structure and applications of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels produced by conventional crosslinking or by freezing/thawing methods,” Advances in polymer science 153, 37–65 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hazle, J. D.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heaton, S.

W. R. Chen, R. L. Adams, S. Heaton, D. T. Dickey, K. E. Bartels, and R. E. Nordquist, “Chromophoreenhanced laser-tumor tissue photothermal interaction using an 808-nm diode laser,” Cancer Letters 88, 15–19 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, C. R.

J. C. Bamber and C. R. Hill, “Ultrasonic attenuation and propagation speed in mammalian tissues as a function of temperature,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 5, 149–157 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hirsch, L. R.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hobbs, S. K.

S. K. Hobbs, W. L. Monsky, F. Yuan, W. G. Roberts, L. Griffith, V. P. Torchilin, and R. K. Jain, “Regulation of transport pathways in tumor vessels: role of tumor type and microenvironment,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, 4607–4612 (1998).

Huang, X.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, R. K.

S. K. Hobbs, W. L. Monsky, F. Yuan, W. G. Roberts, L. Griffith, V. P. Torchilin, and R. K. Jain, “Regulation of transport pathways in tumor vessels: role of tumor type and microenvironment,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, 4607–4612 (1998).

Johnson, C.

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Jr., “Ultrasound monitoring of temperature change during radiofrequency ablation: preliminary in-vivo results,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 28, 321–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kallel, F.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc Inst Mech Eng 213, 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karabutov, A. A.

A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, S. V. Solomatin, E. V. Savateeva, V. A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogenesis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karlan, B. Y.

B. Y. Karlan and L. D. Platt, “Ovarian cancer screening. The role of ultrasound in early detection.,” Cancer 76, 2011–2015 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karpiouk, A. B.

S. Park, S. Mallidi, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Aglyamov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic Imaging Using Array Transducer,” Proc. SPIE 6437, 643714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott, “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 405–415 (2006).

Kharine, A.

A. Kharine, S. Manohar, R. Seeton, R. G. Kolkman, R. A. Bolt, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. d. Mul, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography,” Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 357–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano. Lett. 5, 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolkman, R. G.

A. Kharine, S. Manohar, R. Seeton, R. G. Kolkman, R. A. Bolt, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. d. Mul, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography,” Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 357–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Konofagou, E.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc Inst Mech Eng 213, 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krouskop, T.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc Inst Mech Eng 213, 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ku, G.

Y. Wang, X. Xie, X. Wang, G. Ku, K. L. Gill, D. P. O’Neal, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of a nanoshell contrast agent in the in vivo rat brain,” Nano Lett. 4, 1689–1692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano. Lett. 5, 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Jr., F. T.

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Jr., “Ultrasound monitoring of temperature change during radiofrequency ablation: preliminary in-vivo results,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 28, 321–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, and F. T. Lee, Jr., “Elastographic imaging of thermal lesions in the liver in vivo following radiofrequency ablation: preliminary results,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 28, 1467–1473 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.-L.

R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M.-L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G. L.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano. Lett. 5, 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotan, R.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63, 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano. Lett. 5, 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubinski, M. A.

M. A. Lubinski, S. Y. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, “Speckle tracking methods for ultrasonic elasticity imaging using short-time correlation,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 46, 82–96 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maass-Moreno, R.

R. Maass-Moreno and C. A. Damianou, “Noninvasive temperature estimation in tissue via ultrasound echo-shifts. Part I. Analytical model,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2514–2521 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Maass-Moreno, C. A. Damianou, and N. T. Sanghvi, “Noninvasive temperature estimation in tissue via ultrasound echo-shifts. Part II. In vitro study,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2522–2530 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallidi, S.

S. Park, S. Mallidi, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Aglyamov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic Imaging Using Array Transducer,” Proc. SPIE 6437, 643714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott, “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 405–415 (2006).

Malpica, A.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63, 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Manohar, S.

A. Kharine, S. Manohar, R. Seeton, R. G. Kolkman, R. A. Bolt, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. d. Mul, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography,” Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 357–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mejia, Y. X.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano. Lett. 5, 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

J. Shah, S. R. Aglyamov, K. Sokolov, T. E. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Ultrasound-based thermal and elasticity imaging to assist photothermal cancer therapy - Preliminary study,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 1029–1032 (2006).

Monsky, W. L.

S. K. Hobbs, W. L. Monsky, F. Yuan, W. G. Roberts, L. Griffith, V. P. Torchilin, and R. K. Jain, “Regulation of transport pathways in tumor vessels: role of tumor type and microenvironment,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, 4607–4612 (1998).

Mueller, P. R.

S. N. Goldberg, G. S. Gazelle, and P. R. Mueller, “Thermal ablation therapy for focal malignancy: A unified approach to underlying principles, techniques, and diagnostic imaging guidance,” Am. J. Roentgenol. 174, 323–331 (2000).

Mul, F. F. d.

A. Kharine, S. Manohar, R. Seeton, R. G. Kolkman, R. A. Bolt, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. d. Mul, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography,” Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 357–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nordquist, R. E.

W. R. Chen, R. L. Adams, S. Heaton, D. T. Dickey, K. E. Bartels, and R. E. Nordquist, “Chromophoreenhanced laser-tumor tissue photothermal interaction using an 808-nm diode laser,” Cancer Letters 88, 15–19 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Donnell, M.

M. A. Lubinski, S. Y. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, “Speckle tracking methods for ultrasonic elasticity imaging using short-time correlation,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 46, 82–96 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O’Neal, D. P.

Y. Wang, X. Xie, X. Wang, G. Ku, K. L. Gill, D. P. O’Neal, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of a nanoshell contrast agent in the in vivo rat brain,” Nano Lett. 4, 1689–1692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ophir, J.

S. Srinivasan, R. Righetti, and J. Ophir, “Trade-offs between the axial resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio in elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 29, 847–866 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc Inst Mech Eng 213, 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oraevsky, A. A.

A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, S. V. Solomatin, E. V. Savateeva, V. A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogenesis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

S. Park, S. Mallidi, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Aglyamov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic Imaging Using Array Transducer,” Proc. SPIE 6437, 643714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott, “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 405–415 (2006).

Pavlova, I.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63, 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Peppas, N. A.

C. M. Hassan and N. A. Peppas, “Structure and applications of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels produced by conventional crosslinking or by freezing/thawing methods,” Advances in polymer science 153, 37–65 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Platt, L. D.

B. Y. Karlan and L. D. Platt, “Ovarian cancer screening. The role of ultrasound in early detection.,” Cancer 76, 2011–2015 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, R. E.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63, 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Righetti, R.

S. Srinivasan, R. Righetti, and J. Ophir, “Trade-offs between the axial resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio in elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 29, 847–866 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rivera, B.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, W. G.

S. K. Hobbs, W. L. Monsky, F. Yuan, W. G. Roberts, L. Griffith, V. P. Torchilin, and R. K. Jain, “Regulation of transport pathways in tumor vessels: role of tumor type and microenvironment,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, 4607–4612 (1998).

Rubin, J. M.

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott, “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 405–415 (2006).

Sanghvi, N. T.

R. Maass-Moreno, C. A. Damianou, and N. T. Sanghvi, “Noninvasive temperature estimation in tissue via ultrasound echo-shifts. Part II. In vitro study,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2522–2530 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savateeva, E. V.

A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, S. V. Solomatin, E. V. Savateeva, V. A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scott, W. G.

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott, “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 405–415 (2006).

Seeton, R.

A. Kharine, S. Manohar, R. Seeton, R. G. Kolkman, R. A. Bolt, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. d. Mul, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography,” Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 357–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seip, R.

R. Seip, P. VanBaren, C. Simon, and E. S. Ebbini, “Non-invasive spatio-temporal temperature estimation using diagnostic ultrasound,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium 2, 1613–1616 (1995).

R. Seip and E. S. Ebbini, “Non-invasive monitoring of ultrasound phased array hyperthermia and surgery treatments,” Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 1, 663–664 (1995).

Sershen, S. R.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sethuraman, S.

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott, “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 405–415 (2006).

Shah, J.

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott, “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 405–415 (2006).

J. Shah, S. R. Aglyamov, K. Sokolov, T. E. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Ultrasound-based thermal and elasticity imaging to assist photothermal cancer therapy - Preliminary study,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 1029–1032 (2006).

Shung, K. K.

R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M.-L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, C.

C. Simon, P. D. VanBaren, and E. S. Ebbini, “Motion compensation algorithm for noninvasive two-dimensional temperature estimation using diagnostic pulse-echo ultrasound,” SPIE- Surgical Applications of Energy 3249, 182–192 (1998).

R. Seip, P. VanBaren, C. Simon, and E. S. Ebbini, “Non-invasive spatio-temporal temperature estimation using diagnostic ultrasound,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium 2, 1613–1616 (1995).

Singh, H.

A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, S. V. Solomatin, E. V. Savateeva, V. A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogenesis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smalling, R. W.

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott, “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 405–415 (2006).

Sokolov, K.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63, 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Shah, S. R. Aglyamov, K. Sokolov, T. E. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Ultrasound-based thermal and elasticity imaging to assist photothermal cancer therapy - Preliminary study,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 1029–1032 (2006).

Solomatin, S. V.

A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, S. V. Solomatin, E. V. Savateeva, V. A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, S.

S. Srinivasan, R. Righetti, and J. Ophir, “Trade-offs between the axial resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio in elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 29, 847–866 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stafford, R. J.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steenbergen, W.

A. Kharine, S. Manohar, R. Seeton, R. G. Kolkman, R. A. Bolt, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. d. Mul, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography,” Phys. Med. Bio. 48, 357–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stoica, G.

R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M.-L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, X. Xie, X. Wang, G. Ku, K. L. Gill, D. P. O’Neal, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of a nanoshell contrast agent in the in vivo rat brain,” Nano Lett. 4, 1689–1692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Techavipoo, U.

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Jr., “Ultrasound monitoring of temperature change during radiofrequency ablation: preliminary in-vivo results,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 28, 321–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Teh, W.

W. Teh and A. R. M. Wilson, “The role of ultrasound in breast cancer screening. A consensus statement by the European Group for breast cancer screening,” European Journal of Cancer 34, 449–450 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, S.

S. Thomsen, “Pathologic analysis of photothermal and photomechanical effects of laser-tissue interactions,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 825–835 (1991).
[PubMed]

Torchilin, V. P.

S. K. Hobbs, W. L. Monsky, F. Yuan, W. G. Roberts, L. Griffith, V. P. Torchilin, and R. K. Jain, “Regulation of transport pathways in tumor vessels: role of tumor type and microenvironment,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, 4607–4612 (1998).

VanBaren, P.

R. Seip, P. VanBaren, C. Simon, and E. S. Ebbini, “Non-invasive spatio-temporal temperature estimation using diagnostic ultrasound,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium 2, 1613–1616 (1995).

VanBaren, P. D.

C. Simon, P. D. VanBaren, and E. S. Ebbini, “Motion compensation algorithm for noninvasive two-dimensional temperature estimation using diagnostic pulse-echo ultrasound,” SPIE- Surgical Applications of Energy 3249, 182–192 (1998).

Varghese, T.

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, and F. T. Lee, Jr., “Elastographic imaging of thermal lesions in the liver in vivo following radiofrequency ablation: preliminary results,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 28, 1467–1473 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Jr., “Ultrasound monitoring of temperature change during radiofrequency ablation: preliminary in-vivo results,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 28, 321–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc Inst Mech Eng 213, 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M.-L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, X. Xie, X. Wang, G. Ku, K. L. Gill, D. P. O’Neal, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of a nanoshell contrast agent in the in vivo rat brain,” Nano Lett. 4, 1689–1692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Y. Wang, X. Xie, X. Wang, G. Ku, K. L. Gill, D. P. O’Neal, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of a nanoshell contrast agent in the in vivo rat brain,” Nano Lett. 4, 1689–1692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Xie, X. Wang, G. Ku, K. L. Gill, D. P. O’Neal, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of a nanoshell contrast agent in the in vivo rat brain,” Nano Lett. 4, 1689–1692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weissleder, R.

R. Weissleder, “A clearer vision for in vivo imaging,” Nature Biotechnology 19, 316–317 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, J. L.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
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W. Teh and A. R. M. Wilson, “The role of ultrasound in breast cancer screening. A consensus statement by the European Group for breast cancer screening,” European Journal of Cancer 34, 449–450 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, A.

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Jr., “Ultrasound monitoring of temperature change during radiofrequency ablation: preliminary in-vivo results,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 28, 321–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

Y. Wang, X. Xie, X. Wang, G. Ku, K. L. Gill, D. P. O’Neal, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of a nanoshell contrast agent in the in vivo rat brain,” Nano Lett. 4, 1689–1692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, F.

S. K. Hobbs, W. L. Monsky, F. Yuan, W. G. Roberts, L. Griffith, V. P. Torchilin, and R. K. Jain, “Regulation of transport pathways in tumor vessels: role of tumor type and microenvironment,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, 4607–4612 (1998).

Zagzebski, J. A.

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Jr., “Ultrasound monitoring of temperature change during radiofrequency ablation: preliminary in-vivo results,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 28, 321–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, and F. T. Lee, Jr., “Elastographic imaging of thermal lesions in the liver in vivo following radiofrequency ablation: preliminary results,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 28, 1467–1473 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zemp, R. J.

R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M.-L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. N. Goldberg, G. S. Gazelle, and P. R. Mueller, “Thermal ablation therapy for focal malignancy: A unified approach to underlying principles, techniques, and diagnostic imaging guidance,” Am. J. Roentgenol. 174, 323–331 (2000).

Cancer (1)

B. Y. Karlan and L. D. Platt, “Ovarian cancer screening. The role of ultrasound in early detection.,” Cancer 76, 2011–2015 (1995).
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Cancer Letters (1)

W. R. Chen, R. L. Adams, S. Heaton, D. T. Dickey, K. E. Bartels, and R. E. Nordquist, “Chromophoreenhanced laser-tumor tissue photothermal interaction using an 808-nm diode laser,” Cancer Letters 88, 15–19 (1995).
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Cancer Res. (1)

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 63, 1999–2004 (2003).
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R. Seip and E. S. Ebbini, “Non-invasive monitoring of ultrasound phased array hyperthermia and surgery treatments,” Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 1, 663–664 (1995).

European Journal of Cancer (1)

W. Teh and A. R. M. Wilson, “The role of ultrasound in breast cancer screening. A consensus statement by the European Group for breast cancer screening,” European Journal of Cancer 34, 449–450 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control (1)

M. A. Lubinski, S. Y. Emelianov, and M. O’Donnell, “Speckle tracking methods for ultrasonic elasticity imaging using short-time correlation,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 46, 82–96 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium (2)

S. Y. Emelianov, S. R. Aglyamov, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Mallidi, S. Park, S. Sethuraman, J. Shah, R. W. Smalling, J. M. Rubin, and W. G. Scott, “Synergy and applications of combined ultrasound, elasticity, and photoacoustic imaging,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 405–415 (2006).

R. Seip, P. VanBaren, C. Simon, and E. S. Ebbini, “Non-invasive spatio-temporal temperature estimation using diagnostic ultrasound,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium 2, 1613–1616 (1995).

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R. Maass-Moreno and C. A. Damianou, “Noninvasive temperature estimation in tissue via ultrasound echo-shifts. Part I. Analytical model,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2514–2521 (1996).
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R. Maass-Moreno, C. A. Damianou, and N. T. Sanghvi, “Noninvasive temperature estimation in tissue via ultrasound echo-shifts. Part II. In vitro study,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2522–2530 (1996).
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X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

R. J. Zemp, R. Bitton, M.-L. Li, K. K. Shung, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of the microvasculature with a high-frequency ultrasound array transducer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 010501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

Y. Wang, X. Xie, X. Wang, G. Ku, K. L. Gill, D. P. O’Neal, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of a nanoshell contrast agent in the in vivo rat brain,” Nano Lett. 4, 1689–1692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano. Lett. (1)

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano. Lett. 5, 119–124 (2005).
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Nature Biotechnology (1)

R. Weissleder, “A clearer vision for in vivo imaging,” Nature Biotechnology 19, 316–317 (2001).
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G. Frens, “Controlled nucleation for the regulation of the particle size in monodisperse gold suspensions,” Nature Physical Science 241, 20–22 (1973).

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Proc Inst Mech Eng (1)

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc Inst Mech Eng 213, 203–233 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

S. Park, S. Mallidi, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Aglyamov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic Imaging Using Array Transducer,” Proc. SPIE 6437, 643714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, S. V. Solomatin, E. V. Savateeva, V. A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).
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A. A. Oraevsky, V. A. Andreev, A. A. Karabutov, D. R. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogenesis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (1)

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

SPIE- Surgical Applications of Energy (1)

C. Simon, P. D. VanBaren, and E. S. Ebbini, “Motion compensation algorithm for noninvasive two-dimensional temperature estimation using diagnostic pulse-echo ultrasound,” SPIE- Surgical Applications of Energy 3249, 182–192 (1998).

Ultrasound Med. Bio. (4)

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, and F. T. Lee, Jr., “Elastographic imaging of thermal lesions in the liver in vivo following radiofrequency ablation: preliminary results,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 28, 1467–1473 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Varghese, J. A. Zagzebski, Q. Chen, U. Techavipoo, G. Frank, C. Johnson, A. Wright, and F. T. Lee, Jr., “Ultrasound monitoring of temperature change during radiofrequency ablation: preliminary in-vivo results,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 28, 321–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bamber and C. R. Hill, “Ultrasonic attenuation and propagation speed in mammalian tissues as a function of temperature,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 5, 149–157 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Srinivasan, R. Righetti, and J. Ophir, “Trade-offs between the axial resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio in elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Bio. 29, 847–866 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Shah, S. R. Aglyamov, K. Sokolov, T. E. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Ultrasound-based thermal and elasticity imaging to assist photothermal cancer therapy - Preliminary study,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 1029–1032 (2006).

S. K. Hobbs, W. L. Monsky, F. Yuan, W. G. Roberts, L. Griffith, V. P. Torchilin, and R. K. Jain, “Regulation of transport pathways in tumor vessels: role of tumor type and microenvironment,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, 4607–4612 (1998).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Block diagram illustrating the principles of ultrasound measurements for thermal imaging.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for ultrasound and thermal imaging during laser heating of the specimen

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temperature calibration for (a) PVA phantom and (b) porcine muscle tissue. The error bars represent standard deviation obtained from 10 measurements.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Ultrasound image of the hyperechoic inclusion with embedded photoabsorbers. (b-d) Thermal images recorded at 30, 60 and 180 seconds of laser irradiation, respectively. All images cover a 20 mm by 20 mm region.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Spatial temperature profile along the axial line passing through the center of the inclusion. (b) Temporal temperature profile measured inside the inclusion and four regions outside of the inclusion located 6 mm to the left, above, below and to the right from the center of the inclusion having 3.5 mm radius.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Ultrasound image of the porcine tissue sample where the photoabsorber injection site with respect to the laser beam is indicated by the circle. (b) The thermal image of the tissue sample injected with water and irradiated for 120 seconds at 2 W/cm2 indicates negligible laser heating of the specimen. In contrast, thermal images (c–e) of the tissue injected with photoabsorbers and irradiated for 20 seconds at 2, 3 and 4 W/cm2 respectively, clearly indicate progressive and localized temperature increase. All images cover a 20 mm by 15 mm region.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Spatial temperature profile measured along the horizontal dotted line shown in Fig. 6(a) for tissue specimens injected with either aqueous solution of photoabsorbers and water without photoabsorbers. (b) Temporal temperature profile measured inside and outside of the targeted area (site of injection). The 1.5 mm by 1.5 mm regions for temporal assessment of temperature are indicated by squares in Fig. 6(a).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Photothermal laser heating of porcine muscle tissue (16 mm by 12 mm) performed using 3 W/cm2 laser irradiation for 180 seconds. Ultrasound image (a) before and (b) after laser irradiation indicate the location of heated region associated with changes in echogenicity. The location and the extend of the heated region is further confirmed in (c) thermal image computed after 180 seconds of laser heating. The region of elevated temperature is consistent with injection site visible on the photograph (d) of the tissue sample.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

t ( T 0 ) = 2 · z c ( T 0 ) ,
t ( T 0 + Δ T ) = 2 · z ( 1 + α · Δ T ) c ( T 0 + Δ T ) ,
Δ t = t ( T 0 + Δ T ) t ( T 0 ) = 2 · z · [ 1 c ( T 0 + Δ T ) 1 c ( T 0 ) ] .
Δ T = k · d ( Δ t ) dt ,

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