Abstract

We have experimentally demonstrated that because of intensity clamping, when the laser peak power is higher than the critical power for self-focusing, further increase of the laser power cannot result in corresponding increase of the laser ablation rate of a metallic sample placed in gases. The ablation rate will finally approach a stabilized value. Also, the experimental technique implemented in our work could be potentially used to measure the self-focusing critical power and the nonlinear refractive index.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, "Sensing of halocarbons using femtosecond laser-induced fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 76, 4799-4805 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Couairon. M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient," Opt. Lett. 30, 2657-2659 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf and L. Wöste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3977 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, "Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 76-81 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, "Filamentation nonlinear optics," Appl. Phys. B 86, 477-483 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B 73, 287-290 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Talebpour S. Petit, and S.L. Chin., "Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 171, 285-290 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing: theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Liu and S. L. Chin, "Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Express 13, 5750-5755 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert and U. Keller, "Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation parameter dependence",Opt. Express 13, 7541-7547 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26(4), 760-769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade and A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the inertial contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2 and O2 by use of unfocused high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 650-660 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Akturk, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "A simple method for determination of nonlinear propagation regimes in gases," Opt. Express 15, 15260-15267 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, "Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 76-81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, "Filamentation nonlinear optics," Appl. Phys. B 86, 477-483 (2007)
[CrossRef]

S. Akturk, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "A simple method for determination of nonlinear propagation regimes in gases," Opt. Express 15, 15260-15267 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

2004 (3)

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, "Sensing of halocarbons using femtosecond laser-induced fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 76, 4799-4805 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf and L. Wöste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B 73, 287-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Talebpour S. Petit, and S.L. Chin., "Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 171, 285-290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26(4), 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing: theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, R.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf and L. Wöste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Akozbek, N.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B 73, 287-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akturk, S.

André, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azarm, A.

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, "Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 76-81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A

A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B 73, 287-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

C. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert and U. Keller, "Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation parameter dependence",Opt. Express 13, 7541-7547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boudreau, D.

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, "Sensing of halocarbons using femtosecond laser-induced fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 76, 4799-4805 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B 73, 287-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, "Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 76-81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, "Filamentation nonlinear optics," Appl. Phys. B 86, 477-483 (2007)
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, "Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Express 13, 5750-5755 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, "Sensing of halocarbons using femtosecond laser-induced fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 76, 4799-4805 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B 73, 287-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Akturk, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "A simple method for determination of nonlinear propagation regimes in gases," Opt. Express 15, 15260-15267 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon. M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient," Opt. Lett. 30, 2657-2659 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D’Amico, C.

Daigle, J.-F.

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, "Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 76-81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eckle, P.

Franco, M.

Franco, M. A.

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gravel, J.-F.

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, "Sensing of halocarbons using femtosecond laser-induced fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 76, 4799-4805 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillon, G.

Guandalini, A.

Hagan, T.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26(4), 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hauri, C.

Hauri, C. P.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, A.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kamali, Y.

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, "Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 76-81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf and L. Wöste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

C. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert and U. Keller, "Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation parameter dependence",Opt. Express 13, 7541-7547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kornelis, W.

C. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert and U. Keller, "Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation parameter dependence",Opt. Express 13, 7541-7547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, "Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 76-81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, "Filamentation nonlinear optics," Appl. Phys. B 86, 477-483 (2007)
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, "Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Express 13, 5750-5755 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, "Sensing of halocarbons using femtosecond laser-induced fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 76, 4799-4805 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marburger, J. H.

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing: theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mathieu, P.

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, "Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 76-81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Méjean, G.

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, "Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 76-81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf and L. Wöste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Akturk, C. D’Amico, M. Franco, A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "A simple method for determination of nonlinear propagation regimes in gases," Opt. Express 15, 15260-15267 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade and A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the inertial contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2 and O2 by use of unfocused high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 650-660 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

Oral, E.

A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B 73, 287-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petit, S.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B. S.

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohwetter, P.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf and L. Wöste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roy, G.

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, "Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 76-81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26(4), 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf and L. Wöste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26(4), 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Simard, P.T.

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, "Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 76-81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stelmaszczyk, K.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf and L. Wöste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tang, X. P.

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, "Sensing of halocarbons using femtosecond laser-induced fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 76, 4799-4805 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Théberge, F.

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, "Filamentation nonlinear optics," Appl. Phys. B 86, 477-483 (2007)
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26(4), 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vijayalakshmi, K.

A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B 73, 287-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26(4), 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf and L. Wöste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wöste, L.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf and L. Wöste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H. L.

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, "Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 76-81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf and L. Wöste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, "Sensing of halocarbons using femtosecond laser-induced fluorescence," Anal. Chem. 76, 4799-4805 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A Becker, N. Akozbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas," Appl. Phys. B 73, 287-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, "Filamentation nonlinear optics," Appl. Phys. B 86, 477-483 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, J.-P. Wolf and L. Wöste, "Long-distance remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3977-3977 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Applied Physics B (1)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, T. Hagan and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26(4), 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour S. Petit, and S.L. Chin., "Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 171, 285-290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, "Tunable ultrashort laser pulses generated through filamentation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing: theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spectrochimica Acta Part B (1)

W. Liu, H. L. Xu, G. Méjean, Y. Kamali, J.-F. Daigle, A. Azarm, P. T. Simard, P. Mathieu, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, "Efficient non-gated remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of metallic sample," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 62, 76-81 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. (SDG: synchronization delay generator.)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The normalized fluorescence signal intensity of the filament along the propagation axis taken by CCD camera.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

In air, number of laser pulses required to penetrate the aluminum foil as a function of pulse energy.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

In argon gas, number of laser pulses required to penetrate the aluminum foil as a function of pulse energy.

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