Abstract

We describe a methodology for designing the optimal gain profiles for gain-based, tunable, broadband, slow-light pulse delay devices based on stimulated Brillouin scattering. Optimal gain profiles are obtained under system constraints such as distortion, total pump power, and maximum gain. The delay performance of three candidate systems: Gaussian noise pump broadened (GNPB), optimal gain-only, and optimal gain+absorption are studied using Gaussian and super-Gaussian pulses. For the same pulse bandwidth, we find that the optimal gain+absorption medium improves the delay performance by 2.1 times the GNPB medium delay and 1.3 times the optimal gain-only medium delay for Gaussian pulses. For the super-Gaussian pulses the optimal gain-only medium provides a fractional pulse delay 1.8 times the GNPB medium delay.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. Boyd, R.W. , and Gauthier, D.J.  in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, Ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2002), 43, chap. 6, 497-530.
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and R. W. Boyd, "Slow Light: From basics to future prospects," Photonics Spectra, 44 -50, (2006).
  3. Sedgwick, F.G. , Pesala, B. , Lin, J.Y. , Ko, W.S. , Zhao, X. , and Chang-Hasnain, C.J.  (2007). THz-bandwidth tunable slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers. Opt. Express 15, 747-753.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Vlasov, Y.A. , O’Boyle, M. , Hamann, H.F. , and McNab, S.J.  (2005). Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides. Nature 438, 65-69.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Shumakher, E. , Willinger, A. , Blit, R. , Dahan, D. , and Eisenstein, G.  (2006). Large tunable delay with low distortion of 10 Gbit/s data in a slow light system based on narrow band fiber parametric amplification. Opt. Express 14, 8540-8545.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Blair, S. , and Zheng, K.  (2006). Intensity-tunable group delay using stimulated Raman scattering in silicon slow-light waveguides. Opt. Express 14, 1064-1069.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett.  94, 153902(1-4) (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zhubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802(R1-4) (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Stenner, M.D. , Neifeld, M.A. , Zhu, Z. , Dawes, A.M.C. , and Gauthier, D.J.  (2005). Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay. Opt. Express 13, 9995-10002.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, "Distortion-Reduced Pulse-Train Propagation With Large Delay in a Triple Gain Media," OSA Slow and Fast Light conference.
  11. Minardo, A. , Bernini, R. , and Zeni, L.  (2006). Low distortion Brillouin slow light in optical fibers using AMmodulation. Opt. Express 14, 5866-5876.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Lu, Z. , Dong, Y. , and Li, Q.  (2007). Slow light in multi-line Brillouin gain spectrum. Opt. Express 15, 1871-1877.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Pant, R. , Stenner, M.D. , Neifeld, M.A. , Shi, Z. , Boyd, R.W. , and Gauthier, D.J.  . Maximizing the opening of eye-diagrams for slow-light systems. Appl. Opt. 46, (2007) .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Shi, Z. , Boyd, R.W. , Pant, R. , Stenner, M.D. , Neifeld, M.A. , Zhu, Z. , and Gauthier, D.J.  (2007). Design of a Tunable Time-Delay Element using Multiple Gain Lines for Large Fractional Delay with HIgh Data Fidelity. Opt. Lett. 32, 1986-1988.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Herraez, M.G. , Song, K.Y. , and Thevenaz, L.  (2006). Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers. Opt. Express 14, 1395-1400.
    [CrossRef]
  16. Zadok, A. , Eyal, A. , and Tur, M.  (2006). Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp. Opt. Express 14, 8498-8505.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Schneider, T. , Junker, M. , and Lauterbach, K.-U.  (2006). Potential ultra wide slow-light bandwidth enhancement. Opt. Express 14, 11082-11087.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Zhu, Z. , Dawes, A.M.C. , Gauthier, D.J. , Zhang, L. , and Willner, A.E.  (2007). Broadband SBS Slow Light in an Optical Fiber. J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201-206.
    [CrossRef]
  19. Song, K.-Y. , and Hotate, K.  (2007). 25 GHz bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers. Opt. Lett. 32, 217-219.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Schneider, T. , Henker, R. , Lauterbach, K.-U. , and Junker, M.  (2007). Comparison of delay enhancement mechanisms for SBS-based slow ligt systems. Opt. Express 15, 9606-9613.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Pant, R. , Stenner, M.D. , and Neifeld, M.A.  "Designing Optimal Gain Profiles for Slow-Light Applications," Proc. SPIE 6482, 64820R1-7 (2007).
  22. Zhu, Z. , and Gauthier, D.J.  (2006). Nearly Transparent SBS slow light in an optical fiber. Opt. Express 14, 7238-7245.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Chin, S. , Herraez, M.G. , and Thevenaz, L.  (2006). Zero-gain slow fast light propagation in an optical fiber. Opt. Express 14, 10684-10692.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Zhu, Z. , Gauthier, D.J. , Okawachi, Y. , Sharping, J.E. , Gaeta, A.L. , Boyd, R.W. , and Wilner, A.E.  (2005). Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384.
    [CrossRef]
  25. Damzen, M.J. , Vlad, V.I. , Babin, V. , and Mocofanescu, A. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering: Fundamentals and Applications, (IOP Publishing, 2003), Chap. 8, 147-148.
  26. Lichtman, E. , Friesem, A.A. , Waarts, R.G. , and Yaffe, H.H.  (1987). Stimulated Brillouin Scattering excited by two Pump Wave in Single-Mode Fibers. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1397-1403.
    [CrossRef]
  27. Lichtman, E. , Waarts, R.G. , and Friesem, A.A.  (1989). Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Excited by a Modulated Pump Wave in Single-Mode Fibers. J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 171-174.
    [CrossRef]
  28. Downie, J.D.  (2005). Relationship of Q penaly to Eye-Closure Penalty for NRZ and RZ Signals with Signal-Dependent Noise. J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2031-2038.
    [CrossRef]
  29. Kuznetsov, M. , Froberg, N.M. , Henion, S.R. , and Rauschenbach, K.A.  (1999). Power Penalty for Optical Signals Due to Dispersion Slope in WDM Filter Cascades. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411-1413.
    [CrossRef]
  30. Zhang, B. , Yan, L. , Fazal, I. , Zhang, L. , Wilner, A.E. , and Gauthier, D.J.  (2007). Slow light on Gbit/s differential-phaseshift-keying signals. Opt. Express 15, 1878-1883.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. Yi, L. , Jaoun, Y. , Hu, W. , Su, Y. , and Bigo, S.  (2007). Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS. Opt. Express 15, 16972-16979.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. Lathi, B.P. Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, 2nd Ed. (Oxford University Press., 1997).

2007

Song, K.-Y. , and Hotate, K.  (2007). 25 GHz bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers. Opt. Lett. 32, 217-219.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sedgwick, F.G. , Pesala, B. , Lin, J.Y. , Ko, W.S. , Zhao, X. , and Chang-Hasnain, C.J.  (2007). THz-bandwidth tunable slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers. Opt. Express 15, 747-753.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Z. , Dong, Y. , and Li, Q.  (2007). Slow light in multi-line Brillouin gain spectrum. Opt. Express 15, 1871-1877.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B. , Yan, L. , Fazal, I. , Zhang, L. , Wilner, A.E. , and Gauthier, D.J.  (2007). Slow light on Gbit/s differential-phaseshift-keying signals. Opt. Express 15, 1878-1883.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Z. , Dawes, A.M.C. , Gauthier, D.J. , Zhang, L. , and Willner, A.E.  (2007). Broadband SBS Slow Light in an Optical Fiber. J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201-206.
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z. , Boyd, R.W. , Pant, R. , Stenner, M.D. , Neifeld, M.A. , Zhu, Z. , and Gauthier, D.J.  (2007). Design of a Tunable Time-Delay Element using Multiple Gain Lines for Large Fractional Delay with HIgh Data Fidelity. Opt. Lett. 32, 1986-1988.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, T. , Henker, R. , Lauterbach, K.-U. , and Junker, M.  (2007). Comparison of delay enhancement mechanisms for SBS-based slow ligt systems. Opt. Express 15, 9606-9613.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, L. , Jaoun, Y. , Hu, W. , Su, Y. , and Bigo, S.  (2007). Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS. Opt. Express 15, 16972-16979.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pant, R. , Stenner, M.D. , Neifeld, M.A. , Shi, Z. , Boyd, R.W. , and Gauthier, D.J.  . Maximizing the opening of eye-diagrams for slow-light systems. Appl. Opt. 46, (2007) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

1999

Kuznetsov, M. , Froberg, N.M. , Henion, S.R. , and Rauschenbach, K.A.  (1999). Power Penalty for Optical Signals Due to Dispersion Slope in WDM Filter Cascades. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411-1413.
[CrossRef]

1989

Lichtman, E. , Waarts, R.G. , and Friesem, A.A.  (1989). Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Excited by a Modulated Pump Wave in Single-Mode Fibers. J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 171-174.
[CrossRef]

1987

Bernini, A.

Bigo, Y.

Blair,

Blit, A.

Boyd, A.L.

Boyd, Z.

Chang-Hasnain, X.

Chin,

Dahan, R.

Dawes, Z.

Dong, Z.

Downie,

Eisenstein, D.

Eyal, A.

Fazal, L.

Friesem, E.

Friesem, R.G.

Lichtman, E. , Waarts, R.G. , and Friesem, A.A.  (1989). Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Excited by a Modulated Pump Wave in Single-Mode Fibers. J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 171-174.
[CrossRef]

Froberg, M.

Kuznetsov, M. , Froberg, N.M. , Henion, S.R. , and Rauschenbach, K.A.  (1999). Power Penalty for Optical Signals Due to Dispersion Slope in WDM Filter Cascades. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411-1413.
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, J.E.

Gauthier, A.E.

Gauthier, A.M.C.

Gauthier, R.W.

Pant, R. , Stenner, M.D. , Neifeld, M.A. , Shi, Z. , Boyd, R.W. , and Gauthier, D.J.  . Maximizing the opening of eye-diagrams for slow-light systems. Appl. Opt. 46, (2007) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthier, Z.

Hamann, M.

Vlasov, Y.A. , O’Boyle, M. , Hamann, H.F. , and McNab, S.J.  (2005). Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides. Nature 438, 65-69.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henion, N.M.

Kuznetsov, M. , Froberg, N.M. , Henion, S.R. , and Rauschenbach, K.A.  (1999). Power Penalty for Optical Signals Due to Dispersion Slope in WDM Filter Cascades. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411-1413.
[CrossRef]

Henker, T.

Herraez,

Herraez, S.

Hotate, K.-Y.

Hu, Y.

Jaoun, L.

Junker, K.-U.

Junker, T.

Ko, J.Y.

Kuznetsov,

Kuznetsov, M. , Froberg, N.M. , Henion, S.R. , and Rauschenbach, K.A.  (1999). Power Penalty for Optical Signals Due to Dispersion Slope in WDM Filter Cascades. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411-1413.
[CrossRef]

Lauterbach, M.

Lauterbach, R.

Li, Y.

Lichtman,

Lichtman, E. , Waarts, R.G. , and Friesem, A.A.  (1989). Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Excited by a Modulated Pump Wave in Single-Mode Fibers. J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 171-174.
[CrossRef]

Lichtman, E. , Friesem, A.A. , Waarts, R.G. , and Yaffe, H.H.  (1987). Stimulated Brillouin Scattering excited by two Pump Wave in Single-Mode Fibers. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1397-1403.
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

Lu,

McNab, H.F.

Vlasov, Y.A. , O’Boyle, M. , Hamann, H.F. , and McNab, S.J.  (2005). Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides. Nature 438, 65-69.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minardo,

Neifeld, M.D.

O’Boyle, Y.A.

Vlasov, Y.A. , O’Boyle, M. , Hamann, H.F. , and McNab, S.J.  (2005). Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides. Nature 438, 65-69.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okawachi, D.J.

Pant,

Pant, R. , Stenner, M.D. , Neifeld, M.A. , Shi, Z. , Boyd, R.W. , and Gauthier, D.J.  . Maximizing the opening of eye-diagrams for slow-light systems. Appl. Opt. 46, (2007) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pant, R.W.

Pesala, F.G.

Rauschenbach, S.R.

Kuznetsov, M. , Froberg, N.M. , Henion, S.R. , and Rauschenbach, K.A.  (1999). Power Penalty for Optical Signals Due to Dispersion Slope in WDM Filter Cascades. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411-1413.
[CrossRef]

Schneider,

Sedgwick,

Sharping, Y.

Shi,

Shi, M.A.

Pant, R. , Stenner, M.D. , Neifeld, M.A. , Shi, Z. , Boyd, R.W. , and Gauthier, D.J.  . Maximizing the opening of eye-diagrams for slow-light systems. Appl. Opt. 46, (2007) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shumakher,

Song,

Song, M.G.

Stenner,

Stenner, R.

Su, W.

Thevenaz, K.Y.

Thevenaz, M.G.

Tur, A.

Vlasov,

Vlasov, Y.A. , O’Boyle, M. , Hamann, H.F. , and McNab, S.J.  (2005). Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides. Nature 438, 65-69.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waarts, A.A.

Waarts, E.

Lichtman, E. , Waarts, R.G. , and Friesem, A.A.  (1989). Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Excited by a Modulated Pump Wave in Single-Mode Fibers. J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 171-174.
[CrossRef]

Willinger, E.

Willner, L.

Wilner, L.

Wilner, R.W.

Yaffe, R.G.

Yan, B.

Yi,

Zadok,

Zeni, R.

Zhang,

Zhang, D.J.

Zhang, I.

Zhao, W.S.

Zheng, S.

Zhu,

Zhu, M.A.

Appl. Opt.

Pant, R. , Stenner, M.D. , Neifeld, M.A. , Shi, Z. , Boyd, R.W. , and Gauthier, D.J.  . Maximizing the opening of eye-diagrams for slow-light systems. Appl. Opt. 46, (2007) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Kuznetsov, M. , Froberg, N.M. , Henion, S.R. , and Rauschenbach, K.A.  (1999). Power Penalty for Optical Signals Due to Dispersion Slope in WDM Filter Cascades. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1411-1413.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

Vlasov, Y.A. , O’Boyle, M. , Hamann, H.F. , and McNab, S.J.  (2005). Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides. Nature 438, 65-69.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Stenner, M.D. , Neifeld, M.A. , Zhu, Z. , Dawes, A.M.C. , and Gauthier, D.J.  (2005). Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay. Opt. Express 13, 9995-10002.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blair, S. , and Zheng, K.  (2006). Intensity-tunable group delay using stimulated Raman scattering in silicon slow-light waveguides. Opt. Express 14, 1064-1069.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herraez, M.G. , Song, K.Y. , and Thevenaz, L.  (2006). Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers. Opt. Express 14, 1395-1400.
[CrossRef]

Minardo, A. , Bernini, R. , and Zeni, L.  (2006). Low distortion Brillouin slow light in optical fibers using AMmodulation. Opt. Express 14, 5866-5876.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Z. , and Gauthier, D.J.  (2006). Nearly Transparent SBS slow light in an optical fiber. Opt. Express 14, 7238-7245.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zadok, A. , Eyal, A. , and Tur, M.  (2006). Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp. Opt. Express 14, 8498-8505.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shumakher, E. , Willinger, A. , Blit, R. , Dahan, D. , and Eisenstein, G.  (2006). Large tunable delay with low distortion of 10 Gbit/s data in a slow light system based on narrow band fiber parametric amplification. Opt. Express 14, 8540-8545.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. , Herraez, M.G. , and Thevenaz, L.  (2006). Zero-gain slow fast light propagation in an optical fiber. Opt. Express 14, 10684-10692.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, T. , Junker, M. , and Lauterbach, K.-U.  (2006). Potential ultra wide slow-light bandwidth enhancement. Opt. Express 14, 11082-11087.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sedgwick, F.G. , Pesala, B. , Lin, J.Y. , Ko, W.S. , Zhao, X. , and Chang-Hasnain, C.J.  (2007). THz-bandwidth tunable slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers. Opt. Express 15, 747-753.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Z. , Dong, Y. , and Li, Q.  (2007). Slow light in multi-line Brillouin gain spectrum. Opt. Express 15, 1871-1877.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B. , Yan, L. , Fazal, I. , Zhang, L. , Wilner, A.E. , and Gauthier, D.J.  (2007). Slow light on Gbit/s differential-phaseshift-keying signals. Opt. Express 15, 1878-1883.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, T. , Henker, R. , Lauterbach, K.-U. , and Junker, M.  (2007). Comparison of delay enhancement mechanisms for SBS-based slow ligt systems. Opt. Express 15, 9606-9613.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, L. , Jaoun, Y. , Hu, W. , Su, Y. , and Bigo, S.  (2007). Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS. Opt. Express 15, 16972-16979.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Other

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett.  94, 153902(1-4) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Sun, Y. V. Rostovtsev, J. P. Dowling, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zhubairy, "Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031802(R1-4) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, "Distortion-Reduced Pulse-Train Propagation With Large Delay in a Triple Gain Media," OSA Slow and Fast Light conference.

Pant, R. , Stenner, M.D. , and Neifeld, M.A.  "Designing Optimal Gain Profiles for Slow-Light Applications," Proc. SPIE 6482, 64820R1-7 (2007).

Damzen, M.J. , Vlad, V.I. , Babin, V. , and Mocofanescu, A. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering: Fundamentals and Applications, (IOP Publishing, 2003), Chap. 8, 147-148.

Boyd, R.W. , and Gauthier, D.J.  in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, Ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2002), 43, chap. 6, 497-530.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and R. W. Boyd, "Slow Light: From basics to future prospects," Photonics Spectra, 44 -50, (2006).

Lathi, B.P. Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, 2nd Ed. (Oxford University Press., 1997).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Arbitray pump broadened slow-light system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Initial random pump profile and (b) pump profiles for the GNPB (solid) and the optimal gain-only (dash) medium optimized using the super-Gaussian pulse spectrum and T pulse=166 ps.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Gain profile and (b) refractive index profile for the GNPB medium (solid), optimal gain-only medium (dash), and super-Gaussian(SG) pump (dots) optimized for super-Gaussian pulse spectrum and T pulse=166 ps.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optimal pump profile (solid) and super-Gaussian fit (dash) for gain-only medium using super-Gaussian pulse spectrum and T pulse=166 ps.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Output pulses for (a) Gaussian input pulse (solid) and (b) super-Gaussian input pulse (solid) for the GNPB (dash) and the optimal gain-only medium (dash-dot) and T pulse=166 ps.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Optimal absorption pump profile (solid) and super-Gaussian fit (dash) and (b) gain+absoprtion profile (solid) and super-Gaussian fit (dash) for gain+absorption medium using super-Gaussian pulse spectrum and T pulse=250 ps.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Output pulses for (a) Gaussian (solid) input pulse and (b) super-Gaussian (solid) input pulse for the GNPB medium (dash), optimal gain-only medium (dash-dot), and optimal gain+absorption medium (dot) for T pulse=250 ps.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Fractional pulse delay, central gain exponent, and total pump power for the GNPB (solid), optimal gain-only (circles), and optimal gain+absorption (diamonds and squares) medium as a function of pulse bandwidth for super-Gaussian (a,c,e) and Gaussian pulses (b,d,f).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Output eye diagrams for (a) GNPB mediun and (b) optimized super-Gaussian pump using a super-Gaussian RZ pulse sequence and 1/e FWHM pulse width Tpulse=166 ps.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Output eye diagrams for (a) GNPB (b) super-Gaussian gain-only and (c) super-Gaussian gain+absorption medium using a super-Gaussian RZ pulse sequence and 1/e FWHM pulse width Tpulse=250 ps.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Maximum fractional delay and respective optimal pulse bandwidth

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( ω ) z = j k ( ω ) E ( ω ) ,
k ( ω ) = g 0 P 0 γ ( 2 A ) [ ω ( ω p Ω B ) + j γ ] .
D c = norm 2 [ S ( ω ) ( T SL ( ω ) T ideal ( ω ) ) ] ω 0 B ω 0 + B ,

Metrics