Abstract

We propose coherent control of photoelectron acceleration at metal surfaces mediated by surface plasmon polaritons. A high degree of spectral and spatial control of the emission process can be exercised by amplitude and phase controlling the optical waveform (including the carrier-envelope phase) of the plasmon generating few-cycle laser pulse. Numerical results show that the emitted electron beam is highly directional and monoenergetic suggesting applications in contemporary ultrafast methods where ultrashort, well-behaved electron pulses are required.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, "The physics of attosecond light pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813-855 (2004) and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Aeschlimann,  et al., "Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields," Nature 446, 301-304 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Stockman, M. F. Kling, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Attosecond nanoplasmonic field microscope," Nat. Photonicsa 1, 539-544 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. A. Lobastov, R. Srinivasan, and A. H. Zewail, "Four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102, 7069-7073 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, "An atomic-level view of melting using femtosecond electron diffraction," Science 302, 1382-1385 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Hommelhoff, C. Kealhofer, and M. A. Kasevich, "Ultrafast electron pulses from a Tungsten tip triggered by low-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 247402 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Ropers, D. R. Solli, C. P. Schulz, C. Lienau, and T. Elsaesser, "Localized multiphoton emission of femtosecond electron pulses from metal nanotips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043907 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. E. Irvine, A. Dechant, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Generation of 0.4-keV femtosecond electron pulses using impulsively excited surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 184801 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Zawadzka, D. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130-2132 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Kupersztych, P. Monchicourt, and M. Raynaud, "Ponderomotive acceleration of photoelectrons in surface-plasmon-assisted multiphoton photoelectric emission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5180-5183 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. E. Irvine, P. Dombi, G. Farkas, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Influence of the Carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle pulses on Ponderomotive Surface-plasmon Electron Acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146801 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Raether, Surface plasmons on Smoth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springler-Verlag 1988).
  14. S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Surface-plasmon-based electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. A 73, 013815 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, C. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, C. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope Phase-controlled Quantum Interference of Injected Photocurrents in Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping: role of the carrier-envelope phase," Opt. Lett. 29, 2160-2162 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. Aeschlimann,  et al., "Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields," Nature 446, 301-304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stockman, M. F. Kling, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Attosecond nanoplasmonic field microscope," Nat. Photonicsa 1, 539-544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Ropers, D. R. Solli, C. P. Schulz, C. Lienau, and T. Elsaesser, "Localized multiphoton emission of femtosecond electron pulses from metal nanotips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Surface-plasmon-based electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. A 73, 013815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Irvine, P. Dombi, G. Farkas, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Influence of the Carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle pulses on Ponderomotive Surface-plasmon Electron Acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hommelhoff, C. Kealhofer, and M. A. Kasevich, "Ultrafast electron pulses from a Tungsten tip triggered by low-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 247402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

V. A. Lobastov, R. Srinivasan, and A. H. Zewail, "Four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102, 7069-7073 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

S. E. Irvine, A. Dechant, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Generation of 0.4-keV femtosecond electron pulses using impulsively excited surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 184801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, C. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, C. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope Phase-controlled Quantum Interference of Injected Photocurrents in Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping: role of the carrier-envelope phase," Opt. Lett. 29, 2160-2162 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, "An atomic-level view of melting using femtosecond electron diffraction," Science 302, 1382-1385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

J. Zawadzka, D. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130-2132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kupersztych, P. Monchicourt, and M. Raynaud, "Ponderomotive acceleration of photoelectrons in surface-plasmon-assisted multiphoton photoelectric emission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5180-5183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aeschlimann, M.

M. Aeschlimann,  et al., "Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields," Nature 446, 301-304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, "The physics of attosecond light pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813-855 (2004) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, C. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, C. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhat, R. D. R.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope Phase-controlled Quantum Interference of Injected Photocurrents in Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgdörfer, J.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, C. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, C. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carey, J. J.

J. Zawadzka, D. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130-2132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S. T.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope Phase-controlled Quantum Interference of Injected Photocurrents in Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dechant, A.

S. E. Irvine, A. Dechant, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Generation of 0.4-keV femtosecond electron pulses using impulsively excited surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 184801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiMauro, L. F.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, "The physics of attosecond light pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813-855 (2004) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Dombi, P.

S. E. Irvine, P. Dombi, G. Farkas, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Influence of the Carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle pulses on Ponderomotive Surface-plasmon Electron Acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, C. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, C. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwyer, J. R.

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, "An atomic-level view of melting using femtosecond electron diffraction," Science 302, 1382-1385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elezzabi, A. Y.

S. E. Irvine, P. Dombi, G. Farkas, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Influence of the Carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle pulses on Ponderomotive Surface-plasmon Electron Acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Surface-plasmon-based electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. A 73, 013815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Irvine, A. Dechant, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Generation of 0.4-keV femtosecond electron pulses using impulsively excited surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 184801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsaesser, T.

C. Ropers, D. R. Solli, C. P. Schulz, C. Lienau, and T. Elsaesser, "Localized multiphoton emission of femtosecond electron pulses from metal nanotips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farkas, G.

S. E. Irvine, P. Dombi, G. Farkas, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Influence of the Carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle pulses on Ponderomotive Surface-plasmon Electron Acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortier, T. M.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope Phase-controlled Quantum Interference of Injected Photocurrents in Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibbs, H. M.

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, C. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, C. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, C. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, C. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hommelhoff, P.

P. Hommelhoff, C. Kealhofer, and M. A. Kasevich, "Ultrafast electron pulses from a Tungsten tip triggered by low-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 247402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Irvine, S. E.

S. E. Irvine, P. Dombi, G. Farkas, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Influence of the Carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle pulses on Ponderomotive Surface-plasmon Electron Acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Surface-plasmon-based electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. A 73, 013815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Irvine, A. Dechant, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Generation of 0.4-keV femtosecond electron pulses using impulsively excited surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 184801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaroszynski, D.

J. Zawadzka, D. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130-2132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope Phase-controlled Quantum Interference of Injected Photocurrents in Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jordan, R. E.

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, "An atomic-level view of melting using femtosecond electron diffraction," Science 302, 1382-1385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kakehata, M.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, C. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, C. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kasevich, M. A.

P. Hommelhoff, C. Kealhofer, and M. A. Kasevich, "Ultrafast electron pulses from a Tungsten tip triggered by low-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 247402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kealhofer, C.

P. Hommelhoff, C. Kealhofer, and M. A. Kasevich, "Ultrafast electron pulses from a Tungsten tip triggered by low-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 247402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, G.

Kleineberg, U.

M. Stockman, M. F. Kling, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Attosecond nanoplasmonic field microscope," Nat. Photonicsa 1, 539-544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kling, M. F.

M. Stockman, M. F. Kling, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Attosecond nanoplasmonic field microscope," Nat. Photonicsa 1, 539-544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

M. Stockman, M. F. Kling, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Attosecond nanoplasmonic field microscope," Nat. Photonicsa 1, 539-544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, C. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, C. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kupersztych, J.

J. Kupersztych, P. Monchicourt, and M. Raynaud, "Ponderomotive acceleration of photoelectrons in surface-plasmon-assisted multiphoton photoelectric emission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5180-5183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemell, C.

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, C. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, C. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lienau, C.

C. Ropers, D. R. Solli, C. P. Schulz, C. Lienau, and T. Elsaesser, "Localized multiphoton emission of femtosecond electron pulses from metal nanotips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lobastov, V. A.

V. A. Lobastov, R. Srinivasan, and A. H. Zewail, "Four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102, 7069-7073 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, R. J. D.

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, "An atomic-level view of melting using femtosecond electron diffraction," Science 302, 1382-1385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monchicourt, P.

J. Kupersztych, P. Monchicourt, and M. Raynaud, "Ponderomotive acceleration of photoelectrons in surface-plasmon-assisted multiphoton photoelectric emission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5180-5183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Mücke, O. D.

Paulus, G. G.

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, C. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, C. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raynaud, M.

J. Kupersztych, P. Monchicourt, and M. Raynaud, "Ponderomotive acceleration of photoelectrons in surface-plasmon-assisted multiphoton photoelectric emission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5180-5183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roos, P. A.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope Phase-controlled Quantum Interference of Injected Photocurrents in Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ropers, C.

C. Ropers, D. R. Solli, C. P. Schulz, C. Lienau, and T. Elsaesser, "Localized multiphoton emission of femtosecond electron pulses from metal nanotips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, C. P.

C. Ropers, D. R. Solli, C. P. Schulz, C. Lienau, and T. Elsaesser, "Localized multiphoton emission of femtosecond electron pulses from metal nanotips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sipe, J. E.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope Phase-controlled Quantum Interference of Injected Photocurrents in Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siwick, B. J.

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, "An atomic-level view of melting using femtosecond electron diffraction," Science 302, 1382-1385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solli, D. R.

C. Ropers, D. R. Solli, C. P. Schulz, C. Lienau, and T. Elsaesser, "Localized multiphoton emission of femtosecond electron pulses from metal nanotips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, R.

V. A. Lobastov, R. Srinivasan, and A. H. Zewail, "Four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102, 7069-7073 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M.

M. Stockman, M. F. Kling, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Attosecond nanoplasmonic field microscope," Nat. Photonicsa 1, 539-544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, C. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, C. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tritschler, T.

Udem, T.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, C. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, C. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

Wynne, K.

J. Zawadzka, D. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130-2132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zawadzka, J.

J. Zawadzka, D. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130-2132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zewail, A. H.

V. A. Lobastov, R. Srinivasan, and A. H. Zewail, "Four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102, 7069-7073 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Zawadzka, D. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130-2132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonicsa (1)

M. Stockman, M. F. Kling, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Attosecond nanoplasmonic field microscope," Nat. Photonicsa 1, 539-544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Aeschlimann,  et al., "Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields," Nature 446, 301-304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, C. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Surface-plasmon-based electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. A 73, 013815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, C. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope Phase-controlled Quantum Interference of Injected Photocurrents in Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hommelhoff, C. Kealhofer, and M. A. Kasevich, "Ultrafast electron pulses from a Tungsten tip triggered by low-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 247402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Ropers, D. R. Solli, C. P. Schulz, C. Lienau, and T. Elsaesser, "Localized multiphoton emission of femtosecond electron pulses from metal nanotips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Irvine, A. Dechant, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Generation of 0.4-keV femtosecond electron pulses using impulsively excited surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 184801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kupersztych, P. Monchicourt, and M. Raynaud, "Ponderomotive acceleration of photoelectrons in surface-plasmon-assisted multiphoton photoelectric emission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5180-5183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Irvine, P. Dombi, G. Farkas, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Influence of the Carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle pulses on Ponderomotive Surface-plasmon Electron Acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (1)

V. A. Lobastov, R. Srinivasan, and A. H. Zewail, "Four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102, 7069-7073 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, "An atomic-level view of melting using femtosecond electron diffraction," Science 302, 1382-1385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, "The physics of attosecond light pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813-855 (2004) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

H. Raether, Surface plasmons on Smoth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springler-Verlag 1988).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MPG (1110 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The generation of electron beams by SP enhanced electron acceleration. Field amplitudes (false colour plot) and electron trajectories (red lines) illustrate the model used. For further details see text.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized photoacceleration maps (kinetic energy distribution of electrons emitted at different points of the surface: (a), (d) and (g), in false colour representation), angular and kinetic energy distribution ((b), (e) and (h)) and macroscopic electron spectra ((c), (f) and (i)) of surface plasmon accelerated electrons for three example parameter sets. (a)–(c) are for 15 fs, (d)–(i) are for 5 fs laser pulses. In (g)–(i) we considered emission only from a 300 nm wide strip, as illustrated in (g) corresponding to a nanolocalized emission region. For further parameters, see text.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized photoacceleration maps (the kinetic energy distribution of electrons emitted at different angles from the surface) in false colour representation for two different carrier-envelope phase values (φ 0=π/2 for (a) and φ 0=π for (b)). The accompanying animation shows the same distributions for more CE phase values together with integrated electron spectra and the waveform of the interacting laser pulse (file size 1.08 MB). [Media 1]

Equations (2)

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E y SP ( x , y , t ) = η E 0 E env ( x , t ) cos ( k SP x ω 0 t + φ 0 ) exp ( α y )
E x SP ( x , y , t ) = η a E 0 E env ( x , t ) cos ( k SP x ω 0 t π 2 + φ 0 ) exp ( α y )

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