Abstract

Measurements of a W-shaped metal-coated surface plasmon polariton waveguides are presented, showing complex confined modes both in the coupled pair of air filled metal V-grooves, as well as within the central metal-coated triangular silicon wedge. Mode calculations support the experimentally measured plasmonic modes. Such W-shaped plasmonic waveguides when integrated with Metal-Oxide-Silicon structures may be utilized for active plasmonic nano-optical devices.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, Berlin, 1988).
  2. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, and E. Lisicka-Skrzek, “Experimental observation of plasmon polariton waves supported by a thin metal film of finite width,” Opt. Lett. 25, 844–846 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668–670 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Satuby and M. Orenstein, “Surface-plasmon-polariton modes in deep metallic trenches- measurement and analysis,” Opt. Express 15, 4247–4252 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Modeling of complementary (void) plasmon waveguiding,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2547–2562 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Channel plasmon-polariton in a triangular groove on a metal surface,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1069–1071 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Plasmon waveguide for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4583–4585 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Nano plasmon polariton modes of a wedge cross section metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14, 8779–8784 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Arbel and M. Orenstein, “W-shaped Plasmon Waveguide for Silicon based Plasmonic Modulator,” in LEOS annual meeting2006, Montréal, Canada, paper TuL-5.
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics (Springer, Berlin, 2004).

2007 (2)

Y. Satuby and M. Orenstein, “Surface-plasmon-polariton modes in deep metallic trenches- measurement and analysis,” Opt. Express 15, 4247–4252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Modeling of complementary (void) plasmon waveguiding,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2547–2562 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Nano plasmon polariton modes of a wedge cross section metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14, 8779–8784 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arbel and M. Orenstein, “W-shaped Plasmon Waveguide for Silicon based Plasmonic Modulator,” in LEOS annual meeting2006, Montréal, Canada, paper TuL-5.
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Plasmon waveguide for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4583–4585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Arbel, D.

D. Arbel and M. Orenstein, “W-shaped Plasmon Waveguide for Silicon based Plasmonic Modulator,” in LEOS annual meeting2006, Montréal, Canada, paper TuL-5.
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

Berolo, E.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Charbonneau, R.

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feigenbaum, E.

E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Modeling of complementary (void) plasmon waveguiding,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2547–2562 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Nano plasmon polariton modes of a wedge cross section metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14, 8779–8784 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukui, M.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Channel plasmon-polariton in a triangular groove on a metal surface,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1069–1071 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haraguchi, M.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kourogi, M.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Plasmon waveguide for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4583–4585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lisicka-Skrzek, E.

Lockwood, D. J.

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics (Springer, Berlin, 2004).

Matsuo, S.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nikolajsen, T.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Plasmon waveguide for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4583–4585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Orenstein, M.

E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Modeling of complementary (void) plasmon waveguiding,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2547–2562 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Satuby and M. Orenstein, “Surface-plasmon-polariton modes in deep metallic trenches- measurement and analysis,” Opt. Express 15, 4247–4252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arbel and M. Orenstein, “W-shaped Plasmon Waveguide for Silicon based Plasmonic Modulator,” in LEOS annual meeting2006, Montréal, Canada, paper TuL-5.
[CrossRef]

E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Nano plasmon polariton modes of a wedge cross section metal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14, 8779–8784 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics (Springer, Berlin, 2004).

Pile, D. F. P.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Channel plasmon-polariton in a triangular groove on a metal surface,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1069–1071 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, Berlin, 1988).

Salakhutdinov, I.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Satuby, Y.

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yatsui, T.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Plasmon waveguide for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4583–4585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Plasmon waveguide for optical far/near-field conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4583–4585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Modeling of complementary (void) plasmon waveguiding,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2547–2562 (2007).
[CrossRef]

in LEOS annual meeting (1)

D. Arbel and M. Orenstein, “W-shaped Plasmon Waveguide for Silicon based Plasmonic Modulator,” in LEOS annual meeting2006, Montréal, Canada, paper TuL-5.
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics (Springer, Berlin, 2004).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, Berlin, 1988).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A conceptual drawing of a W-shaped plasmon MOS based optical modulator. The coupled V-grooves plasmon modes in air and the Λ plasmon mode in silicon are marked.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) SEM image of the W-shaped silicon wedge in process, showing also the silicon-nitride etch mask. (b) Optical image of the W-shaped plasmon waveguide sample.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) SEM image of V-groove plasmon waveguide. (b),(c) Measured output light vs. polarization.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured output light distribution from W-shaped plasmon waveguide, input polarization indicated by the arrow in (a). Output polarization is (a) random, (b) Horizontal, (c) Vertical.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calculated fields of the V-groove for the zero order mode (a) Horizontal, (b) Vertical polarizations.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calculated Hy modal fields of the W-shaped plasmon waveguide, exhibiting 4 guided plasmon modes.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The real part of plasmon modes effective index for the different sub-structures comprising the W structure. Their coupling is evident from the supermodes of the complete structure. (a) nREAL vs. head angle of the for a triangular gold wedge. (b) Isolated triangular gold wedge with a head angle of 70.5° (central part of W). (c) Isolated triangular gold wedge with a head angle of 125.3° (side part of the W). (d) Single V-groove. (e) All the modes of the W-wedge.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Intensity distribution of the 3rd order mode of the coupled air-Au V waveguides - (a) horizontal, (b) vertical polarizations. Insets: respective experimental results (same as figs. 4b,c).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Lowest order mode of the gold coated silicon wedge, tightly confined to the wedge tip.

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