Abstract

Experiment and modeling show that the refractive index nonlinearity can significantly degrade the contrast of a chirped-pulse amplifier seeded with a pulse and a single postpulse. Multiple powerful non-equidistant pre- and postpulses are generated. For a Gaussian pulse and a hat-top beam, an incident postpulse of energy W results in a prepulse of energy 0.58B 2 W, where B is the nonlinear phase (B-integral) of the main pulse. Calculations show that level of satellites due to gain saturation is negligibly small. Experimental results for Ti:Sapphire regenerative and multipass amplifiers and prepulse generation in fused silica agree well with the theory.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. D. Perry, D. Pennington, B. C. Stuart, G. Tietbohl, J. A. Britten, C. Brown, S. Herman, B. Golick, M. Kartz, J. Miller, H. T. Powell, M. Vergino, and V. Yanovsky, "Petawatt laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 160-162 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. W. Bank, P. Rousseau, T. A. Planchon, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, A. Maksimchuk, G. A. Mourou, and V. Yanovsky, "Generation and characterization of the highest laser intensities (1022 W/cm2)," Opt. Lett. 29, 2837-2839 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. M. Gold, "Direct measurement of prepulse suppression by use of a plasma shutter," Opt. Lett. 19, 2006-2008 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

2000 (1)

M. Ayoama, A. Sagisaka, S. Matsuoka, Y. Akahane, F. Nakano, and K. Yamakawa, "Contrast and phase characterization of a high-peak power 20-fs laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B 70, S149-S153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

J. Itatani, J. Faure, M. Nantel, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, "Suppression of the amplified spontaneous emission in chirped-pulse-amplification lasers by clean high-energy seed-pulse injection," Opt. Commun. 148, 70-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).

1994 (1)

1989 (1)

M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, "High-density plasmas produced by ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 155-158 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, "Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses," Opt. Commun. 56, 219-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Aitchinson, J. S.

Akahane, Y.

M. Ayoama, A. Sagisaka, S. Matsuoka, Y. Akahane, F. Nakano, and K. Yamakawa, "Contrast and phase characterization of a high-peak power 20-fs laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B 70, S149-S153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Albert, O.

Auge-Rocherau, F.

Ayoama, M.

M. Ayoama, A. Sagisaka, S. Matsuoka, Y. Akahane, F. Nakano, and K. Yamakawa, "Contrast and phase characterization of a high-peak power 20-fs laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B 70, S149-S153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bank, S. W.

Britten, J. A.

Brown, C.

Burgy, F.

Canioni, L.

Chambaret, J.-P.

Cheriaux, G.

Chvykov, V.

Etchepare, J.

Falcone, R. W.

M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, "High-density plasmas produced by ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 155-158 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faure, J.

J. Itatani, J. Faure, M. Nantel, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, "Suppression of the amplified spontaneous emission in chirped-pulse-amplification lasers by clean high-energy seed-pulse injection," Opt. Commun. 148, 70-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).

Gold, D. M.

Golick, B.

Hamoniaux, G.

Herman, S.

M. D. Perry, D. Pennington, B. C. Stuart, G. Tietbohl, J. A. Britten, C. Brown, S. Herman, B. Golick, M. Kartz, J. Miller, H. T. Powell, M. Vergino, and V. Yanovsky, "Petawatt laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 160-162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).

Herrmann, J.

Husakou, A.

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, J. Faure, M. Nantel, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, "Suppression of the amplified spontaneous emission in chirped-pulse-amplification lasers by clean high-energy seed-pulse injection," Opt. Commun. 148, 70-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jullien, A.

Kalashnikov, M. P.

Kalinchenko, G.

Kalintchenko, G.

Kapteyn, H. C.

M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, "High-density plasmas produced by ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 155-158 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kartz, M.

Major, A.

Maksimchuk, A.

Matsuoka, S.

M. Ayoama, A. Sagisaka, S. Matsuoka, Y. Akahane, F. Nakano, and K. Yamakawa, "Contrast and phase characterization of a high-peak power 20-fs laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B 70, S149-S153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J.

Minkovski, N.

Mourou, G.

J. Itatani, J. Faure, M. Nantel, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, "Suppression of the amplified spontaneous emission in chirped-pulse-amplification lasers by clean high-energy seed-pulse injection," Opt. Commun. 148, 70-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, "Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses," Opt. Commun. 56, 219-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G. A.

Murnane, M.

M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, "High-density plasmas produced by ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 155-158 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakano, F.

M. Ayoama, A. Sagisaka, S. Matsuoka, Y. Akahane, F. Nakano, and K. Yamakawa, "Contrast and phase characterization of a high-peak power 20-fs laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B 70, S149-S153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nantel, M.

J. Itatani, J. Faure, M. Nantel, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, "Suppression of the amplified spontaneous emission in chirped-pulse-amplification lasers by clean high-energy seed-pulse injection," Opt. Commun. 148, 70-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nikolakakos, I.

Pennington, D.

Perry, M. D.

M. D. Perry, D. Pennington, B. C. Stuart, G. Tietbohl, J. A. Britten, C. Brown, S. Herman, B. Golick, M. Kartz, J. Miller, H. T. Powell, M. Vergino, and V. Yanovsky, "Petawatt laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 160-162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).

Planchon, T. A.

Powell, H. T.

Reed, S.

Risse, E.

Rousseau, J.-P.

Rousseau, P.

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).

Sagisaka, A.

M. Ayoama, A. Sagisaka, S. Matsuoka, Y. Akahane, F. Nakano, and K. Yamakawa, "Contrast and phase characterization of a high-peak power 20-fs laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B 70, S149-S153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saltiel, S.

Sandner, W.

Santran, S.

Sarger, L.

Schonnagel, H.

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).

Smith, P. W.

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, "Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses," Opt. Commun. 56, 219-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

M. D. Perry, D. Pennington, B. C. Stuart, G. Tietbohl, J. A. Britten, C. Brown, S. Herman, B. Golick, M. Kartz, J. Miller, H. T. Powell, M. Vergino, and V. Yanovsky, "Petawatt laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 160-162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).

Tietbohl, G.

Vergino, M.

Watanabe, S.

J. Itatani, J. Faure, M. Nantel, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, "Suppression of the amplified spontaneous emission in chirped-pulse-amplification lasers by clean high-energy seed-pulse injection," Opt. Commun. 148, 70-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamakawa, K.

M. Ayoama, A. Sagisaka, S. Matsuoka, Y. Akahane, F. Nakano, and K. Yamakawa, "Contrast and phase characterization of a high-peak power 20-fs laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B 70, S149-S153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yanovsky, V.

Yoshino, F.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Ayoama, A. Sagisaka, S. Matsuoka, Y. Akahane, F. Nakano, and K. Yamakawa, "Contrast and phase characterization of a high-peak power 20-fs laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B 70, S149-S153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Itatani, J. Faure, M. Nantel, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, "Suppression of the amplified spontaneous emission in chirped-pulse-amplification lasers by clean high-energy seed-pulse injection," Opt. Commun. 148, 70-74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, "Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses," Opt. Commun. 56, 219-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, "High-density plasmas produced by ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 155-158 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J.-C. Diels, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (Academic Press, 1996), pp. 119, 315.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Prepulse generation in a CPA amplifier.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Power contrast of a Gaussian pulse with a hat-top intensity profile: a) 1st prepulse, b) 2nd prepulse; analytical curves (blue thin lines), numerical calculations (red), curve parameter is B-integral (rad); pulse widths, stretched and short pulses – 50 ps and 30 fs FWHM intensity, delay of incident postpulse 5 ps.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Contrast of the regenerative amplifier (RA) seeded with a pulse accompanied by a postpulse reflected off the plane-parallel plate (PP) as a function of RA pass number: pass 22 (pulsewidth FWHM 35 fs) – blue line, pass 24 (38 fs) – red, pass 30 (48 fs) – dark cyan. Calibration (no seed postpulse in RA, PP is placed after compressor) - black line. Peaks at approx. ±2 ps are TOAC artifacts due to reflections of ω 1 and ω 2 beams in SFG crystal. Peaks at ±1 ps are not identified and attributed to RA. a) full scan (±12 ps); b) zoomed portion (-11.5 ps to -9.8 ps and -6.5 ps to -4.5 ps)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

a) Contrast of the regenerative amplifier seeded with a pulse accompanied by the postpulse: experiment: prepulses (1st, green squares; 2nd, blue diamonds), postpulses (1st, red upward-pointing triangles; 2nd, magenta downward-pointing triangles), theory (black dots); b) the satellites’ positions relative to the multiples of the 1st postpulse delay at pass 30; c) energy of the stretched pulse on exit of the TiS crystal; d) pulsewidths FWHM of the corresponding peak of the TOAC scan (main peak –black dots); e) nonlinear phase (B-integral).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Contrast of multipass amplifier (MPA) seeded with a pulse accompanied by the postpulse reflected off the plane-parallel plate (PP): black line - MPA without PP, blue line – calibration (no seed postpulse in MPA, PP after compressor), red line - PP before MPA. “Ghost” - TOAC artifacts: peaks at -3.6 ps and -5.9 ps are due to reflections of ω 2 beam in SHG and SFG crystals respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Contrast of the multipass amplifier (MPA) with an artificial nonlinearity (the stretched pulse acquires additional B 0=1.21 rad in a 5-mm thick silica sample). Red – the plane-parallel plate (PP) is inserted between the MPA and the focusing mirror. Black – no PP. Blue – PP after compressor. Green squares – positions and magnitudes of the prepulses, theory.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Contrast of the 1st prepulse produced by the nonlinearity of refractive index versus B-integral B0 and the seed postpulse contrast J=r2 =I+ 1 seed /I0 for various near-field beam profiles

Equations (16)

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G ( t + t 0 + t d ) = e i φ ( t ) w ( t ) = e i ( ω s + α 2 t ) t w ( t ) , w ( t ) = { 1 , 0 t τ s 0 , t < 0 , t > τ s } ,
E ( t + t 0 ) = E ( t τ ) G ( τ ) d τ = 0 τ s E ( t τ ) e i ( ω s + α 2 τ ) τ d τ
E ( t ) e i φ ( t ) E ( τ ) e i ω ( t ) τ d τ = e i φ ( t ) 2 π S ( ω ( t ) ) ,   ω ( t ) = d φ ( t ) d t ,
E ( t ) E 0 = e i ( ω s + α 2 t ) t j = 0 N r j S j ( ω s + α 2 ( t t j ) ) e i α t j t .
B ( t ) = ( 2 π n 2 L λ ) E ( t ) 2 = B 0 S 0 ( ω ( t ) ) 2 ( 1 + r 2 + 2 r cos ( α T ) ) = B 0 ( t ) + B ~ ( t ) ,
E ( t ) = E 0 ( t ) e i B 0 ( t ) ( 1 + r m ) exp ( B m ( e i α T + e i α T 2 ) ) , r m = re i ( ω s α 2 t 1 ) t 1
E 1 E 0 = i B 0 r
I 1 t ρ I 0 t ρ B 0 t ρ 2 I 0 t ρ 3
I ( t , z , m ) = I 0 g ( t ) 2 ( 1 + m cos ( Ω t ) ) ( 1 Q ( t , z , m ) )
I 0 g ( t ) 2 ( 1 + m cos ( Ω t ) ) ( 1 Q ( t , z , 0 ) ) H ( t , z , m )   ,
φ ( t , z , m ) = Δ 2 s 0 t g ( t ) 2 Q ( t , z , m ) d t , s 0 = s ( , 0 ) , Δ = ( ω ω 0 ) Δ ω ,
Q ( t , z , m ) = ( 1 e s t m ( 1 e a ( z ) ) ) 1 , a ( z ) = σ ( N 1 N 2 ) z   ,
s t m = I 0 W s 1 t g ( t ) 2 ( 1 + m cos ( Ω t ) ) d t , W s = ħ ω 2 σ
{ m d H ( t , z , m ) dm m = 0 = H 0 ( t , z , m ) g ( t ) 2 sin ( Ω t ) , H 0 ( t , z , m ) m 2 π t m t s m d φ ( t , z , m ) dm m = 0 = φ ~ 0 ( t , z , m ) g ( t ) 2 sin ( Ω t ) , φ ~ 0 ( t , z , m ) Δ 2 m 2 π t m t s
I 1 I 0 = H 0 ( t , z , m ) 4 + i φ ~ 0 ( t , z , m ) 2 2 ( m 8 π t m t s ) 2 ( 1 + Δ 2 ) , Δ = ( ω ω 0 ) Δ ω
I 1 I 0 = H 0 ( t , z , m ) 4 + i φ ~ 0 ( t , z , m ) 2 2 ( m 4 t p aT ) 2 ( 1 + Δ 2 ) , Δ = ( ω ω 0 ) Δ ω

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