Abstract

Photo-patternable GeO2-contained organic-inorganic hybrid films, which can be used for the low cost and mass production of integrated photonic circuits, were synthesized by combining a low-temperature sol-gel process with a spin-coating technique. Optical waveguide properties and photochemical activities of the hybrid sol-gel films were characterized and monitored by a prism coupling technique and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Advantages for fabrication of ridge structures based on the hybrid films were demonstrated by one-step spin-coating process followed by direct ultraviolet light irradiation. The results indicate that the as-prepared photo-patternable hybrid materials have great applicability for the fabrication of photonic components, and the fabrication process has the advantages of cost-effect and very short processing time over inorganic materials patterning methods.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol. -Gel. Sci. Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).
  3. S. W. Lee, Y. C. Jeong, and J. K. Park, "Facile fabrication of close-packed microlens arrays using photoinduced surface relief structures as templates," Opt. Express 15, 14550-14559 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. H. Scholes, S. A. Furman, D. Lau, C. J. Rossouw, and T. J. Davis, "Fabrication of photo-patterned microstructures in an organic-inorganic hybrid material incorporating silver nanoparticles," J. Non-cryst. Solids 347, 93-99 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Jeong and J. Moon, "Fabrication of inorganic-organic hybrid films for optical waveguide," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 3530-3535 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Yamada, I. Yoshinaga, and S. Katayama, "Processing and optical properties of patternable inorganic-organic hybrid films," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2423-2427 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Jeong, W. H. Jang, and J. Moon, "Fabrication of photo-patternable inorganic-organic hybrid film by spin-coating," Thin Solid Films 466, 204-208 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Okinaka, H. Tsushima, Y. Ichinose, E. Watanabe, and Y. Aoyagi, "Precise patterning of SiO2-based glass by low-temperature nanoimprint lithography assisted by UV irradiation on both faces using Glasia as a precursor," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1393-1397 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, "Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprint and low cost fabrication," Opt. Commun. 143, 199-202 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Äyräs, J. T. Ranthala, S. Honkaneu, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162, 215-218 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, and N. Tohge, "Diffraction gratings of photosensitive ZrO2 gel films fabricated with the two-ultraviolet-beam interference method," Appl. Opt. 39, 489-493 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, and M. Takahashi, "Ultraviolet-photosensitive effect of sol-gel-derived GeO2-SiO2 glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3413-3418 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, "Second-harmonic generation in germanosilicate glass poled with ArF laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1032-1034 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. X. Que, X. Hu, and Q. Y. Zhang, "Germania/ormosil hybrid materials derived at low temperature for photonic applications," Appl. Phys. B 76, 423-427 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. B. Colthup, L. H. Daly, S. E. Wiberley, Introduction to Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy (Academic Press, New York 1964)
  16. W. X. Yu and X. -C. Yuan, "Patternable hybrid sol-gel materials cuts the cost of fabrication of microoptical elements for photonic applications," J. Mater. Chem. 14, 821-823 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. W. Lee, Y. C. Jeong, and J. K. Park, "Facile fabrication of close-packed microlens arrays using photoinduced surface relief structures as templates," Opt. Express 15, 14550-14559 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Okinaka, H. Tsushima, Y. Ichinose, E. Watanabe, and Y. Aoyagi, "Precise patterning of SiO2-based glass by low-temperature nanoimprint lithography assisted by UV irradiation on both faces using Glasia as a precursor," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1393-1397 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Jeong and J. Moon, "Fabrication of inorganic-organic hybrid films for optical waveguide," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 3530-3535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

F. H. Scholes, S. A. Furman, D. Lau, C. J. Rossouw, and T. J. Davis, "Fabrication of photo-patterned microstructures in an organic-inorganic hybrid material incorporating silver nanoparticles," J. Non-cryst. Solids 347, 93-99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, W. H. Jang, and J. Moon, "Fabrication of photo-patternable inorganic-organic hybrid film by spin-coating," Thin Solid Films 466, 204-208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Yu and X. -C. Yuan, "Patternable hybrid sol-gel materials cuts the cost of fabrication of microoptical elements for photonic applications," J. Mater. Chem. 14, 821-823 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. X. Que, X. Hu, and Q. Y. Zhang, "Germania/ormosil hybrid materials derived at low temperature for photonic applications," Appl. Phys. B 76, 423-427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, and M. Takahashi, "Ultraviolet-photosensitive effect of sol-gel-derived GeO2-SiO2 glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3413-3418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Äyräs, J. T. Ranthala, S. Honkaneu, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162, 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamada, I. Yoshinaga, and S. Katayama, "Processing and optical properties of patternable inorganic-organic hybrid films," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2423-2427 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, "Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprint and low cost fabrication," Opt. Commun. 143, 199-202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, "Second-harmonic generation in germanosilicate glass poled with ArF laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1032-1034 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

1994 (1)

F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol. -Gel. Sci. Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, Y.

M. Okinaka, H. Tsushima, Y. Ichinose, E. Watanabe, and Y. Aoyagi, "Precise patterning of SiO2-based glass by low-temperature nanoimprint lithography assisted by UV irradiation on both faces using Glasia as a precursor," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1393-1397 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Äyräs, P.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Ranthala, S. Honkaneu, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162, 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boilot, J. P.

F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol. -Gel. Sci. Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brasselet, S.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Chaput, F.

F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol. -Gel. Sci. Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Coudray, P.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, "Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprint and low cost fabrication," Opt. Commun. 143, 199-202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, T. J.

F. H. Scholes, S. A. Furman, D. Lau, C. J. Rossouw, and T. J. Davis, "Fabrication of photo-patterned microstructures in an organic-inorganic hybrid material incorporating silver nanoparticles," J. Non-cryst. Solids 347, 93-99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, M.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Etienne, P.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, "Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprint and low cost fabrication," Opt. Commun. 143, 199-202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Froc, G.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Fujiwara, T.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, "Second-harmonic generation in germanosilicate glass poled with ArF laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1032-1034 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Furman, S. A.

F. H. Scholes, S. A. Furman, D. Lau, C. J. Rossouw, and T. J. Davis, "Fabrication of photo-patterned microstructures in an organic-inorganic hybrid material incorporating silver nanoparticles," J. Non-cryst. Solids 347, 93-99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Honkaneu, S.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Ranthala, S. Honkaneu, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162, 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

W. X. Que, X. Hu, and Q. Y. Zhang, "Germania/ormosil hybrid materials derived at low temperature for photonic applications," Appl. Phys. B 76, 423-427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ichinose, Y.

M. Okinaka, H. Tsushima, Y. Ichinose, E. Watanabe, and Y. Aoyagi, "Precise patterning of SiO2-based glass by low-temperature nanoimprint lithography assisted by UV irradiation on both faces using Glasia as a precursor," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1393-1397 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ikushima, A. J.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, "Second-harmonic generation in germanosilicate glass poled with ArF laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1032-1034 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jang, W. H.

S. Jeong, W. H. Jang, and J. Moon, "Fabrication of photo-patternable inorganic-organic hybrid film by spin-coating," Thin Solid Films 466, 204-208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.

S. Jeong and J. Moon, "Fabrication of inorganic-organic hybrid films for optical waveguide," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 3530-3535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, W. H. Jang, and J. Moon, "Fabrication of photo-patternable inorganic-organic hybrid film by spin-coating," Thin Solid Films 466, 204-208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y. C.

Katayama, S.

N. Yamada, I. Yoshinaga, and S. Katayama, "Processing and optical properties of patternable inorganic-organic hybrid films," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2423-2427 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawamoto, Y.

H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, and M. Takahashi, "Ultraviolet-photosensitive effect of sol-gel-derived GeO2-SiO2 glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3413-3418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

Lau, D.

F. H. Scholes, S. A. Furman, D. Lau, C. J. Rossouw, and T. J. Davis, "Fabrication of photo-patterned microstructures in an organic-inorganic hybrid material incorporating silver nanoparticles," J. Non-cryst. Solids 347, 93-99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lebeau, B.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Lee, S. W.

Lévy, Y.

F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol. -Gel. Sci. Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Memdes, S. B.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Ranthala, S. Honkaneu, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162, 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J.

S. Jeong and J. Moon, "Fabrication of inorganic-organic hybrid films for optical waveguide," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 3530-3535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, W. H. Jang, and J. Moon, "Fabrication of photo-patternable inorganic-organic hybrid film by spin-coating," Thin Solid Films 466, 204-208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moreau, Y.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, "Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprint and low cost fabrication," Opt. Commun. 143, 199-202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, "Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprint and low cost fabrication," Opt. Commun. 143, 199-202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, and N. Tohge, "Diffraction gratings of photosensitive ZrO2 gel films fabricated with the two-ultraviolet-beam interference method," Appl. Opt. 39, 489-493 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, and M. Takahashi, "Ultraviolet-photosensitive effect of sol-gel-derived GeO2-SiO2 glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3413-3418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Okinaka, M.

M. Okinaka, H. Tsushima, Y. Ichinose, E. Watanabe, and Y. Aoyagi, "Precise patterning of SiO2-based glass by low-temperature nanoimprint lithography assisted by UV irradiation on both faces using Glasia as a precursor," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1393-1397 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. K.

Peyghambarian, N.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Ranthala, S. Honkaneu, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162, 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Porque, J.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, "Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprint and low cost fabrication," Opt. Commun. 143, 199-202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Que, W. X.

W. X. Que, X. Hu, and Q. Y. Zhang, "Germania/ormosil hybrid materials derived at low temperature for photonic applications," Appl. Phys. B 76, 423-427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ranthala, J. T.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Ranthala, S. Honkaneu, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162, 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Riehl, D.

F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol. -Gel. Sci. Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rossouw, C. J.

F. H. Scholes, S. A. Furman, D. Lau, C. J. Rossouw, and T. J. Davis, "Fabrication of photo-patterned microstructures in an organic-inorganic hybrid material incorporating silver nanoparticles," J. Non-cryst. Solids 347, 93-99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, C.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Scholes, F. H.

F. H. Scholes, S. A. Furman, D. Lau, C. J. Rossouw, and T. J. Davis, "Fabrication of photo-patterned microstructures in an organic-inorganic hybrid material incorporating silver nanoparticles," J. Non-cryst. Solids 347, 93-99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shigemura, H.

H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, and M. Takahashi, "Ultraviolet-photosensitive effect of sol-gel-derived GeO2-SiO2 glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3413-3418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, and M. Takahashi, "Ultraviolet-photosensitive effect of sol-gel-derived GeO2-SiO2 glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3413-3418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, "Second-harmonic generation in germanosilicate glass poled with ArF laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1032-1034 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsushima, H.

M. Okinaka, H. Tsushima, Y. Ichinose, E. Watanabe, and Y. Aoyagi, "Precise patterning of SiO2-based glass by low-temperature nanoimprint lithography assisted by UV irradiation on both faces using Glasia as a precursor," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1393-1397 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, E.

M. Okinaka, H. Tsushima, Y. Ichinose, E. Watanabe, and Y. Aoyagi, "Precise patterning of SiO2-based glass by low-temperature nanoimprint lithography assisted by UV irradiation on both faces using Glasia as a precursor," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1393-1397 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

N. Yamada, I. Yoshinaga, and S. Katayama, "Processing and optical properties of patternable inorganic-organic hybrid films," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2423-2427 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshinaga, I.

N. Yamada, I. Yoshinaga, and S. Katayama, "Processing and optical properties of patternable inorganic-organic hybrid films," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2423-2427 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W. X.

W. X. Yu and X. -C. Yuan, "Patternable hybrid sol-gel materials cuts the cost of fabrication of microoptical elements for photonic applications," J. Mater. Chem. 14, 821-823 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X. -C.

W. X. Yu and X. -C. Yuan, "Patternable hybrid sol-gel materials cuts the cost of fabrication of microoptical elements for photonic applications," J. Mater. Chem. 14, 821-823 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q. Y.

W. X. Que, X. Hu, and Q. Y. Zhang, "Germania/ormosil hybrid materials derived at low temperature for photonic applications," Appl. Phys. B 76, 423-427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

W. X. Que, X. Hu, and Q. Y. Zhang, "Germania/ormosil hybrid materials derived at low temperature for photonic applications," Appl. Phys. B 76, 423-427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, "Second-harmonic generation in germanosilicate glass poled with ArF laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1032-1034 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Shigemura, Y. Kawamoto, J. Nishii, and M. Takahashi, "Ultraviolet-photosensitive effect of sol-gel-derived GeO2-SiO2 glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3413-3418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamada, I. Yoshinaga, and S. Katayama, "Processing and optical properties of patternable inorganic-organic hybrid films," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 2423-2427 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

W. X. Yu and X. -C. Yuan, "Patternable hybrid sol-gel materials cuts the cost of fabrication of microoptical elements for photonic applications," J. Mater. Chem. 14, 821-823 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-cryst. Solids (1)

F. H. Scholes, S. A. Furman, D. Lau, C. J. Rossouw, and T. J. Davis, "Fabrication of photo-patterned microstructures in an organic-inorganic hybrid material incorporating silver nanoparticles," J. Non-cryst. Solids 347, 93-99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong and J. Moon, "Fabrication of inorganic-organic hybrid films for optical waveguide," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 3530-3535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Sol. -Gel. Sci. Technol. (1)

F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol. -Gel. Sci. Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. Okinaka, H. Tsushima, Y. Ichinose, E. Watanabe, and Y. Aoyagi, "Precise patterning of SiO2-based glass by low-temperature nanoimprint lithography assisted by UV irradiation on both faces using Glasia as a precursor," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1393-1397 (2007).
[CrossRef]

New J. Chem. (1)

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S. I. Najafi, "Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprint and low cost fabrication," Opt. Commun. 143, 199-202 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Äyräs, J. T. Ranthala, S. Honkaneu, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162, 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Thin Solid Films (1)

S. Jeong, W. H. Jang, and J. Moon, "Fabrication of photo-patternable inorganic-organic hybrid film by spin-coating," Thin Solid Films 466, 204-208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

N. B. Colthup, L. H. Daly, S. E. Wiberley, Introduction to Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy (Academic Press, New York 1964)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Modes of the hybrid planar waveguide film at the wavelength of 633 nm; (b). FTIR absorption spectra of the hybrid sol-gel films heated at different temperatures

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A ridge structure array on the hybrid sol-gel films fabricated by one-step spin-coating process followed by direct UV light (a) 2D image, (b) profile measured with the WYKO interferometer

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

An enlargement of the image and profile of the patterned structure as shown in Fig. 2 (a) 3D image, (b) profile measured with the WYKO interferometer

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A patterned structure on the hybrid sol-gel film with longer UV-exposure time as compared to that of Fig. 3(a) 3D image, (b) profile measured with the WYKO interferometer

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