Abstract

We present a systematic study of GexAsySe1-x-y bulk chalcogenide glasses to determine the best composition for fabricating alloptical devices. The dependence of physical parameters such as the bandgap, glass transition temperature and third order optical nonlinearity (n2) on composition has been studied and a relation between the bond-structure and elevated linear loss levels in high Germanium glasses has been identified. It is found that glasses with 11<x<13 % are most suitable for all-optical devices.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Shiek-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Dispersion of Bound Electronic Nonlinear Refraction in Solids," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (4)

C. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, A. Prasad, R. A. Jarvis and B. Luther-Davies, "Optical properties and structural correlations of GeAsSe chalcogenide glasses," J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, 389-392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Wang, C. J. Zha, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, "Thermal characterization of Ge-As-Se glasses by differential scanning calorimetry," J. Mater. Sci.: Maters. Electron. 18, 419-422 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, "Nonlinear optics in glasses: How can we analyse?," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 68, 896-900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Madden, D-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta'eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, "Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration," Opt. Express 15, 14414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. C. Nguyen, K. Finsterbusch, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion in nonlinear figure of merit of As2Se3 chalcogenide fibre," Electron. Lett. 42, 571-572 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

J. Troles, F. Smektala, G. Boudebs, A. Monteil, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, "Chalcogenide glasses as solid state optical limiters at 1.064 µm," Opt. Mater. 25, 231-237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Gopinath, M. Solajcic, and E. P. Ippen, "Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se based glasses for telecommunications applications," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931-6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, "10-Gb/s transmission over 100 mm of standard fiber using 2R regeneration in an optical loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526-2528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, "Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching," Opt. Express 12, 5140-5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, and F. Seguineau, "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2779-2790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Boolchand, D. Georgiev, T. Qu, F. Wang, L. Cai, and S. Chakravarty, "Nanoscale phase separation effects near r=2.4 and 2.67 and rigidity transitions in chalcogenide glasses," C. R. Chim. 11, 713-724 (2003).

2002 (2)

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise and B. G. Aitken, "Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se Glasses for all-optical switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 822-824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw and I. D. Aggarwal, "Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching," Opt. Lett. 27, 119-121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Quemard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, "Chalcogenide glasses with high nonlinear optical properties for telecommunications," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1435-1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. N?mec, B. Frumarová, and M. Frumar, "Structure and properties of pure and Pr3+ doped Ge25Ga5Se70 and Ge30Ga5Se65 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 270, 137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeniuve, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leniendre, J. Lucas, A. Barthelemy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large nonlinear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear Refractive Index measurement in Chalcogenide Glass Fibres by self phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

M. Shiek-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Dispersion of Bound Electronic Nonlinear Refraction in Solids," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Vogel, M. J. Weber and D. M. Krol, "Nonlinear optical phenomena in glass," Phys. Chem. Glasses 32, 231-254 (1991).

1990 (2)

G. I. Stegeman and E. W. Wright, "All-Optical Waveguide Switching," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 95-122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. Tanaka, "Structural phase transitions in chalcogenide glass," Phys. Rev. B 39, 1270-1279 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1977 (1)

N. Kumagai, J. Shirafuji, and Y. Inuishi, "Raman and Infrared studies on vibrational properties of Ge-Se glasses," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 42, 1262-1268 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Aitken, B. G.

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise and B. G. Aitken, "Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se Glasses for all-optical switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 822-824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Amer, N. M.

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear Refractive Index measurement in Chalcogenide Glass Fibres by self phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Balmefrezol, E.

Barthelemy, A.

C. Quemard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, "Chalcogenide glasses with high nonlinear optical properties for telecommunications," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1435-1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leniendre, J. Lucas, A. Barthelemy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large nonlinear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beatty, R.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeniuve, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Z. J. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, "10-Gb/s transmission over 100 mm of standard fiber using 2R regeneration in an optical loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526-2528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

Boolchand, P.

P. Boolchand, D. Georgiev, T. Qu, F. Wang, L. Cai, and S. Chakravarty, "Nanoscale phase separation effects near r=2.4 and 2.67 and rigidity transitions in chalcogenide glasses," C. R. Chim. 11, 713-724 (2003).

Boudebs, G.

J. Troles, F. Smektala, G. Boudebs, A. Monteil, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, "Chalcogenide glasses as solid state optical limiters at 1.064 µm," Opt. Mater. 25, 231-237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brindel, P.

Bulla, D. A.

Bureau, B.

J. Troles, F. Smektala, G. Boudebs, A. Monteil, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, "Chalcogenide glasses as solid state optical limiters at 1.064 µm," Opt. Mater. 25, 231-237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cai, L.

P. Boolchand, D. Georgiev, T. Qu, F. Wang, L. Cai, and S. Chakravarty, "Nanoscale phase separation effects near r=2.4 and 2.67 and rigidity transitions in chalcogenide glasses," C. R. Chim. 11, 713-724 (2003).

Cardinal, T.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeniuve, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chakravarty, S.

P. Boolchand, D. Georgiev, T. Qu, F. Wang, L. Cai, and S. Chakravarty, "Nanoscale phase separation effects near r=2.4 and 2.67 and rigidity transitions in chalcogenide glasses," C. R. Chim. 11, 713-724 (2003).

Choi, D-Y.

Couderc, V.

C. Quemard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, "Chalcogenide glasses with high nonlinear optical properties for telecommunications," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1435-1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Angelis, C.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leniendre, J. Lucas, A. Barthelemy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large nonlinear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Finsterbusch, K.

H. C. Nguyen, K. Finsterbusch, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion in nonlinear figure of merit of As2Se3 chalcogenide fibre," Electron. Lett. 42, 571-572 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, D.

Frumar, M.

P. N?mec, B. Frumarová, and M. Frumar, "Structure and properties of pure and Pr3+ doped Ge25Ga5Se70 and Ge30Ga5Se65 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 270, 137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Frumarová, B.

P. N?mec, B. Frumarová, and M. Frumar, "Structure and properties of pure and Pr3+ doped Ge25Ga5Se70 and Ge30Ga5Se65 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 270, 137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Georgiev, D.

P. Boolchand, D. Georgiev, T. Qu, F. Wang, L. Cai, and S. Chakravarty, "Nanoscale phase separation effects near r=2.4 and 2.67 and rigidity transitions in chalcogenide glasses," C. R. Chim. 11, 713-724 (2003).

Gopinath, J. T.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Solajcic, and E. P. Ippen, "Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se based glasses for telecommunications applications," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931-6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gray, A.

Z. J. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, "10-Gb/s transmission over 100 mm of standard fiber using 2R regeneration in an optical loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526-2528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Shiek-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Dispersion of Bound Electronic Nonlinear Refraction in Solids," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Harbold, J. M.

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw and I. D. Aggarwal, "Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching," Opt. Lett. 27, 119-121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise and B. G. Aitken, "Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se Glasses for all-optical switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 822-824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z. J.

Z. J. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, "10-Gb/s transmission over 100 mm of standard fiber using 2R regeneration in an optical loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526-2528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

M. Shiek-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Dispersion of Bound Electronic Nonlinear Refraction in Solids," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, F. O.

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw and I. D. Aggarwal, "Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching," Opt. Lett. 27, 119-121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise and B. G. Aitken, "Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se Glasses for all-optical switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 822-824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inuishi, Y.

N. Kumagai, J. Shirafuji, and Y. Inuishi, "Raman and Infrared studies on vibrational properties of Ge-Se glasses," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 42, 1262-1268 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Solajcic, and E. P. Ippen, "Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se based glasses for telecommunications applications," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931-6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, W. B.

Jarvis, R.

Jarvis, R. A.

C. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, A. Prasad, R. A. Jarvis and B. Luther-Davies, "Optical properties and structural correlations of GeAsSe chalcogenide glasses," J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, 389-392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, T.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear Refractive Index measurement in Chalcogenide Glass Fibres by self phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

Khrushchev, I.

Z. J. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, "10-Gb/s transmission over 100 mm of standard fiber using 2R regeneration in an optical loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526-2528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

E. M. Vogel, M. J. Weber and D. M. Krol, "Nonlinear optical phenomena in glass," Phys. Chem. Glasses 32, 231-254 (1991).

Kubodera, K.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear Refractive Index measurement in Chalcogenide Glass Fibres by self phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, N.

N. Kumagai, J. Shirafuji, and Y. Inuishi, "Raman and Infrared studies on vibrational properties of Ge-Se glasses," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 42, 1262-1268 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lavigne, B.

Le Foulgoc, K.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeniuve, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leclerc, O.

Leniendre, L.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leniendre, J. Lucas, A. Barthelemy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large nonlinear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Lucas, J.

J. Troles, F. Smektala, G. Boudebs, A. Monteil, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, "Chalcogenide glasses as solid state optical limiters at 1.064 µm," Opt. Mater. 25, 231-237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Quemard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, "Chalcogenide glasses with high nonlinear optical properties for telecommunications," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1435-1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leniendre, J. Lucas, A. Barthelemy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large nonlinear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

C. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, A. Prasad, R. A. Jarvis and B. Luther-Davies, "Optical properties and structural correlations of GeAsSe chalcogenide glasses," J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, 389-392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Madden, D-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta'eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, "Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration," Opt. Express 15, 14414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Wang, C. J. Zha, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, "Thermal characterization of Ge-As-Se glasses by differential scanning calorimetry," J. Mater. Sci.: Maters. Electron. 18, 419-422 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, "Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching," Opt. Express 12, 5140-5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S. J.

R. P. Wang, C. J. Zha, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, "Thermal characterization of Ge-As-Se glasses by differential scanning calorimetry," J. Mater. Sci.: Maters. Electron. 18, 419-422 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Madden, D-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta'eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, "Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration," Opt. Express 15, 14414 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, N.

Meneghini, C.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeniuve, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monteil, A.

J. Troles, F. Smektala, G. Boudebs, A. Monteil, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, "Chalcogenide glasses as solid state optical limiters at 1.064 µm," Opt. Mater. 25, 231-237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

H. C. Nguyen, K. Finsterbusch, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion in nonlinear figure of merit of As2Se3 chalcogenide fibre," Electron. Lett. 42, 571-572 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nemec, P.

P. N?mec, B. Frumarová, and M. Frumar, "Structure and properties of pure and Pr3+ doped Ge25Ga5Se70 and Ge30Ga5Se65 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 270, 137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

H. C. Nguyen, K. Finsterbusch, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion in nonlinear figure of merit of As2Se3 chalcogenide fibre," Electron. Lett. 42, 571-572 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. Q.

Nishimura, M.

Pelusi, M. D.

Pierre, L.

Prasad, A.

C. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, A. Prasad, R. A. Jarvis and B. Luther-Davies, "Optical properties and structural correlations of GeAsSe chalcogenide glasses," J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, 389-392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qu, T.

P. Boolchand, D. Georgiev, T. Qu, F. Wang, L. Cai, and S. Chakravarty, "Nanoscale phase separation effects near r=2.4 and 2.67 and rigidity transitions in chalcogenide glasses," C. R. Chim. 11, 713-724 (2003).

Quemard, C.

C. Quemard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, "Chalcogenide glasses with high nonlinear optical properties for telecommunications," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1435-1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leniendre, J. Lucas, A. Barthelemy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large nonlinear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K. A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeniuve, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A.

Rode, A. V.

Rode, A.V.

R. P. Wang, C. J. Zha, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, "Thermal characterization of Ge-As-Se glasses by differential scanning calorimetry," J. Mater. Sci.: Maters. Electron. 18, 419-422 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rouvillain, D.

Ruan, Y.

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

Sasaoka, E.

Schulte, A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeniuve, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seguineau, F.

Shaw, L. B.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shiek-Bahae, M.

M. Shiek-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Dispersion of Bound Electronic Nonlinear Refraction in Solids," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shim, H.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeniuve, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shirafuji, J.

N. Kumagai, J. Shirafuji, and Y. Inuishi, "Raman and Infrared studies on vibrational properties of Ge-Se glasses," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 42, 1262-1268 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

J. Troles, F. Smektala, G. Boudebs, A. Monteil, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, "Chalcogenide glasses as solid state optical limiters at 1.064 µm," Opt. Mater. 25, 231-237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Quemard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, "Chalcogenide glasses with high nonlinear optical properties for telecommunications," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1435-1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leniendre, J. Lucas, A. Barthelemy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large nonlinear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A.

C. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, A. Prasad, R. A. Jarvis and B. Luther-Davies, "Optical properties and structural correlations of GeAsSe chalcogenide glasses," J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, 389-392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solajcic, M.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Solajcic, and E. P. Ippen, "Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se based glasses for telecommunications applications," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931-6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman and E. W. Wright, "All-Optical Waveguide Switching," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 95-122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Suetsugu, Y.

Suzuki, K.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear Refractive Index measurement in Chalcogenide Glass Fibres by self phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ta'eed, V. G.

Takagi, M.

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, "Nonlinear optics in glasses: How can we analyse?," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 68, 896-900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, "Structural phase transitions in chalcogenide glass," Phys. Rev. B 39, 1270-1279 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Troles, J.

J. Troles, F. Smektala, G. Boudebs, A. Monteil, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, "Chalcogenide glasses as solid state optical limiters at 1.064 µm," Opt. Mater. 25, 231-237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Shiek-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Dispersion of Bound Electronic Nonlinear Refraction in Solids," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Viens, J. F.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeniuve, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Villeniuve, A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeniuve, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, E. M.

E. M. Vogel, M. J. Weber and D. M. Krol, "Nonlinear optical phenomena in glass," Phys. Chem. Glasses 32, 231-254 (1991).

Wang, F.

P. Boolchand, D. Georgiev, T. Qu, F. Wang, L. Cai, and S. Chakravarty, "Nanoscale phase separation effects near r=2.4 and 2.67 and rigidity transitions in chalcogenide glasses," C. R. Chim. 11, 713-724 (2003).

Wang, R. P.

R. P. Wang, C. J. Zha, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, "Thermal characterization of Ge-As-Se glasses by differential scanning calorimetry," J. Mater. Sci.: Maters. Electron. 18, 419-422 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, A. Prasad, R. A. Jarvis and B. Luther-Davies, "Optical properties and structural correlations of GeAsSe chalcogenide glasses," J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, 389-392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

E. M. Vogel, M. J. Weber and D. M. Krol, "Nonlinear optical phenomena in glass," Phys. Chem. Glasses 32, 231-254 (1991).

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw and I. D. Aggarwal, "Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching," Opt. Lett. 27, 119-121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise and B. G. Aitken, "Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se Glasses for all-optical switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 822-824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. W.

G. I. Stegeman and E. W. Wright, "All-Optical Waveguide Switching," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 95-122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zha, C.

C. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, A. Prasad, R. A. Jarvis and B. Luther-Davies, "Optical properties and structural correlations of GeAsSe chalcogenide glasses," J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, 389-392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zha, C. J.

R. P. Wang, C. J. Zha, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, "Thermal characterization of Ge-As-Se glasses by differential scanning calorimetry," J. Mater. Sci.: Maters. Electron. 18, 419-422 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear Refractive Index measurement in Chalcogenide Glass Fibres by self phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Chim. (1)

P. Boolchand, D. Georgiev, T. Qu, F. Wang, L. Cai, and S. Chakravarty, "Nanoscale phase separation effects near r=2.4 and 2.67 and rigidity transitions in chalcogenide glasses," C. R. Chim. 11, 713-724 (2003).

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. C. Nguyen, K. Finsterbusch, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion in nonlinear figure of merit of As2Se3 chalcogenide fibre," Electron. Lett. 42, 571-572 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (2)

M. Shiek-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Dispersion of Bound Electronic Nonlinear Refraction in Solids," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. M. Harbold, F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise and B. G. Aitken, "Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se Glasses for all-optical switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 822-824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, "10-Gb/s transmission over 100 mm of standard fiber using 2R regeneration in an optical loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526-2528 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. T. Gopinath, M. Solajcic, and E. P. Ippen, "Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se based glasses for telecommunications applications," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931-6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. (1)

C. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, A. Prasad, R. A. Jarvis and B. Luther-Davies, "Optical properties and structural correlations of GeAsSe chalcogenide glasses," J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, 389-392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci.: Maters. Electron. (1)

R. P. Wang, C. J. Zha, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, "Thermal characterization of Ge-As-Se glasses by differential scanning calorimetry," J. Mater. Sci.: Maters. Electron. 18, 419-422 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeniuve, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leniendre, J. Lucas, A. Barthelemy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large nonlinear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. N?mec, B. Frumarová, and M. Frumar, "Structure and properties of pure and Pr3+ doped Ge25Ga5Se70 and Ge30Ga5Se65 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 270, 137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (2)

K. Tanaka, "Nonlinear optics in glasses: How can we analyse?," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 68, 896-900 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Quemard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, and J. Lucas, "Chalcogenide glasses with high nonlinear optical properties for telecommunications," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62, 1435-1440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

N. Kumagai, J. Shirafuji, and Y. Inuishi, "Raman and Infrared studies on vibrational properties of Ge-Se glasses," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 42, 1262-1268 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

J. Troles, F. Smektala, G. Boudebs, A. Monteil, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, "Chalcogenide glasses as solid state optical limiters at 1.064 µm," Opt. Mater. 25, 231-237 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. I. Stegeman and E. W. Wright, "All-Optical Waveguide Switching," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 95-122 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Glasses (1)

E. M. Vogel, M. J. Weber and D. M. Krol, "Nonlinear optical phenomena in glass," Phys. Chem. Glasses 32, 231-254 (1991).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

K. Tanaka, "Structural phase transitions in chalcogenide glass," Phys. Rev. B 39, 1270-1279 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

R. P. Wang, A. V. Rode, C. J. Zha, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, "Annealing induced phase transformation in amorphous As2S3 films," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063524-063524-4 (2006).

Z. Borisova, Glassy Semiconductors, (Plenum Press 1981).

T. Qu, D. G. Georgiev, P. Boolchand, and M. Micoulaut, "The Intermediate Phase in Ternary GexAsxSe1-2x Glasses," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 754, CC8.1.1- CC8.1.12 (2003).

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthold, R.-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, and K. D. K. Feder, "40 Gbit/s pseudo-linear transmission over one million kilometers," in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Anaheim, CA, 2002.

M. Popescu, Non-crystalline Chalcogenides, (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Linear absorption loss profile at 1200 nm, with varying Ge content, for bulk glasses

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Variation of bandgap (Eg, open squares) and glass transition temperature (Tg, filled circles) with Ge content for Ge-As-Se bulk glasses

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured Raman Spectra for (a) low Germanium and (b) high Germanium compositions

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Defect bond concentration corresponding to integrated area of Raman peak for varying Ge content

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Linear (measured at 1550 nm) and nonlinear (measured at 1500 nm) refractive indices of Ge-As-Se bulk compositions

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Dispersion of nonlinear refractive index with bandgap compared with prediction of the model introduced by Sheik-Bahae et al [30].

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Compositions synthesized and co-ordination numbers

Metrics