Abstract

Metal oxide nanomaterials are being used for an increasing number of commercial applications, such as fillers, opacifiers, catalysts, semiconductors, cosmetics, microelectronics, and as drug delivery vehicles. The effects of these nanoparticles on the physiology of animals and in the environment are largely unknown and their potential associated health risks are currently a topic of hot debate. Information regarding the entry route of nanoparticles into exposed organisms and their subsequent localization within tissues and cells in the body are essential for understanding their biological impact. However, there is currently no imaging modality available that can simultaneously image these nanoparticles and the surrounding tissues without disturbing the biological structure.

Due to their large nonlinear optical susceptibilities, which are enhanced by two-photon electronic resonance, metal oxides are efficient sources of coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS). We show that CARS microscopy can provide localization of metal oxide nanoparticles within biological structures at the cellular level. Nanoparticles of 20–70 nm in size were imaged within the fish gill; a structure that is a primary site of pollutant uptake into fish from the aquatic environment.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Madler, and N. Li, "Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel," Science 311, 622-627 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Society, Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies: Opportunities and Uncertainties, 2004). http://www.nanotec.org.uk/finalReport.htm
  3. G. Oberdörster, E. Oberdörster, and J. Oberdörster, "Nanotoxicology, An emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles, environmental health perspective," Environ. Health Perspect. 113, 823-839 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. L. Colvin, "The potential environmental impact of engineered nanomaterials," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1166-1170 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. A. Shvedova, V. Castranova, E. R. Kisin, D. Schwegler-Berry, A. R. Murray, V. Z. Gandelsman, A. Maynard and P. Baron, "Exposure to carbon nanotube material: Assessment of nanotube cytotoxicity using human keratinocyte cells," J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 66, 1909-1926 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. B. Warheit, T. R. Webb, C. M. Sayes, V. L. Colvin and K. L. Reed, "Pulmonary instillation studies with nanoscale TiO2 rods and dots in rats: Toxicity is not dependent upon particle size and surface area," Toxicol. Sci. 91, 227-236 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. B. Lovern and R. Klaper, "Daphnia magna mortality when exposed to titanium dioxide and fullerene (C60) nanoparticles," Envir. Toxicol. Chem. 25, 1132-1137 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. B. Lovern, J. R. Strickler, and R. Klaper, "Behavioural and physiological changes in Daphnia magna when exposed to nanoparticle suspension (titanium dioxide, nano-C60, and C60HxC70Hx)." Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 4465-4470 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Federici, B. J. Shaw, and R. D. Handy, "Toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Gill injury, oxidative stress, and other physiological effects," Aquatic Toxicol. 84, 415-430 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "2-Photon Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, "Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356-1360 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. Stracke, B. Weiss, C. M. Lehr, K. Koenig, U. F. Schaefer, and M. Schneider, "Multiphoton microscopy for the investigation of dermal penetration of nanoparticle-borne drugs," J. Invest. Dermatol. 126, 2224-2233 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. V. Bagalkot, L. Zhang, E. Levy-Nissenbaum, S. Jon, P. W. Kantoff, R. Langer, and O. C. Farokhzad, "Quantum dot - Aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on Bi-fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Nano Lett. 7, 3065-3070 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Instrumentation, Theory, and Applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. G. Rodriguez, S. J. Lockett and G. R. Holtom, "Coherent anti-stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: A Biological Review," Cytometry, Part A 69A, 779-791 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. O. Potma, X. L. Nan, E. Conor, and X. S. Xie, "Cars microscopy: Coming of age," Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 228, U291-U291 (2004).
  18. C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. L. Evans, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, S. T. C. Wong, and G. S. Young, "Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 12076-12087 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics, (John Wiley and Sons, 1984).
  21. M. C. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Gunter, "Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films," Appl. Phys. B 82, 431-437 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. E. Torruellas, L. A. Weller-Brophy, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, Z. Osborne, and B. J. J. Zelinski, "Third-harmonic generation measurement of nonlinearities in SiO2-TiO2 sol-gel films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1128-1130 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  23. X. W. Sun and H. S. Kwok, "Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 408-411 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. L. Ja-Hon, C. Yin-Jen, L. Hung-Yu, and H. Wen-Feng, "Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033526 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. P. Kowalczyk, F. R. McFeely, L. Ley, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. A. Shirley, "The electronic structure of SrTiO3 and some simple related oxides (MgO, Al2O3, SrO, TiO2)," Solid State Communications 23, 161-169 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Tsunekawa, J. T. Wang, Y. Kawazoe, and A. Kasuya, "Blueshifts in the ultraviolet absorption spectra of cerium oxide nanocrystallites," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3654-3656 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. J. Burris and T. J. McIlrath, "Theoretical study relating the two-photon absorption cross section to the susceptibility controlling four-wave mixing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1313 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  28. E. W. Van Stryland, M. A. Woodall, H. Vanherzeele, and M. J. Soileau, "Energy band-gap dependence of two-photon absorption," Opt. Lett. 10, 490 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. Majewska, G. Yiu, and R. Yuste, "A custom-made two-photon microscope and deconvolution system," Pflugers Arch. Eur. J. Physiol. 441, 398-408 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. F. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Y. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of axonal myelin in live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. OsiriX , "http://www.osirix-viewer.com/,"
  32. G. M. Hughes and A. V. Grimston, "Fine Structure of Secondary Lamellae of Gills of Gadus Pollachius," Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 106, 343-353 (1965).
  33. G. M. Hughes and S. F. Perry, "Morphometric study of Trout Gills - Light-Microscopic Method suitable for evaluation of pollutant action," J. Exp. Biol. 64, 447-460 (1976).
  34. G. G. Goss, S. F. Perry, J. N. Fryer, and P. Laurent, "Gill morphology and acid-base regulation in freshwater fishes," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A. Mol. Integr. Physiol. 119, 107-115 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  35. S. S. Sobin, H. M. Tremer, and Y. C. Fung, "Morphometric basis of sheet-flow concept of Pulmonary Alveolar Microcirculation in Cat," Circ. Res. 26, 397-414 (1970).
    [PubMed]
  36. J. X. Cheng, "Theoretical and experimental characterisation of Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1363-1375 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  37. A. Volkmer, J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 023901 (2001).
  38. G. O. Clay, A. C. Millard, C. B. Schaffer, J. Aus-Der-Au, P. S. Tsai, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, "Spectroscopy of third-harmonic generation: evidence for resonances in model compounds and ligated hemoglobin," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 932-950 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  39. H. Kudo, A. Kato, and S. Hirose, "Fluorescence visualization of branchial collagen columns embraced by pillar cells," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 55, 57-62 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  40. D. Gachet, F. Billard, N. Sandeau, and H. Rigneault, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy imaging atinterfaces: evidence of interference effects," Opt. Express 15, 10408-10420 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

S. B. Lovern, J. R. Strickler, and R. Klaper, "Behavioural and physiological changes in Daphnia magna when exposed to nanoparticle suspension (titanium dioxide, nano-C60, and C60HxC70Hx)." Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 4465-4470 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Federici, B. J. Shaw, and R. D. Handy, "Toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Gill injury, oxidative stress, and other physiological effects," Aquatic Toxicol. 84, 415-430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Bagalkot, L. Zhang, E. Levy-Nissenbaum, S. Jon, P. W. Kantoff, R. Langer, and O. C. Farokhzad, "Quantum dot - Aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on Bi-fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Nano Lett. 7, 3065-3070 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, S. T. C. Wong, and G. S. Young, "Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 12076-12087 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kudo, A. Kato, and S. Hirose, "Fluorescence visualization of branchial collagen columns embraced by pillar cells," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 55, 57-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Gachet, F. Billard, N. Sandeau, and H. Rigneault, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy imaging atinterfaces: evidence of interference effects," Opt. Express 15, 10408-10420 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

G. O. Clay, A. C. Millard, C. B. Schaffer, J. Aus-Der-Au, P. S. Tsai, J. A. Squier, and D. Kleinfeld, "Spectroscopy of third-harmonic generation: evidence for resonances in model compounds and ligated hemoglobin," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 932-950 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Gunter, "Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films," Appl. Phys. B 82, 431-437 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Rodriguez, S. J. Lockett and G. R. Holtom, "Coherent anti-stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: A Biological Review," Cytometry, Part A 69A, 779-791 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Warheit, T. R. Webb, C. M. Sayes, V. L. Colvin and K. L. Reed, "Pulmonary instillation studies with nanoscale TiO2 rods and dots in rats: Toxicity is not dependent upon particle size and surface area," Toxicol. Sci. 91, 227-236 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Lovern and R. Klaper, "Daphnia magna mortality when exposed to titanium dioxide and fullerene (C60) nanoparticles," Envir. Toxicol. Chem. 25, 1132-1137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Stracke, B. Weiss, C. M. Lehr, K. Koenig, U. F. Schaefer, and M. Schneider, "Multiphoton microscopy for the investigation of dermal penetration of nanoparticle-borne drugs," J. Invest. Dermatol. 126, 2224-2233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Madler, and N. Li, "Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel," Science 311, 622-627 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

G. Oberdörster, E. Oberdörster, and J. Oberdörster, "Nanotoxicology, An emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles, environmental health perspective," Environ. Health Perspect. 113, 823-839 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ja-Hon, C. Yin-Jen, L. Hung-Yu, and H. Wen-Feng, "Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Y. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of axonal myelin in live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. O. Potma, X. L. Nan, E. Conor, and X. S. Xie, "Cars microscopy: Coming of age," Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 228, U291-U291 (2004).

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Instrumentation, Theory, and Applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, "Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356-1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. L. Colvin, "The potential environmental impact of engineered nanomaterials," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1166-1170 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Shvedova, V. Castranova, E. R. Kisin, D. Schwegler-Berry, A. R. Murray, V. Z. Gandelsman, A. Maynard and P. Baron, "Exposure to carbon nanotube material: Assessment of nanotube cytotoxicity using human keratinocyte cells," J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 66, 1909-1926 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsunekawa, J. T. Wang, Y. Kawazoe, and A. Kasuya, "Blueshifts in the ultraviolet absorption spectra of cerium oxide nanocrystallites," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3654-3656 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

A. Volkmer, J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 023901 (2001).

2000

A. Majewska, G. Yiu, and R. Yuste, "A custom-made two-photon microscope and deconvolution system," Pflugers Arch. Eur. J. Physiol. 441, 398-408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

X. W. Sun and H. S. Kwok, "Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 408-411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. G. Goss, S. F. Perry, J. N. Fryer, and P. Laurent, "Gill morphology and acid-base regulation in freshwater fishes," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A. Mol. Integr. Physiol. 119, 107-115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. E. Torruellas, L. A. Weller-Brophy, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, Z. Osborne, and B. J. J. Zelinski, "Third-harmonic generation measurement of nonlinearities in SiO2-TiO2 sol-gel films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1128-1130 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "2-Photon Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

1977

S. P. Kowalczyk, F. R. McFeely, L. Ley, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. A. Shirley, "The electronic structure of SrTiO3 and some simple related oxides (MgO, Al2O3, SrO, TiO2)," Solid State Communications 23, 161-169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

G. M. Hughes and S. F. Perry, "Morphometric study of Trout Gills - Light-Microscopic Method suitable for evaluation of pollutant action," J. Exp. Biol. 64, 447-460 (1976).

1970

S. S. Sobin, H. M. Tremer, and Y. C. Fung, "Morphometric basis of sheet-flow concept of Pulmonary Alveolar Microcirculation in Cat," Circ. Res. 26, 397-414 (1970).
[PubMed]

1965

G. M. Hughes and A. V. Grimston, "Fine Structure of Secondary Lamellae of Gills of Gadus Pollachius," Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 106, 343-353 (1965).

Aus-Der-Au, J.

Bagalkot, V.

V. Bagalkot, L. Zhang, E. Levy-Nissenbaum, S. Jon, P. W. Kantoff, R. Langer, and O. C. Farokhzad, "Quantum dot - Aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on Bi-fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Nano Lett. 7, 3065-3070 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Baron, P.

A. A. Shvedova, V. Castranova, E. R. Kisin, D. Schwegler-Berry, A. R. Murray, V. Z. Gandelsman, A. Maynard and P. Baron, "Exposure to carbon nanotube material: Assessment of nanotube cytotoxicity using human keratinocyte cells," J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 66, 1909-1926 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Belardini, A.

M. C. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Gunter, "Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films," Appl. Phys. B 82, 431-437 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bertolotti, M.

M. C. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Gunter, "Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films," Appl. Phys. B 82, 431-437 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Billard, F.

Burris, J. J.

Campagnola, P. J.

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, "Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356-1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castranova, V.

A. A. Shvedova, V. Castranova, E. R. Kisin, D. Schwegler-Berry, A. R. Murray, V. Z. Gandelsman, A. Maynard and P. Baron, "Exposure to carbon nanotube material: Assessment of nanotube cytotoxicity using human keratinocyte cells," J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 66, 1909-1926 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J. X.

H. F. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Y. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of axonal myelin in live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Instrumentation, Theory, and Applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, "Theoretical and experimental characterisation of Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1363-1375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Volkmer, J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 023901 (2001).

Clay, G. O.

Colvin, V. L.

D. B. Warheit, T. R. Webb, C. M. Sayes, V. L. Colvin and K. L. Reed, "Pulmonary instillation studies with nanoscale TiO2 rods and dots in rats: Toxicity is not dependent upon particle size and surface area," Toxicol. Sci. 91, 227-236 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. L. Colvin, "The potential environmental impact of engineered nanomaterials," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1166-1170 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conor, E.

E. O. Potma, X. L. Nan, E. Conor, and X. S. Xie, "Cars microscopy: Coming of age," Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 228, U291-U291 (2004).

Cote, D.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "2-Photon Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Evans, C. L.

C. L. Evans, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, S. T. C. Wong, and G. S. Young, "Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 12076-12087 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farokhzad, O. C.

V. Bagalkot, L. Zhang, E. Levy-Nissenbaum, S. Jon, P. W. Kantoff, R. Langer, and O. C. Farokhzad, "Quantum dot - Aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on Bi-fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Nano Lett. 7, 3065-3070 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Federici, G.

G. Federici, B. J. Shaw, and R. D. Handy, "Toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Gill injury, oxidative stress, and other physiological effects," Aquatic Toxicol. 84, 415-430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A.

Fryer, J. N.

G. G. Goss, S. F. Perry, J. N. Fryer, and P. Laurent, "Gill morphology and acid-base regulation in freshwater fishes," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A. Mol. Integr. Physiol. 119, 107-115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

H. F. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Y. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of axonal myelin in live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fung, Y. C.

S. S. Sobin, H. M. Tremer, and Y. C. Fung, "Morphometric basis of sheet-flow concept of Pulmonary Alveolar Microcirculation in Cat," Circ. Res. 26, 397-414 (1970).
[PubMed]

Gachet, D.

Gandelsman, V. Z.

A. A. Shvedova, V. Castranova, E. R. Kisin, D. Schwegler-Berry, A. R. Murray, V. Z. Gandelsman, A. Maynard and P. Baron, "Exposure to carbon nanotube material: Assessment of nanotube cytotoxicity using human keratinocyte cells," J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 66, 1909-1926 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goss, G. G.

G. G. Goss, S. F. Perry, J. N. Fryer, and P. Laurent, "Gill morphology and acid-base regulation in freshwater fishes," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A. Mol. Integr. Physiol. 119, 107-115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grimston, A. V.

G. M. Hughes and A. V. Grimston, "Fine Structure of Secondary Lamellae of Gills of Gadus Pollachius," Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 106, 343-353 (1965).

Gritsyna, V. T.

S. P. Kowalczyk, F. R. McFeely, L. Ley, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. A. Shirley, "The electronic structure of SrTiO3 and some simple related oxides (MgO, Al2O3, SrO, TiO2)," Solid State Communications 23, 161-169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

M. C. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Gunter, "Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films," Appl. Phys. B 82, 431-437 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haertle, D.

M. C. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Gunter, "Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films," Appl. Phys. B 82, 431-437 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Handy, R. D.

G. Federici, B. J. Shaw, and R. D. Handy, "Toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Gill injury, oxidative stress, and other physiological effects," Aquatic Toxicol. 84, 415-430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, B.

Hirose, S.

H. Kudo, A. Kato, and S. Hirose, "Fluorescence visualization of branchial collagen columns embraced by pillar cells," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 55, 57-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holtom, G. R.

L. G. Rodriguez, S. J. Lockett and G. R. Holtom, "Coherent anti-stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: A Biological Review," Cytometry, Part A 69A, 779-791 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, G. M.

G. M. Hughes and S. F. Perry, "Morphometric study of Trout Gills - Light-Microscopic Method suitable for evaluation of pollutant action," J. Exp. Biol. 64, 447-460 (1976).

G. M. Hughes and A. V. Grimston, "Fine Structure of Secondary Lamellae of Gills of Gadus Pollachius," Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 106, 343-353 (1965).

Hung-Yu, L.

L. Ja-Hon, C. Yin-Jen, L. Hung-Yu, and H. Wen-Feng, "Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ja-Hon, L.

L. Ja-Hon, C. Yin-Jen, L. Hung-Yu, and H. Wen-Feng, "Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jon, S.

V. Bagalkot, L. Zhang, E. Levy-Nissenbaum, S. Jon, P. W. Kantoff, R. Langer, and O. C. Farokhzad, "Quantum dot - Aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on Bi-fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Nano Lett. 7, 3065-3070 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kantoff, P. W.

V. Bagalkot, L. Zhang, E. Levy-Nissenbaum, S. Jon, P. W. Kantoff, R. Langer, and O. C. Farokhzad, "Quantum dot - Aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on Bi-fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Nano Lett. 7, 3065-3070 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasuya, A.

S. Tsunekawa, J. T. Wang, Y. Kawazoe, and A. Kasuya, "Blueshifts in the ultraviolet absorption spectra of cerium oxide nanocrystallites," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3654-3656 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kato, A.

H. Kudo, A. Kato, and S. Hirose, "Fluorescence visualization of branchial collagen columns embraced by pillar cells," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 55, 57-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawazoe, Y.

S. Tsunekawa, J. T. Wang, Y. Kawazoe, and A. Kasuya, "Blueshifts in the ultraviolet absorption spectra of cerium oxide nanocrystallites," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3654-3656 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kesari, S.

Kisin, E. R.

A. A. Shvedova, V. Castranova, E. R. Kisin, D. Schwegler-Berry, A. R. Murray, V. Z. Gandelsman, A. Maynard and P. Baron, "Exposure to carbon nanotube material: Assessment of nanotube cytotoxicity using human keratinocyte cells," J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 66, 1909-1926 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klaper, R.

S. B. Lovern, J. R. Strickler, and R. Klaper, "Behavioural and physiological changes in Daphnia magna when exposed to nanoparticle suspension (titanium dioxide, nano-C60, and C60HxC70Hx)." Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 4465-4470 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Lovern and R. Klaper, "Daphnia magna mortality when exposed to titanium dioxide and fullerene (C60) nanoparticles," Envir. Toxicol. Chem. 25, 1132-1137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kleinfeld, D.

Koenig, K.

F. Stracke, B. Weiss, C. M. Lehr, K. Koenig, U. F. Schaefer, and M. Schneider, "Multiphoton microscopy for the investigation of dermal penetration of nanoparticle-borne drugs," J. Invest. Dermatol. 126, 2224-2233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, S. P.

S. P. Kowalczyk, F. R. McFeely, L. Ley, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. A. Shirley, "The electronic structure of SrTiO3 and some simple related oxides (MgO, Al2O3, SrO, TiO2)," Solid State Communications 23, 161-169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kudo, H.

H. Kudo, A. Kato, and S. Hirose, "Fluorescence visualization of branchial collagen columns embraced by pillar cells," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 55, 57-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

X. W. Sun and H. S. Kwok, "Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 408-411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Langer, R.

V. Bagalkot, L. Zhang, E. Levy-Nissenbaum, S. Jon, P. W. Kantoff, R. Langer, and O. C. Farokhzad, "Quantum dot - Aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on Bi-fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Nano Lett. 7, 3065-3070 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larciprete, M. C.

M. C. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Gunter, "Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films," Appl. Phys. B 82, 431-437 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, P.

G. G. Goss, S. F. Perry, J. N. Fryer, and P. Laurent, "Gill morphology and acid-base regulation in freshwater fishes," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A. Mol. Integr. Physiol. 119, 107-115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Le, T.

Lehr, C. M.

F. Stracke, B. Weiss, C. M. Lehr, K. Koenig, U. F. Schaefer, and M. Schneider, "Multiphoton microscopy for the investigation of dermal penetration of nanoparticle-borne drugs," J. Invest. Dermatol. 126, 2224-2233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

Levy-Nissenbaum, E.

V. Bagalkot, L. Zhang, E. Levy-Nissenbaum, S. Jon, P. W. Kantoff, R. Langer, and O. C. Farokhzad, "Quantum dot - Aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on Bi-fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Nano Lett. 7, 3065-3070 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ley, L.

S. P. Kowalczyk, F. R. McFeely, L. Ley, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. A. Shirley, "The electronic structure of SrTiO3 and some simple related oxides (MgO, Al2O3, SrO, TiO2)," Solid State Communications 23, 161-169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Li, N.

A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Madler, and N. Li, "Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel," Science 311, 622-627 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lockett, S. J.

L. G. Rodriguez, S. J. Lockett and G. R. Holtom, "Coherent anti-stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: A Biological Review," Cytometry, Part A 69A, 779-791 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loew, L. M.

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, "Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356-1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lovern, S. B.

S. B. Lovern, J. R. Strickler, and R. Klaper, "Behavioural and physiological changes in Daphnia magna when exposed to nanoparticle suspension (titanium dioxide, nano-C60, and C60HxC70Hx)." Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 4465-4470 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Lovern and R. Klaper, "Daphnia magna mortality when exposed to titanium dioxide and fullerene (C60) nanoparticles," Envir. Toxicol. Chem. 25, 1132-1137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Madler, L.

A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Madler, and N. Li, "Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel," Science 311, 622-627 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Majewska, A.

A. Majewska, G. Yiu, and R. Yuste, "A custom-made two-photon microscope and deconvolution system," Pflugers Arch. Eur. J. Physiol. 441, 398-408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maynard, A.

A. A. Shvedova, V. Castranova, E. R. Kisin, D. Schwegler-Berry, A. R. Murray, V. Z. Gandelsman, A. Maynard and P. Baron, "Exposure to carbon nanotube material: Assessment of nanotube cytotoxicity using human keratinocyte cells," J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 66, 1909-1926 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McFeely, F. R.

S. P. Kowalczyk, F. R. McFeely, L. Ley, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. A. Shirley, "The electronic structure of SrTiO3 and some simple related oxides (MgO, Al2O3, SrO, TiO2)," Solid State Communications 23, 161-169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

McIlrath, T. J.

Millard, A. C.

Murray, A. R.

A. A. Shvedova, V. Castranova, E. R. Kisin, D. Schwegler-Berry, A. R. Murray, V. Z. Gandelsman, A. Maynard and P. Baron, "Exposure to carbon nanotube material: Assessment of nanotube cytotoxicity using human keratinocyte cells," J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 66, 1909-1926 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nan, X. L.

E. O. Potma, X. L. Nan, E. Conor, and X. S. Xie, "Cars microscopy: Coming of age," Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 228, U291-U291 (2004).

Nel, A.

A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Madler, and N. Li, "Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel," Science 311, 622-627 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oberdörster, E.

G. Oberdörster, E. Oberdörster, and J. Oberdörster, "Nanotoxicology, An emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles, environmental health perspective," Environ. Health Perspect. 113, 823-839 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oberdörster, G.

G. Oberdörster, E. Oberdörster, and J. Oberdörster, "Nanotoxicology, An emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles, environmental health perspective," Environ. Health Perspect. 113, 823-839 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oberdörster, J.

G. Oberdörster, E. Oberdörster, and J. Oberdörster, "Nanotoxicology, An emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles, environmental health perspective," Environ. Health Perspect. 113, 823-839 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osborne, Z.

W. E. Torruellas, L. A. Weller-Brophy, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, Z. Osborne, and B. J. J. Zelinski, "Third-harmonic generation measurement of nonlinearities in SiO2-TiO2 sol-gel films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1128-1130 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Perry, S. F.

G. G. Goss, S. F. Perry, J. N. Fryer, and P. Laurent, "Gill morphology and acid-base regulation in freshwater fishes," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A. Mol. Integr. Physiol. 119, 107-115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Hughes and S. F. Perry, "Morphometric study of Trout Gills - Light-Microscopic Method suitable for evaluation of pollutant action," J. Exp. Biol. 64, 447-460 (1976).

Potma, E. O.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. O. Potma, X. L. Nan, E. Conor, and X. S. Xie, "Cars microscopy: Coming of age," Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 228, U291-U291 (2004).

Puoris'haag, M.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reed, K. L.

D. B. Warheit, T. R. Webb, C. M. Sayes, V. L. Colvin and K. L. Reed, "Pulmonary instillation studies with nanoscale TiO2 rods and dots in rats: Toxicity is not dependent upon particle size and surface area," Toxicol. Sci. 91, 227-236 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rigneault, H.

Rodriguez, L. G.

L. G. Rodriguez, S. J. Lockett and G. R. Holtom, "Coherent anti-stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: A Biological Review," Cytometry, Part A 69A, 779-791 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sandeau, N.

Sarto, F.

M. C. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Gunter, "Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films," Appl. Phys. B 82, 431-437 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sayes, C. M.

D. B. Warheit, T. R. Webb, C. M. Sayes, V. L. Colvin and K. L. Reed, "Pulmonary instillation studies with nanoscale TiO2 rods and dots in rats: Toxicity is not dependent upon particle size and surface area," Toxicol. Sci. 91, 227-236 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaefer, U. F.

F. Stracke, B. Weiss, C. M. Lehr, K. Koenig, U. F. Schaefer, and M. Schneider, "Multiphoton microscopy for the investigation of dermal penetration of nanoparticle-borne drugs," J. Invest. Dermatol. 126, 2224-2233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaffer, C. B.

Schneider, M.

F. Stracke, B. Weiss, C. M. Lehr, K. Koenig, U. F. Schaefer, and M. Schneider, "Multiphoton microscopy for the investigation of dermal penetration of nanoparticle-borne drugs," J. Invest. Dermatol. 126, 2224-2233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwegler-Berry, D.

A. A. Shvedova, V. Castranova, E. R. Kisin, D. Schwegler-Berry, A. R. Murray, V. Z. Gandelsman, A. Maynard and P. Baron, "Exposure to carbon nanotube material: Assessment of nanotube cytotoxicity using human keratinocyte cells," J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 66, 1909-1926 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, B. J.

G. Federici, B. J. Shaw, and R. D. Handy, "Toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Gill injury, oxidative stress, and other physiological effects," Aquatic Toxicol. 84, 415-430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, R. Y.

H. F. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Y. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of axonal myelin in live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shirley, D. A.

S. P. Kowalczyk, F. R. McFeely, L. Ley, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. A. Shirley, "The electronic structure of SrTiO3 and some simple related oxides (MgO, Al2O3, SrO, TiO2)," Solid State Communications 23, 161-169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Shvedova, A. A.

A. A. Shvedova, V. Castranova, E. R. Kisin, D. Schwegler-Berry, A. R. Murray, V. Z. Gandelsman, A. Maynard and P. Baron, "Exposure to carbon nanotube material: Assessment of nanotube cytotoxicity using human keratinocyte cells," J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 66, 1909-1926 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sobin, S. S.

S. S. Sobin, H. M. Tremer, and Y. C. Fung, "Morphometric basis of sheet-flow concept of Pulmonary Alveolar Microcirculation in Cat," Circ. Res. 26, 397-414 (1970).
[PubMed]

Soileau, M. J.

Squier, J. A.

Stegeman, G. I.

W. E. Torruellas, L. A. Weller-Brophy, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, Z. Osborne, and B. J. J. Zelinski, "Third-harmonic generation measurement of nonlinearities in SiO2-TiO2 sol-gel films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1128-1130 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stingl, A.

Stracke, F.

F. Stracke, B. Weiss, C. M. Lehr, K. Koenig, U. F. Schaefer, and M. Schneider, "Multiphoton microscopy for the investigation of dermal penetration of nanoparticle-borne drugs," J. Invest. Dermatol. 126, 2224-2233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "2-Photon Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickler, J. R.

S. B. Lovern, J. R. Strickler, and R. Klaper, "Behavioural and physiological changes in Daphnia magna when exposed to nanoparticle suspension (titanium dioxide, nano-C60, and C60HxC70Hx)." Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 4465-4470 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X. W.

X. W. Sun and H. S. Kwok, "Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 408-411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Torruellas, W. E.

W. E. Torruellas, L. A. Weller-Brophy, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, Z. Osborne, and B. J. J. Zelinski, "Third-harmonic generation measurement of nonlinearities in SiO2-TiO2 sol-gel films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1128-1130 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tremer, H. M.

S. S. Sobin, H. M. Tremer, and Y. C. Fung, "Morphometric basis of sheet-flow concept of Pulmonary Alveolar Microcirculation in Cat," Circ. Res. 26, 397-414 (1970).
[PubMed]

Tsai, P. S.

Tsunekawa, S.

S. Tsunekawa, J. T. Wang, Y. Kawazoe, and A. Kasuya, "Blueshifts in the ultraviolet absorption spectra of cerium oxide nanocrystallites," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3654-3656 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Unterhuber, A.

Van Stryland, E. W.

Vanherzeele, H.

Volkmer, A.

A. Volkmer, J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 023901 (2001).

Wang, H. F.

H. F. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Y. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of axonal myelin in live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. T.

S. Tsunekawa, J. T. Wang, Y. Kawazoe, and A. Kasuya, "Blueshifts in the ultraviolet absorption spectra of cerium oxide nanocrystallites," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3654-3656 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Warheit, D. B.

D. B. Warheit, T. R. Webb, C. M. Sayes, V. L. Colvin and K. L. Reed, "Pulmonary instillation studies with nanoscale TiO2 rods and dots in rats: Toxicity is not dependent upon particle size and surface area," Toxicol. Sci. 91, 227-236 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, T. R.

D. B. Warheit, T. R. Webb, C. M. Sayes, V. L. Colvin and K. L. Reed, "Pulmonary instillation studies with nanoscale TiO2 rods and dots in rats: Toxicity is not dependent upon particle size and surface area," Toxicol. Sci. 91, 227-236 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "2-Photon Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, B.

F. Stracke, B. Weiss, C. M. Lehr, K. Koenig, U. F. Schaefer, and M. Schneider, "Multiphoton microscopy for the investigation of dermal penetration of nanoparticle-borne drugs," J. Invest. Dermatol. 126, 2224-2233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weller-Brophy, L. A.

W. E. Torruellas, L. A. Weller-Brophy, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, Z. Osborne, and B. J. J. Zelinski, "Third-harmonic generation measurement of nonlinearities in SiO2-TiO2 sol-gel films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1128-1130 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wen-Feng, H.

L. Ja-Hon, C. Yin-Jen, L. Hung-Yu, and H. Wen-Feng, "Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wong, S. T. C.

Woodall, M. A.

Xia, T.

A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Madler, and N. Li, "Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel," Science 311, 622-627 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

C. L. Evans, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, S. T. C. Wong, and G. S. Young, "Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 12076-12087 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Instrumentation, Theory, and Applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. O. Potma, X. L. Nan, E. Conor, and X. S. Xie, "Cars microscopy: Coming of age," Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 228, U291-U291 (2004).

A. Volkmer, J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 023901 (2001).

Xu, X.

Yin-Jen, C.

L. Ja-Hon, C. Yin-Jen, L. Hung-Yu, and H. Wen-Feng, "Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yiu, G.

A. Majewska, G. Yiu, and R. Yuste, "A custom-made two-photon microscope and deconvolution system," Pflugers Arch. Eur. J. Physiol. 441, 398-408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Young, G. S.

Yuste, R.

A. Majewska, G. Yiu, and R. Yuste, "A custom-made two-photon microscope and deconvolution system," Pflugers Arch. Eur. J. Physiol. 441, 398-408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zanoni, R.

W. E. Torruellas, L. A. Weller-Brophy, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, Z. Osborne, and B. J. J. Zelinski, "Third-harmonic generation measurement of nonlinearities in SiO2-TiO2 sol-gel films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1128-1130 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zelinski, B. J. J.

W. E. Torruellas, L. A. Weller-Brophy, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, Z. Osborne, and B. J. J. Zelinski, "Third-harmonic generation measurement of nonlinearities in SiO2-TiO2 sol-gel films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1128-1130 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

V. Bagalkot, L. Zhang, E. Levy-Nissenbaum, S. Jon, P. W. Kantoff, R. Langer, and O. C. Farokhzad, "Quantum dot - Aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on Bi-fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Nano Lett. 7, 3065-3070 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zickmund, P.

H. F. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Y. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of axonal myelin in live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society

E. O. Potma, X. L. Nan, E. Conor, and X. S. Xie, "Cars microscopy: Coming of age," Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 228, U291-U291 (2004).

Appl. Phys. B

M. C. Larciprete, D. Haertle, A. Belardini, M. Bertolotti, F. Sarto, and P. Gunter, "Characterization of second and third order optical nonlinearities of ZnO sputtered films," Appl. Phys. B 82, 431-437 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. E. Torruellas, L. A. Weller-Brophy, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, Z. Osborne, and B. J. J. Zelinski, "Third-harmonic generation measurement of nonlinearities in SiO2-TiO2 sol-gel films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1128-1130 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aquatic Toxicol.

G. Federici, B. J. Shaw, and R. D. Handy, "Toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Gill injury, oxidative stress, and other physiological effects," Aquatic Toxicol. 84, 415-430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

H. F. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Y. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Imaging of axonal myelin in live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circ. Res.

S. S. Sobin, H. M. Tremer, and Y. C. Fung, "Morphometric basis of sheet-flow concept of Pulmonary Alveolar Microcirculation in Cat," Circ. Res. 26, 397-414 (1970).
[PubMed]

Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A. Mol. Integr. Physiol.

G. G. Goss, S. F. Perry, J. N. Fryer, and P. Laurent, "Gill morphology and acid-base regulation in freshwater fishes," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A. Mol. Integr. Physiol. 119, 107-115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cytometry, Part A

L. G. Rodriguez, S. J. Lockett and G. R. Holtom, "Coherent anti-stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: A Biological Review," Cytometry, Part A 69A, 779-791 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Envir. Toxicol. Chem.

S. B. Lovern and R. Klaper, "Daphnia magna mortality when exposed to titanium dioxide and fullerene (C60) nanoparticles," Envir. Toxicol. Chem. 25, 1132-1137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Health Perspect.

G. Oberdörster, E. Oberdörster, and J. Oberdörster, "Nanotoxicology, An emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles, environmental health perspective," Environ. Health Perspect. 113, 823-839 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Environ. Sci. Technol.

S. B. Lovern, J. R. Strickler, and R. Klaper, "Behavioural and physiological changes in Daphnia magna when exposed to nanoparticle suspension (titanium dioxide, nano-C60, and C60HxC70Hx)." Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 4465-4470 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

X. W. Sun and H. S. Kwok, "Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 408-411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Ja-Hon, C. Yin-Jen, L. Hung-Yu, and H. Wen-Feng, "Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsunekawa, J. T. Wang, Y. Kawazoe, and A. Kasuya, "Blueshifts in the ultraviolet absorption spectra of cerium oxide nanocrystallites," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3654-3656 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Biol.

G. M. Hughes and S. F. Perry, "Morphometric study of Trout Gills - Light-Microscopic Method suitable for evaluation of pollutant action," J. Exp. Biol. 64, 447-460 (1976).

J. Histochem. Cytochem.

H. Kudo, A. Kato, and S. Hirose, "Fluorescence visualization of branchial collagen columns embraced by pillar cells," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 55, 57-62 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

F. Stracke, B. Weiss, C. M. Lehr, K. Koenig, U. F. Schaefer, and M. Schneider, "Multiphoton microscopy for the investigation of dermal penetration of nanoparticle-borne drugs," J. Invest. Dermatol. 126, 2224-2233 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. B

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Instrumentation, Theory, and Applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A

A. A. Shvedova, V. Castranova, E. R. Kisin, D. Schwegler-Berry, A. R. Murray, V. Z. Gandelsman, A. Maynard and P. Baron, "Exposure to carbon nanotube material: Assessment of nanotube cytotoxicity using human keratinocyte cells," J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, Part A 66, 1909-1926 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

V. Bagalkot, L. Zhang, E. Levy-Nissenbaum, S. Jon, P. W. Kantoff, R. Langer, and O. C. Farokhzad, "Quantum dot - Aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on Bi-fluorescence resonance energy transfer," Nano Lett. 7, 3065-3070 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol.

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, "Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356-1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. L. Colvin, "The potential environmental impact of engineered nanomaterials," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1166-1170 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Pflugers Arch. Eur. J. Physiol.

A. Majewska, G. Yiu, and R. Yuste, "A custom-made two-photon microscope and deconvolution system," Pflugers Arch. Eur. J. Physiol. 441, 398-408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Volkmer, J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 023901 (2001).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. J. Microsc. Sci.

G. M. Hughes and A. V. Grimston, "Fine Structure of Secondary Lamellae of Gills of Gadus Pollachius," Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 106, 343-353 (1965).

Science

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "2-Photon Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Madler, and N. Li, "Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel," Science 311, 622-627 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Communications

S. P. Kowalczyk, F. R. McFeely, L. Ley, V. T. Gritsyna, and D. A. Shirley, "The electronic structure of SrTiO3 and some simple related oxides (MgO, Al2O3, SrO, TiO2)," Solid State Communications 23, 161-169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Toxicol. Sci.

D. B. Warheit, T. R. Webb, C. M. Sayes, V. L. Colvin and K. L. Reed, "Pulmonary instillation studies with nanoscale TiO2 rods and dots in rats: Toxicity is not dependent upon particle size and surface area," Toxicol. Sci. 91, 227-236 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. Society, Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies: Opportunities and Uncertainties, 2004). http://www.nanotec.org.uk/finalReport.htm

Y. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics, (John Wiley and Sons, 1984).

OsiriX , "http://www.osirix-viewer.com/,"

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (3131 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the CARS microscope from an Olympus confocal laser-scanning microscope (FV300/IX71).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). SEM of gill lamellae. (b) CARS image of 8 micron tomographic sections. Stokes and pump wavelengths were 924 nm and 1255 nm respectively. (c) 60x white light image of Schiff stained section.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Image size, laser power, 1024×1024 pixels, and acquisition time of 1 second per frame. (a) E-CARS image of undosed gills. (b) F-CARS image of undosed gills. (c) Combined F- (blue) and E-CARS (green) (d) Combined F- (blue) and E-CARS (green) magnification 2X. Pump wavelength 924 nm, Stokes 1255 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). - (c). epi-CARS and (d-f) forward-CARS images of TiO2, ZnO and CeO nanoparticles embedded in agarose respectively. Combined laser power of pump (924 nm) and stokes (1255 nm) beam was 100 mW.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

2D representation of 320 depth-resolved slices separated by 0.25 µm taken in a trout gill exposed to TiO2 nanoparticels for a period of two weeks. (a) trans-axial slice (XY plane) through gill lamellae. (b) YZ cross-section of vertical dotted line. (c) XZ cross-sections of planes indicated by horizontal dotted line. Combined laser power of pump (924 nm) and stokes (1255 nm) beam was 100 mW.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Three-dimensional projection of a 150 µm deep stack in a region of gill tissue containing a large nanoparticles aggregate following exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles for a period of one week. Combined laser power of pump (924 nm) and stokes (1255 nm) beam was 100 mW. (a) forwards-CARS, (b) epi-CARS, (c) animation (3.05 MB) of combined forwards- (green) and epi-CARS (blue). [Media 1]

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

χ ( 3 ) = A R Ω ( ω p ω s ) i Γ R + χ NR ( 3 ) + A T ω T 2 ω p i Γ T .

Metrics