Abstract

Silicon is becoming the preferable platform for future integrated components, mostly due to the mature and reliable fabrication capabilities of electronics industry. Nevertheless, even the most advanced fabrication technologies suffer from non-uniformity on wafer scale and on chip scale, causing variations in the critical dimensions of fabricated components. This is an important issue since photonic circuits, and especially cavities such as ring resonators, are extremely sensitive to these variations. In this paper we present a way to circumvent these problems by trimming using electron beam induced compaction of oxide in silicon on insulator. Volume compaction of the oxide cladding causes both changes in the refractive index and creates strain in the silicon lattice. We demonstrate a resonance wavelength red shift 4.91 nm in a silicon ring resonator.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, "Compact wavelength router based on a Silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array," Opt. Express 14, 664-669 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Notzel, and M. Smit, "Laser emission and photodetection in an InP/InGaAsP layer integrated on and coupled to a Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 14, 8154-8159 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. W. Fang, R. Jones, H. Park, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "Integrated AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent racetrack laser and photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 2315-2322 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Saessal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744-6749 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, and S. Beckx, "Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Express 12, 1583-1591 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Abe, and Y. Hibino, "Birefringence suppression of UV-induced refractive index with grooves in silica-based planar lightwave circuits," Electron. Lett. 41, 1118-1119 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Haeiwa, T. Naganawa, and Y. Kokubun, "Wide range center wavelength trimming of vertically coupled microring resonator filter by direct UV irradiation to SiN ring core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 135-137 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Ueno, T. Naganawa, and Y. Kokubun, "High UV sensitivity of SiON film and its application to center wavelength trimming of microring resonator filter," IEICE Trans. Electron. E 88c, 998-1004 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. D. A. Zauner, J. Hubner, K. J. Malone, and M. Kristensen, "UV trimming of arrayed-waveguide grating wavelength division demultiplexers," Electron. Lett. 34, 780-781 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. N. J. Fernando, J. Canning, L. Wosinski, B. Jaskorzynska, and M. Dainese, "Characterization of ultra-violet-induced changes in planar waveguides," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 335-340 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. W. Primak, "Mechanism for radiation compaction of vitreous silica," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2745 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. B. Norris and E. P. Eernisse, "Ionization dilatation effects in fused silica from 2 to 18-Kev electron-irradiation," J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3876-3882 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. Piao, W. G. Oldham, and E. E. Haller, "The mechanism of radiation-induced compaction in vitreous silica," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 276, 61-71 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing," Opt. Express 15, 7610-7615 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. D. Taillaert, W. Van Paepegem, J. Vlekken, and R. Baets, "A thin foil optical strain gage based on silicon-on-insulator microresonators," Third European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors (EWOFS 2007) 6619, 661914 (2007).
  28. T. A. Dellin, D. A. Tichenor, and E. H. Barsis, "Surface Compaction in Irradiated Vitreous Silica," Bulletin of the American Physical Society 21, 296-296 (1976).

2007

2006

2005

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Abe, and Y. Hibino, "Birefringence suppression of UV-induced refractive index with grooves in silica-based planar lightwave circuits," Electron. Lett. 41, 1118-1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Ueno, T. Naganawa, and Y. Kokubun, "High UV sensitivity of SiON film and its application to center wavelength trimming of microring resonator filter," IEICE Trans. Electron. E 88c, 998-1004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Garcia-Blanco and J. S. Aitchison, "Direct electron beam writing of optical devices on Ge-doped flame hydrolysis deposited silica," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 528-538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Haeiwa, T. Naganawa, and Y. Kokubun, "Wide range center wavelength trimming of vertically coupled microring resonator filter by direct UV irradiation to SiN ring core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 135-137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, and S. Beckx, "Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Express 12, 1583-1591 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. J. Fernando, J. Canning, L. Wosinski, B. Jaskorzynska, and M. Dainese, "Characterization of ultra-violet-induced changes in planar waveguides," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 335-340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

F. Piao, W. G. Oldham, and E. E. Haller, "The mechanism of radiation-induced compaction in vitreous silica," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 276, 61-71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. A. Zauner, J. Hubner, K. J. Malone, and M. Kristensen, "UV trimming of arrayed-waveguide grating wavelength division demultiplexers," Electron. Lett. 34, 780-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, "Direct Uv writing of buried singlemode channel wave-guides in Ge-doped silica films," Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Barbier, M. Green, and S. J. Madden, "Wave-guide fabrication for integrated-optics by electron-beam irradiation of silica," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715-720 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1976

T. A. Dellin, D. A. Tichenor, and E. H. Barsis, "Surface Compaction in Irradiated Vitreous Silica," Bulletin of the American Physical Society 21, 296-296 (1976).

A. J. Houghton and P. D. Townsend, "Optical-waveguides formed by low-energy electron-irradiation of silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 565-566 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

C. B. Norris and E. P. Eernisse, "Ionization dilatation effects in fused silica from 2 to 18-Kev electron-irradiation," J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3876-3882 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972

W. Primak, "Mechanism for radiation compaction of vitreous silica," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2745 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968

W. Primak and R. Kampwirth, "The radiation compaction of vitreous silica," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5651-5658 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Abe, and Y. Hibino, "Birefringence suppression of UV-induced refractive index with grooves in silica-based planar lightwave circuits," Electron. Lett. 41, 1118-1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

S. Garcia-Blanco and J. S. Aitchison, "Direct electron beam writing of optical devices on Ge-doped flame hydrolysis deposited silica," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 528-538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydinli, A.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Saessal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744-6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing," Opt. Express 15, 7610-7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Notzel, and M. Smit, "Laser emission and photodetection in an InP/InGaAsP layer integrated on and coupled to a Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 14, 8154-8159 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, "Compact wavelength router based on a Silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array," Opt. Express 14, 664-669 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, and S. Beckx, "Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Express 12, 1583-1591 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baker, N.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barbier, D.

D. Barbier, M. Green, and S. J. Madden, "Wave-guide fabrication for integrated-optics by electron-beam irradiation of silica," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715-720 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barsis, E. H.

T. A. Dellin, D. A. Tichenor, and E. H. Barsis, "Surface Compaction in Irradiated Vitreous Silica," Bulletin of the American Physical Society 21, 296-296 (1976).

Bartolozzi, I.

Beckx, S.

Bienstman, P.

Bjarklev, A.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, "Direct Uv writing of buried singlemode channel wave-guides in Ge-doped silica films," Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

Bowers, J. E.

Canning, J.

H. N. J. Fernando, J. Canning, L. Wosinski, B. Jaskorzynska, and M. Dainese, "Characterization of ultra-violet-induced changes in planar waveguides," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 335-340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

Dagli, N.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dainese, M.

H. N. J. Fernando, J. Canning, L. Wosinski, B. Jaskorzynska, and M. Dainese, "Characterization of ultra-violet-induced changes in planar waveguides," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 335-340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

Dellin, T. A.

T. A. Dellin, D. A. Tichenor, and E. H. Barsis, "Surface Compaction in Irradiated Vitreous Silica," Bulletin of the American Physical Society 21, 296-296 (1976).

Di Cioccio, L.

Driessen, A.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Eernisse, E. P.

C. B. Norris and E. P. Eernisse, "Ionization dilatation effects in fused silica from 2 to 18-Kev electron-irradiation," J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3876-3882 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, A. W.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fernando, H. N. J.

H. N. J. Fernando, J. Canning, L. Wosinski, B. Jaskorzynska, and M. Dainese, "Characterization of ultra-violet-induced changes in planar waveguides," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 335-340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Blanco, S.

S. Garcia-Blanco and J. S. Aitchison, "Direct electron beam writing of optical devices on Ge-doped flame hydrolysis deposited silica," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 528-538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geuzebroek, D. H.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Green, M.

D. Barbier, M. Green, and S. J. Madden, "Wave-guide fabrication for integrated-optics by electron-beam irradiation of silica," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715-720 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Haeiwa, H.

H. Haeiwa, T. Naganawa, and Y. Kokubun, "Wide range center wavelength trimming of vertically coupled microring resonator filter by direct UV irradiation to SiN ring core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 135-137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haller, E. E.

F. Piao, W. G. Oldham, and E. E. Haller, "The mechanism of radiation-induced compaction in vitreous silica," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 276, 61-71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Abe, and Y. Hibino, "Birefringence suppression of UV-induced refractive index with grooves in silica-based planar lightwave circuits," Electron. Lett. 41, 1118-1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Houghton, A. J.

A. J. Houghton and P. D. Townsend, "Optical-waveguides formed by low-energy electron-irradiation of silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 565-566 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hubner, J.

D. A. Zauner, J. Hubner, K. J. Malone, and M. Kristensen, "UV trimming of arrayed-waveguide grating wavelength division demultiplexers," Electron. Lett. 34, 780-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jaenen, P.

Jaskorzynska, B.

H. N. J. Fernando, J. Canning, L. Wosinski, B. Jaskorzynska, and M. Dainese, "Characterization of ultra-violet-induced changes in planar waveguides," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 335-340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

Kampwirth, R.

W. Primak and R. Kampwirth, "The radiation compaction of vitreous silica," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5651-5658 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kelderman, H.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kiyat, I.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klein, E. J.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kohtoku, M.

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Abe, and Y. Hibino, "Birefringence suppression of UV-induced refractive index with grooves in silica-based planar lightwave circuits," Electron. Lett. 41, 1118-1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

S. Ueno, T. Naganawa, and Y. Kokubun, "High UV sensitivity of SiON film and its application to center wavelength trimming of microring resonator filter," IEICE Trans. Electron. E 88c, 998-1004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Haeiwa, T. Naganawa, and Y. Kokubun, "Wide range center wavelength trimming of vertically coupled microring resonator filter by direct UV irradiation to SiN ring core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 135-137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

D. A. Zauner, J. Hubner, K. J. Malone, and M. Kristensen, "UV trimming of arrayed-waveguide grating wavelength division demultiplexers," Electron. Lett. 34, 780-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lagahe, C.

Lipson, M.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A. S.

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luyssaert, B.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, and S. Beckx, "Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Express 12, 1583-1591 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S. J.

D. Barbier, M. Green, and S. J. Madden, "Wave-guide fabrication for integrated-optics by electron-beam irradiation of silica," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715-720 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Malone, K. J.

D. A. Zauner, J. Hubner, K. J. Malone, and M. Kristensen, "UV trimming of arrayed-waveguide grating wavelength division demultiplexers," Electron. Lett. 34, 780-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Naganawa, T.

S. Ueno, T. Naganawa, and Y. Kokubun, "High UV sensitivity of SiON film and its application to center wavelength trimming of microring resonator filter," IEICE Trans. Electron. E 88c, 998-1004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Haeiwa, T. Naganawa, and Y. Kokubun, "Wide range center wavelength trimming of vertically coupled microring resonator filter by direct UV irradiation to SiN ring core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 135-137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nasu, Y.

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Abe, and Y. Hibino, "Birefringence suppression of UV-induced refractive index with grooves in silica-based planar lightwave circuits," Electron. Lett. 41, 1118-1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, C. B.

C. B. Norris and E. P. Eernisse, "Ionization dilatation effects in fused silica from 2 to 18-Kev electron-irradiation," J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3876-3882 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Notzel, R.

Oldham, W. G.

F. Piao, W. G. Oldham, and E. E. Haller, "The mechanism of radiation-induced compaction in vitreous silica," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 276, 61-71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Piao, F.

F. Piao, W. G. Oldham, and E. E. Haller, "The mechanism of radiation-induced compaction in vitreous silica," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 276, 61-71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, C. V.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, "Direct Uv writing of buried singlemode channel wave-guides in Ge-doped silica films," Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, O.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, "Direct Uv writing of buried singlemode channel wave-guides in Ge-doped silica films," Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Primak, W.

W. Primak, "Mechanism for radiation compaction of vitreous silica," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2745 (1972).
[CrossRef]

W. Primak and R. Kampwirth, "The radiation compaction of vitreous silica," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5651-5658 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Raday, O.

Regreny, P.

Roelkens, G.

Rojo Romeo, P.

Rong, H. S.

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saessal, C.

Schacht, E.

Schmidt, B.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sengo, G.

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M.

Song, B. S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svalgaard, M.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, "Direct Uv writing of buried singlemode channel wave-guides in Ge-doped silica films," Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

Takahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamechika, E.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tichenor, D. A.

T. A. Dellin, D. A. Tichenor, and E. H. Barsis, "Surface Compaction in Irradiated Vitreous Silica," Bulletin of the American Physical Society 21, 296-296 (1976).

Townsend, P. D.

A. J. Houghton and P. D. Townsend, "Optical-waveguides formed by low-energy electron-irradiation of silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 565-566 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, S.

S. Ueno, T. Naganawa, and Y. Kokubun, "High UV sensitivity of SiON film and its application to center wavelength trimming of microring resonator filter," IEICE Trans. Electron. E 88c, 998-1004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Thourhout, D.

Verstuyft, S.

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wiaux, V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, and S. Beckx, "Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Express 12, 1583-1591 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wosinski, L.

H. N. J. Fernando, J. Canning, L. Wosinski, B. Jaskorzynska, and M. Dainese, "Characterization of ultra-violet-induced changes in planar waveguides," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 335-340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, "Compact wavelength router based on a Silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array," Opt. Express 14, 664-669 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. F.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zauner, D. A.

D. A. Zauner, J. Hubner, K. J. Malone, and M. Kristensen, "UV trimming of arrayed-waveguide grating wavelength division demultiplexers," Electron. Lett. 34, 780-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. J. Houghton and P. D. Townsend, "Optical-waveguides formed by low-energy electron-irradiation of silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 565-566 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bulletin of the American Physical Society

T. A. Dellin, D. A. Tichenor, and E. H. Barsis, "Surface Compaction in Irradiated Vitreous Silica," Bulletin of the American Physical Society 21, 296-296 (1976).

E

S. Ueno, T. Naganawa, and Y. Kokubun, "High UV sensitivity of SiON film and its application to center wavelength trimming of microring resonator filter," IEICE Trans. Electron. E 88c, 998-1004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Abe, and Y. Hibino, "Birefringence suppression of UV-induced refractive index with grooves in silica-based planar lightwave circuits," Electron. Lett. 41, 1118-1119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, "Direct Uv writing of buried singlemode channel wave-guides in Ge-doped silica films," Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Zauner, J. Hubner, K. J. Malone, and M. Kristensen, "UV trimming of arrayed-waveguide grating wavelength division demultiplexers," Electron. Lett. 34, 780-781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Garcia-Blanco and J. S. Aitchison, "Direct electron beam writing of optical devices on Ge-doped flame hydrolysis deposited silica," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 528-538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Haeiwa, T. Naganawa, and Y. Kokubun, "Wide range center wavelength trimming of vertically coupled microring resonator filter by direct UV irradiation to SiN ring core," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 135-137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

W. Primak and R. Kampwirth, "The radiation compaction of vitreous silica," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5651-5658 (1968).
[CrossRef]

W. Primak, "Mechanism for radiation compaction of vitreous silica," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2745 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Norris and E. P. Eernisse, "Ionization dilatation effects in fused silica from 2 to 18-Kev electron-irradiation," J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3876-3882 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

D. Barbier, M. Green, and S. J. Madden, "Wave-guide fabrication for integrated-optics by electron-beam irradiation of silica," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715-720 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

F. Piao, W. G. Oldham, and E. E. Haller, "The mechanism of radiation-induced compaction in vitreous silica," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 276, 61-71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt.

H. N. J. Fernando, J. Canning, L. Wosinski, B. Jaskorzynska, and M. Dainese, "Characterization of ultra-violet-induced changes in planar waveguides," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 335-340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, and S. Beckx, "Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Express 12, 1583-1591 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, "Compact wavelength router based on a Silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array," Opt. Express 14, 664-669 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Notzel, and M. Smit, "Laser emission and photodetection in an InP/InGaAsP layer integrated on and coupled to a Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 14, 8154-8159 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, R. Jones, H. Park, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "Integrated AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent racetrack laser and photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 2315-2322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Saessal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15, 6744-6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing," Opt. Express 15, 7610-7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D. Taillaert, W. Van Paepegem, J. Vlekken, and R. Baets, "A thin foil optical strain gage based on silicon-on-insulator microresonators," Third European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors (EWOFS 2007) 6619, 661914 (2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Overview of the experiment: the right ring is trimmed by electron beam compaction; the left one is kept original as a reference to exclude temperature or ambient variations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left: Three subsequent steps were used to equate the resonance wavelength of the right ring resonator with that of the left ring resonator. The curves represent the position of the fitted peak maxima. The grey lines (color online: red) indicate the actual electron beam irradiation; the black lines show the settling after irradiation. The dotted red line is the region where both resonance peaks merge and our single peak fitting algorithm yields inconclusive results. The Q-factors of the trimmed ring during the three steps of the experiment were extracted from the measured spectra. Right: Evolution of the resonance during the third stage of the experiment. The Q-factor of the trimmed ring decreases from 1.7 × 104 at 1526 nm to 1.0 × 104 at 1528 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cross-section of the 220 nm thick silicon ring resonator. The 2 keV electrons penetrate 70 nm into silicon and oxide, and lead to volume compaction only in the oxide. This effect generates a tensile strain in the silicon, parallel to the substrate. The effect of silicon strain dominates the refractive index change. In the bottom drawing the first principal strain obtained from a finite element simulation was overlaid. (Color online: dark blue=compressive strain 0.05; red=tensile strain 0.17)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated resonance wavelength shift due to strain in the silicon lattice, for varying volume compaction and different compacted layer thicknesses. From this estimation it can be concluded that compaction induces stress can account for the measured resonance wavelength shift of about 5 nm.

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