Abstract

The potential of intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging to detect atherosclerosis was previously demonstrated using a 532 nm nanosecond pulsed laser and an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging catheter. However, to differentiate vulnerable plaques, the composition of plaques needs to be imaged. Therefore, we introduce a multi-wavelength photoacoustic imaging method to distinguish various types of plaques. Multi-spectral IVPA imaging of ex vivo samples of normal and atherosclerotic rabbit aorta was performed at several wavelengths within 680–900 nm range. The spectral variation of photoacoustic response was extracted and a spectroscopic analysis was performed. The results of our preliminary study suggest that the spectroscopic intravascular photoacoustic imaging technique can be used to differentiate fibrous and lipid components of the atherosclerotic plaques.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Ross, "Atherosclerosis--an inflammatory disease," N. Engl. J. Med. 340, 115-126 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Libby, P. M. Ridker, and A. Maseri, "Inflammation and atherosclerosis," Circulation 105, 1135-1143 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. A. Oraevsky and A. A. Karabutov, "Optoacoustic Tomography," in Biomedical Photonics Handbook, T. Vo-Dinh, ed., (CRC Press, 2003), pp. 34-31 - 34-34.
  4. P. C. Beard and T. N. Mills, "Characterization of post mortem arterial tissue using time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy at 436, 461 and 532 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 177-198 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Development of a combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system," Proceedings of the 2007 Photonics West Symposium, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing Conference 6086, F1-F10 (2006).
  6. S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter," IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 978-986 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Sethuraman, J. H. Amirian, S. H. Litovski, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Ex vivo characterization of atherosclerosis using intravascular photoacoustic imaging," Opt. Express 15, 16657-16666 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Sethuraman, S. Mallidi, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaques: ex vivo study using a rabbit model of atherosclerosis," Proceedings of the 2007 Photonics West Symposium, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing Conference 6437, 6437291-6437299 (2007).
  9. S. A. Prahl, "Optical Properties Spectra compiled by Scott Prahl," (2001), http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/.
  10. B. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time- and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy," J. Biomedical Opt. 10, 0540041-0540046 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Vogel, and V. Venugopalan, "Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues," Chem. Rev. 103, 577-644 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter," IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 978-986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sethuraman, J. H. Amirian, S. H. Litovski, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Ex vivo characterization of atherosclerosis using intravascular photoacoustic imaging," Opt. Express 15, 16657-16666 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time- and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy," J. Biomedical Opt. 10, 0540041-0540046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Vogel, and V. Venugopalan, "Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues," Chem. Rev. 103, 577-644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

P. Libby, P. M. Ridker, and A. Maseri, "Inflammation and atherosclerosis," Circulation 105, 1135-1143 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

B. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. Ross, "Atherosclerosis--an inflammatory disease," N. Engl. J. Med. 340, 115-126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

P. C. Beard and T. N. Mills, "Characterization of post mortem arterial tissue using time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy at 436, 461 and 532 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 177-198 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aglyamov, S. R.

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter," IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 978-986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amirian, J. H.

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter," IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 978-986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sethuraman, J. H. Amirian, S. H. Litovski, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Ex vivo characterization of atherosclerosis using intravascular photoacoustic imaging," Opt. Express 15, 16657-16666 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beard, P. C.

P. C. Beard and T. N. Mills, "Characterization of post mortem arterial tissue using time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy at 436, 461 and 532 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 177-198 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butler, J.

B. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A.

B. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time- and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy," J. Biomedical Opt. 10, 0540041-0540046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Emelianov, S. Y.

S. Sethuraman, J. H. Amirian, S. H. Litovski, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Ex vivo characterization of atherosclerosis using intravascular photoacoustic imaging," Opt. Express 15, 16657-16666 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter," IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 978-986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Espinoza, J.

B. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanning, R.

B. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Libby, P.

P. Libby, P. M. Ridker, and A. Maseri, "Inflammation and atherosclerosis," Circulation 105, 1135-1143 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litovski, S. H.

Maseri, A.

P. Libby, P. M. Ridker, and A. Maseri, "Inflammation and atherosclerosis," Circulation 105, 1135-1143 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mills, T. N.

P. C. Beard and T. N. Mills, "Characterization of post mortem arterial tissue using time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy at 436, 461 and 532 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 177-198 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pham, T.

B. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time- and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy," J. Biomedical Opt. 10, 0540041-0540046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ridker, P. M.

P. Libby, P. M. Ridker, and A. Maseri, "Inflammation and atherosclerosis," Circulation 105, 1135-1143 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, R.

R. Ross, "Atherosclerosis--an inflammatory disease," N. Engl. J. Med. 340, 115-126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sethuraman, S.

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter," IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 978-986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sethuraman, J. H. Amirian, S. H. Litovski, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Ex vivo characterization of atherosclerosis using intravascular photoacoustic imaging," Opt. Express 15, 16657-16666 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, N.

B. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smalling, R. W.

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter," IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 978-986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sethuraman, J. H. Amirian, S. H. Litovski, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Ex vivo characterization of atherosclerosis using intravascular photoacoustic imaging," Opt. Express 15, 16657-16666 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time- and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy," J. Biomedical Opt. 10, 0540041-0540046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Svaasand, L.

B. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time- and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy," J. Biomedical Opt. 10, 0540041-0540046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B.

B. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Veen, R. L. P.

R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time- and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy," J. Biomedical Opt. 10, 0540041-0540046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Venugopalan, V.

A. Vogel, and V. Venugopalan, "Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues," Chem. Rev. 103, 577-644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, and V. Venugopalan, "Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues," Chem. Rev. 103, 577-644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem Rev (1)

A. Vogel, and V. Venugopalan, "Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues," Chem. Rev. 103, 577-644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circulation (1)

P. Libby, P. M. Ridker, and A. Maseri, "Inflammation and atherosclerosis," Circulation 105, 1135-1143 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter," IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 978-986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomedical Opt. (1)

R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Determination of visible near-IR absorption coefficients of mammalian fat using time- and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy," J. Biomedical Opt. 10, 0540041-0540046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

R. Ross, "Atherosclerosis--an inflammatory disease," N. Engl. J. Med. 340, 115-126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neoplasia (1)

B. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, "Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy," Neoplasia 2, 26-40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

P. C. Beard and T. N. Mills, "Characterization of post mortem arterial tissue using time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy at 436, 461 and 532 nm," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 177-198 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Development of a combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system," Proceedings of the 2007 Photonics West Symposium, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing Conference 6086, F1-F10 (2006).

A. A. Oraevsky and A. A. Karabutov, "Optoacoustic Tomography," in Biomedical Photonics Handbook, T. Vo-Dinh, ed., (CRC Press, 2003), pp. 34-31 - 34-34.

S. Sethuraman, S. Mallidi, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, "Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaques: ex vivo study using a rabbit model of atherosclerosis," Proceedings of the 2007 Photonics West Symposium, Photons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing Conference 6437, 6437291-6437299 (2007).

S. A. Prahl, "Optical Properties Spectra compiled by Scott Prahl," (2001), http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) images and the histology (H&E, RAM11 and Picrosirius Red) of the cross-section of the aorta containing plaques. The IVPA images obtained at multiple wavelengths (680 – 900 nm range) are shown using 45 dB display dynamic range and cover a 6.75 mm diameter field of view.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) images and the histology (H&E, RAM11 and Picrosirius Red) of the cross-section of the normal (control) aorta. The IVPA images, shown using the same display dynamic range of 45 dB, cover a 6 mm diameter field of view.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The spectroscopic (first derivative) IVPA images of (a) the atherosclerotic (field of view: 6.75 mm diameter) and (b) control aorta (field of view: 6 mm diameter) calculated at 900 nm using a finite differences approach. The reference image for evaluating the first derivative was obtained at 680 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Variation in the relative energy of the photoacoustic response with wavelength observed in (a) atherosclerotic and (b) control aorta. The energy values were calculated from the regions marked 1,2,3,4 and 5 in Fig. (3).

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