Abstract

Polymer materials able to change reflective properties due to mechanical deformation fundamentally challenge the theory of soft materials and are important for a number of emerging applications. The most promising of those are chiral lasers. In this communication, we report novel cholesteric materials that display large color change from far red to blue and a shift of the position of the selective reflection band under uniaxial strain from near infrared to ultraviolet. Optical pumping of these materials which are doped with laser dyes, leads to lasing at the wavelengths controlled by strain within the emission interval of laser dyes of 80nm.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2007

H. Yoshida, C. H. Lee, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, "Optical tuning and switching of photonic defect modes in cholesteric liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparone, A. Mazulla, and P. V. Shibaev, "Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 19, 565-568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, "Color changing cholesteric polymer films sensitive to amino acids," Macromolecules 39, 3986-3992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, L. P. Chen, C. Doyle, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, "Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped cholesteric polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111106-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ford, S. Morris, and H. J. Coles, "Phototonics and lasing in liquid crystals," Mater. Today 9, 36-42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "Photonic gaps in cholesteric elastomers under deformation," Phys. Rev. E 70, 011703 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Cao, "Lasing in random media," Waves Random Media 13, R1-R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Shibaev, V. I. Kopp, and A. Genack, "Photonic materials based on mixtures of cholesteric liquid crystals with polymers," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 6961-6964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp, Z.-Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, "Lasing in chiral photonic structures," Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 369-416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "Evolution of photonic structure on deformation of cholesteric elastomers," Phys. Rev. E. 65, 051704-6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Shibaev, K. Tang, A. Z. Genack, V. I. Kopp, M. M. Green, "Lasing from a stiff chain polymeric lyotropic cholesteric liquid crystal," Macromolecules 35, 3022-3025 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, " Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II," Nat. Mater. 1, 111-113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. M. Terentjev, M. Warner, and Y. Mao, "Cholesteric elastomers: deformable photonic solids," Phys. Rev. E 64, 041803-8 (2001).

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Zapotocky, L. Ramos, P. Poulin, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, "Particle-stabilized defect gel in cholesteric liquid crystals," Science 283, 209-212, 1999.
[CrossRef]

1998

Barberi, R.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparone, A. Mazulla, and P. V. Shibaev, "Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 19, 565-568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bartolino, R.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparone, A. Mazulla, and P. V. Shibaev, "Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 19, 565-568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bobrovsky, A.

Cao, H.

H. Cao, "Lasing in random media," Waves Random Media 13, R1-R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, "Color changing cholesteric polymer films sensitive to amino acids," Macromolecules 39, 3986-3992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W. Y.

W. Y. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, " Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II," Nat. Mater. 1, 111-113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chanishvili, A.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparone, A. Mazulla, and P. V. Shibaev, "Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 19, 565-568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. P.

Y. Huang, L. P. Chen, C. Doyle, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, "Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped cholesteric polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111106-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiappetta, D.

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, "Color changing cholesteric polymer films sensitive to amino acids," Macromolecules 39, 3986-3992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Shibaev, R. L. Sanford, D. Chiappetta, V. Milner, A. Genack and A. Bobrovsky, "Light controllable tuning and switching of lasing in chiral liquid crystals," Opt. Express 13, 2358-2363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chilaya, G.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparone, A. Mazulla, and P. V. Shibaev, "Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 19, 565-568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cicuta, P.

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "Photonic gaps in cholesteric elastomers under deformation," Phys. Rev. E 70, 011703 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "Evolution of photonic structure on deformation of cholesteric elastomers," Phys. Rev. E. 65, 051704-6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cipparone, G.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparone, A. Mazulla, and P. V. Shibaev, "Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 19, 565-568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coles, H. J.

A. Ford, S. Morris, and H. J. Coles, "Phototonics and lasing in liquid crystals," Mater. Today 9, 36-42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, C.

Y. Huang, L. P. Chen, C. Doyle, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, "Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped cholesteric polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111106-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, B.

Finkelmann, H.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ford, A.

A. Ford, S. Morris, and H. J. Coles, "Phototonics and lasing in liquid crystals," Mater. Today 9, 36-42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, A.

H. Yoshida, C. H. Lee, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, "Optical tuning and switching of photonic defect modes in cholesteric liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A.

P. V. Shibaev, R. L. Sanford, D. Chiappetta, V. Milner, A. Genack and A. Bobrovsky, "Light controllable tuning and switching of lasing in chiral liquid crystals," Opt. Express 13, 2358-2363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Shibaev, V. I. Kopp, and A. Genack, "Photonic materials based on mixtures of cholesteric liquid crystals with polymers," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 6961-6964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A. Z.

V. I. Kopp, Z.-Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, "Lasing in chiral photonic structures," Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 369-416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Shibaev, K. Tang, A. Z. Genack, V. I. Kopp, M. M. Green, "Lasing from a stiff chain polymeric lyotropic cholesteric liquid crystal," Macromolecules 35, 3022-3025 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, "Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 1707-1709 (1998).

Green, M. M.

P. V. Shibaev, K. Tang, A. Z. Genack, V. I. Kopp, M. M. Green, "Lasing from a stiff chain polymeric lyotropic cholesteric liquid crystal," Macromolecules 35, 3022-3025 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, L. P. Chen, C. Doyle, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, "Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped cholesteric polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111106-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. T.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, V. I.

P. V. Shibaev, V. I. Kopp, and A. Genack, "Photonic materials based on mixtures of cholesteric liquid crystals with polymers," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 6961-6964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kopp, Z.-Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, "Lasing in chiral photonic structures," Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 369-416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Shibaev, K. Tang, A. Z. Genack, V. I. Kopp, M. M. Green, "Lasing from a stiff chain polymeric lyotropic cholesteric liquid crystal," Macromolecules 35, 3022-3025 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, V.I.

Lee, C.H.

H. Yoshida, C. H. Lee, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, "Optical tuning and switching of photonic defect modes in cholesteric liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lubensky, T. C.

M. Zapotocky, L. Ramos, P. Poulin, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, "Particle-stabilized defect gel in cholesteric liquid crystals," Science 283, 209-212, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Mao, Y.

E. M. Terentjev, M. Warner, and Y. Mao, "Cholesteric elastomers: deformable photonic solids," Phys. Rev. E 64, 041803-8 (2001).

Mark, W.

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, "Color changing cholesteric polymer films sensitive to amino acids," Macromolecules 39, 3986-3992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazulla, A.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparone, A. Mazulla, and P. V. Shibaev, "Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 19, 565-568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Milner, V.

Moreira, M.

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, "Color changing cholesteric polymer films sensitive to amino acids," Macromolecules 39, 3986-3992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morris, S.

A. Ford, S. Morris, and H. J. Coles, "Phototonics and lasing in liquid crystals," Mater. Today 9, 36-42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, A.

W. Y. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, " Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II," Nat. Mater. 1, 111-113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, A.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

H. Yoshida, C. H. Lee, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, "Optical tuning and switching of photonic defect modes in cholesteric liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, "Color changing cholesteric polymer films sensitive to amino acids," Macromolecules 39, 3986-3992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, " Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II," Nat. Mater. 1, 111-113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petriashvili, G.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparone, A. Mazulla, and P. V. Shibaev, "Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 19, 565-568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poulin, P.

M. Zapotocky, L. Ramos, P. Poulin, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, "Particle-stabilized defect gel in cholesteric liquid crystals," Science 283, 209-212, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Ramos, L.

M. Zapotocky, L. Ramos, P. Poulin, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, "Particle-stabilized defect gel in cholesteric liquid crystals," Science 283, 209-212, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Sanford, R. L.

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, "Color changing cholesteric polymer films sensitive to amino acids," Macromolecules 39, 3986-3992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Shibaev, R. L. Sanford, D. Chiappetta, V. Milner, A. Genack and A. Bobrovsky, "Light controllable tuning and switching of lasing in chiral liquid crystals," Opt. Express 13, 2358-2363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shibaev, P. V.

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, "Color changing cholesteric polymer films sensitive to amino acids," Macromolecules 39, 3986-3992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Shibaev, R. L. Sanford, D. Chiappetta, V. Milner, A. Genack and A. Bobrovsky, "Light controllable tuning and switching of lasing in chiral liquid crystals," Opt. Express 13, 2358-2363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Shibaev, V. I. Kopp, and A. Genack, "Photonic materials based on mixtures of cholesteric liquid crystals with polymers," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 6961-6964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Shibaev, K. Tang, A. Z. Genack, V. I. Kopp, M. M. Green, "Lasing from a stiff chain polymeric lyotropic cholesteric liquid crystal," Macromolecules 35, 3022-3025 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shibaev, P.V.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparone, A. Mazulla, and P. V. Shibaev, "Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 19, 565-568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taheri, B.

W. Y. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, " Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II," Nat. Mater. 1, 111-113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tajbakhsh, A. R.

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "Photonic gaps in cholesteric elastomers under deformation," Phys. Rev. E 70, 011703 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "Evolution of photonic structure on deformation of cholesteric elastomers," Phys. Rev. E. 65, 051704-6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tang, K.

P. V. Shibaev, K. Tang, A. Z. Genack, V. I. Kopp, M. M. Green, "Lasing from a stiff chain polymeric lyotropic cholesteric liquid crystal," Macromolecules 35, 3022-3025 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Terentjev, E. M.

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "Photonic gaps in cholesteric elastomers under deformation," Phys. Rev. E 70, 011703 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "Evolution of photonic structure on deformation of cholesteric elastomers," Phys. Rev. E. 65, 051704-6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Terentjev, M. Warner, and Y. Mao, "Cholesteric elastomers: deformable photonic solids," Phys. Rev. E 64, 041803-8 (2001).

Vithana, H. K. M.

Warner, M.

E. M. Terentjev, M. Warner, and Y. Mao, "Cholesteric elastomers: deformable photonic solids," Phys. Rev. E 64, 041803-8 (2001).

Weitz, D. A.

M. Zapotocky, L. Ramos, P. Poulin, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, "Particle-stabilized defect gel in cholesteric liquid crystals," Science 283, 209-212, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Y. Huang, L. P. Chen, C. Doyle, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, "Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped cholesteric polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111106-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

H. Yoshida, C. H. Lee, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, "Optical tuning and switching of photonic defect modes in cholesteric liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zapotocky, M.

M. Zapotocky, L. Ramos, P. Poulin, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, "Particle-stabilized defect gel in cholesteric liquid crystals," Science 283, 209-212, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.-Q.

V. I. Kopp, Z.-Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, "Lasing in chiral photonic structures," Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 369-416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Huang, L. P. Chen, C. Doyle, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, "Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped cholesteric polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111106-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomer," Adv. Mater. 13, 1069-1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparone, A. Mazulla, and P. V. Shibaev, "Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 19, 565-568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Yoshida, C. H. Lee, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, "Optical tuning and switching of photonic defect modes in cholesteric liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, L. P. Chen, C. Doyle, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, "Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped cholesteric polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111106-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

P. V. Shibaev, V. I. Kopp, and A. Genack, "Photonic materials based on mixtures of cholesteric liquid crystals with polymers," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 6961-6964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

P. V. Shibaev, K. Tang, A. Z. Genack, V. I. Kopp, M. M. Green, "Lasing from a stiff chain polymeric lyotropic cholesteric liquid crystal," Macromolecules 35, 3022-3025 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Shibaev, D. Chiappetta, R. L. Sanford, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Moreira, W. Cao, and M. M. Green, "Color changing cholesteric polymer films sensitive to amino acids," Macromolecules 39, 3986-3992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Materials Today

A. Ford, S. Morris, and H. J. Coles, "Phototonics and lasing in liquid crystals," Mater. Today 9, 36-42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

W. Y. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, " Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II," Nat. Mater. 1, 111-113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E

E. M. Terentjev, M. Warner, and Y. Mao, "Cholesteric elastomers: deformable photonic solids," Phys. Rev. E 64, 041803-8 (2001).

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "Photonic gaps in cholesteric elastomers under deformation," Phys. Rev. E 70, 011703 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E.

P. Cicuta, A. R. Tajbakhsh, and E. M. Terentjev, "Evolution of photonic structure on deformation of cholesteric elastomers," Phys. Rev. E. 65, 051704-6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

V. I. Kopp, Z.-Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, "Lasing in chiral photonic structures," Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 369-416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. Zapotocky, L. Ramos, P. Poulin, T. C. Lubensky, and D. A. Weitz, "Particle-stabilized defect gel in cholesteric liquid crystals," Science 283, 209-212, 1999.
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Waves Random Media

H. Cao, "Lasing in random media," Waves Random Media 13, R1-R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Chadrasekhar, Liquid Crystals, (Cambridge University Press, 2004), second edition.

J. W. Doane, A. Khan, in Flexible Flat Panel Displays, G. Crawford, ed., (John Wiley and Sons, 2005) pp. 331-354 .

A. Z. Genack, A. A. Chabanov, P. Sebbah, and B. A. van Tiggelen, Optics: Waves in Random Media, in Encyclopedia of Condensed Matter Physics, (Elsevier, 2005).

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