Abstract

We present characteristics of a wavelength swept laser with a scanning fiber Fabry-Perot filter at 1300 nm. We investigate the dependence of the scanning frequencies in the swept laser. In conventional wavelength swept lasers, the relative intensity of the laser output decreases significantly as the scanning frequency increases. The peak wavelength of the output spectrum is red-shifted due to the nonlinear frequency downshifting in the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). In the Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) wavelength swept laser, we investigate transient intensity profiles and the full width at half maximum in response to the injection currents and detuning of the scanning frequency. The degradation of the scanning range of the swept laser is caused by the deviation from the scanning frequency at 45.6 kHz. In addition, transient intensity profiles show significant asymmetric behavior in response to the detuned frequencies. Finally, the axial resolution and sensitivity as a function of imaging depth are analyzed for both forward and backward scans. With the FDML laser, the detection sensitivity up to 102 dB is achieved for the backward scans. The backward scans exhibit higher axial resolution and sensitivity than the forward scan.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2007 (3)

S.-W Lee, C. S. Kim, and B.-M. Kim, "External line-cavity wavelength-swept source at 850 nm for optical coherence tomography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 176-178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography at up to 370,000 lines per second using buffered Fourier domain mode-locked lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 626-628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. C. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscophy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photonics 1, 709-716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (5)

2003 (4)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar- new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Bilenca, A.

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. C. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscophy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photonics 1, 709-716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

J. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Rao, and Z. Chen, "Swept laser source at 1 ?m for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and Z. Chen, "In vivo blood flow imaging by a swept laser source based Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express 13, 7449-7457 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. P.

Choma, M. A.

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, "Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunie, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connolly, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. C. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscophy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photonics 1, 709-716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J.

Fercher, A.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. C.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. C. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscophy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photonics 1, 709-716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar- new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

Hsu, K.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, "Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles," Opt. Express 13, 3513-3518 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, "Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N.

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, "Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.-M.

S.-W Lee, C. S. Kim, and B.-M. Kim, "External line-cavity wavelength-swept source at 850 nm for optical coherence tomography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 176-178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

S.-W Lee, C. S. Kim, and B.-M. Kim, "External line-cavity wavelength-swept source at 850 nm for optical coherence tomography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 176-178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-W

S.-W Lee, C. S. Kim, and B.-M. Kim, "External line-cavity wavelength-swept source at 850 nm for optical coherence tomography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 176-178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar- new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

Oh, W. Y.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with two semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 678-680 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Podoleanu, A. G.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, B.

J. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Rao, and Z. Chen, "Swept laser source at 1 ?m for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sarunie, M. V.

Schmitt, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. C. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscophy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photonics 1, 709-716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taira, K.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Wang, Q.

J. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Rao, and Z. Chen, "Swept laser source at 1 ?m for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Yang, C.

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Rao, and Z. Chen, "Swept laser source at 1 ?m for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with two semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 678-680 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-W Lee, C. S. Kim, and B.-M. Kim, "External line-cavity wavelength-swept source at 850 nm for optical coherence tomography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 176-178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar- new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, "Swept source optical coherence tomography using an all-fiber 1300-nm ring laser source," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics (1)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. C. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscophy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photonics 1, 709-716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up for wide-bandwidth, high-speed of a FDML wavelength swept laser and an OCT system. (PC: polarization controller; FC: fiber coupler; OC: optical circulator; SOA: semiconductor optical amplifier; Coll.: collimator).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Relative intensity of the output power in the spectral domain versus the scanning frequency for the conventional wavelength swept laser.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical spectra and temporal intensity profiles of (a) and (b) at 1 kHz; (c) and (d) at 4 kHz; (e) and (f) at 8 kHz; (g) and (h) at 12 kHz, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Scanning bandwidth at half maximum of the swept laser output versus injection current of the SOA in the laser cavity, (b) optical spectra of the swept laser according to different injection currents, and (c) temporal intensity profiles of the swept laser according to different injection currents in the time domain.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Scanning bandwidth vs. frequency detuning from 45.6 kHz which is the same as the fundamental longitudinal frequency of the total laser cavity.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Peak output power measured as a function of the detuned frequency from 45.6 kHz.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Schematic diagram of the wavelength scanning process in response to the detuned frequency (a) Positive detuning; (b) negative detuning.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a). Optical spectra and (b) temporal intensity profiles according to the negative frequency detuning from 45.6 kHz; (c) optical spectra and (d) temporal intensity profiles according to the positive frequency detuning from 45.6 kHz.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a). Forward scan point spread function, (b) axial resolution as a function of depth.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

OCT point spread functions of a partial reflector placed in the sample arm at different imaging depths: (a) forward scans; (b) backward scans.

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