Abstract

In this paper, effect of an introduced defect on electrical and optical properties of quantum box and spherical quantum dot is studied. 3Dself-consistent solution of the Schrödinger-Poisson equations for evaluation of the proposed complex quantum box and analytical solution for spherical quantum dot are used. It is shown that with increasing the defect size and height a considerable enhancement in matrix element, optical nonlinearities (second order, quadratic electro-optic effect and the resonant third order nonlinear susceptibilities), optical linear absorption coefficient (4.5–10 nm, 10−4~10−2 m.V−1, 10−12~10−9 m2/V2, 10−11~10−9 m2/V2 and 4.7×102~3.8×104 cm−1 respectively) and electroabsorption properties associated with intersublevel transition of centered defect quantum dot are examined. Also, it is shown that enhancement of optical nonlinearity is approximately independent of defect position that is so excellent from practical implementation point of view. A THZ-IR photodetector based on resonant tunneling spherical centered defect quantum dot (RT-SCDQD) operating at room temperature is also investigated. Inserting the centered defect in quantum dot increases the dipole transition matrix element and so increases the absorption coefficient considerably (1.05×106~7.33×106 m−1 at 83 µm). Therefore the quantum efficiency in SCDQD structure enhances which leads to increasing the responsivity of the proposed system. The double barrier reduces the dark current. These improvements concludes to ultra high detectivity 5×1016 and 2.25×109 cmHz1/2/W at 83 and 300°K at 83 µm respectively.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008

Huang, G. , Yang, J. , Bhattacharya, P. , Ariyawansa, G. , and Perera, A.G.  (2008). A multicolor quantum dot intersublevel detector with photoresponse in the terahertz range. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011117.
[CrossRef]

2007

Weerasekara, A.B. , Rinzan, M.B.M. , Matsik, S.G. , Perera, A.G.U. , Buchanan, M. , Liu, H.C. , von Winckel, G. , Stintz, A. , and Krishna, S.  (2007). n-Type GaAs/AlAs heterostructure detector with a 3.2 THz threshold frequency. Opt. Lett. 32, 1335-1337.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina and E. H. Sargent, "Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors," Nature photonics,  1, 531-534 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rostami, A. , and Rasooli Saghai, H.  (2007). A novel proposal for ultra-high optical nonlinearity in GaN/AlGaN spherical centered defect quantum dot (SCDQD). Microelectron. J. 38, 342-351.
[CrossRef]

2006

Zhang, X. , Xiong, G. , and Feng, X.  (2006). Well Width-dependent Third-order Optical Nonlinearities of a ZnS/CdSe Cylindrical Quantum Dot Quantum Well. Physica E (Amsterdam) 33, 120-124.
[CrossRef]

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina and E. H. sergeant, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature,  442, 180 - 183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. Su, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, G. Ariyawansa and A. G. Perera, "Terahertz detection with tunneling quantum dot intersublevel photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031117-1-031117-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Su, X. , Chakrabarti, S. , Bhattacharya, P. , Ariyawansa, G. , and Perera, A.G.U.  (2005). A Resonant Tunneling Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetector. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 974-979.
[CrossRef]

Mcdonald, S.A. , Konstantatos, G. , Zhang, S. , Cyr, P.W. , Klem, E.J.D. , Levina, L. , and Sargent, E.H.  (2005). Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics. Nat. Mater. 4, 138-142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, N. , Iizuka, N. , and Kaneko, K.  (2005). "Simulation of Ultrafast GaN /AlN Intersubband Optical Switches," IEICE Trans. Electron.E 88-C, 342-348.
[CrossRef]

Asgari, A. , Kalafi, M. , and Faraone, L.  (2005). The Effects of GaN Capping Layer Thickness on Two-dimensional Electron Mobility in GaN/AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures. Physica E (Amsterdam) 25, 431-437.
[CrossRef]

Guo, K.X. , and Yu, Y.B.  (2005). Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities in Si/SiO2 Parabolic Quantum Dots. Chin. J. Physiol. 43, 932-940.

Barseghyan, M.G. , and Kirakosyan, A.A.  (2005). Light absorption by a two-dimensional quantum dot superlattice. Physica E (Amsterdam) 27, 474-480.
[CrossRef]

Guo, K.X. , and Yu, Y.B.  (2005). Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities in Si/SiO2 Parabolic Quantum Dots. Chin. J. Physiol. 43, 932-940.

2004

Liu, J. , Bai, Y. , and Xiong, G.  (2004). Studies of the Second-order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities of GaN/AlGaN Quantum Well. Physica E (Amsterdam) 23, 70-74.
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. , Bai, Y. , and Xiong, G.  (2004). Studies of the Second-order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities of GaN/AlGaN Quantum Well. Physica E (Amsterdam) 23, 70-74.
[CrossRef]

Ryzhii, V. , Khmyrova, I. , Ryzhii, M. , and Mitin, V.  (2004). Comparison of dark current, responsivity and detectivity in different intersubband infrared photodetectors. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 8-16.
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. , Bai, Y. , and Xiong, G.  (2004). Studies of the Second-order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities of GaN/AlGaN Quantum Well. Physica E (Amsterdam) 23, 70-74.
[CrossRef]

Chua, Y.C. , Decuir, E.A. , Jr., Passmore, B.S. , Sharif, K.H. , Manasreha, M.O. , Wang, Z.M. , and Salamo, G.J.  (2004). Tuning In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs multiple quantum dots for long-wavelength infrared detectors. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1003-1005.
[CrossRef]

2003

Kochman, B. , Stiff-Roberts, A.D. , Chakrabarti, S. , Phillips, J.D. , Krishna, S. , Singh, J. , and Bhattacharya, P.  (2003). Absorption, Carrier Lifetime, and Gain in InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 459-467.
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, T. Brunhes, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, J. M. Gerard, "Second-harmonic Generation Resonant with S-P Transition in InAs/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. B 63, 113312_1-113312_4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, S. , Lenihan, A.S. , Dutt, M.V.G. , Qasaimeh, O. , Steel, D.G. , and Bhattacharya, P.  (2001). Nonlinear Optical and Electro-optic Properties of InAs/GaAs Self-organized Quantum Dots. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1455-1458.
[CrossRef]

1999

Brunhes, T. , Boucaud, P. , Sauvage, S. , Glotin, F. , Prazeres, R. , Ortega, J.-M. , Lemaitre, A. , and Gerard, J.-M.  (1999). Midinfrared Second-harmonic Generation in P-type InAs/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 835-837.
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.L. , Wu, W.G. , Balandin, A. , Jin, G.L. , and Wang, K.L.  (1999). Intersubband absorption in boron-doped multiple Ge quantum dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 185-187.
[CrossRef]

1998

Chang, K. , and Xia, J.B.  (1998). Spatially Separated Excitons in Quantum-Dot Quantum Well Structures. Phys. Rev. B 57, 9780-9786.
[CrossRef]

1997

Berryman, K.W. , Lyon, S.A. , and Segev, M.  (1997). Mid-infrared photoconductivity in InAs quantum dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1861-1863.
[CrossRef]

1993

Levine, B.F.  (1993). Quantum -well infrared photodetectors. J. Appl. Phys. 74, R1-R81.
[CrossRef]

1989

Rosencher, E. , Bois, P. , Nagle, J. , and Delaitre, S.  (1989). Second Harmonic Generation by Intersubband Transitions in Compositionally Asymmetrical MQWs. Electron. Lett. 25, 1063-1065.
[CrossRef]

Ariyawansa, G.

X. H. Su, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, G. Ariyawansa and A. G. Perera, "Terahertz detection with tunneling quantum dot intersublevel photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031117-1-031117-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ariyawansa, P.

Huang, G. , Yang, J. , Bhattacharya, P. , Ariyawansa, G. , and Perera, A.G.  (2008). A multicolor quantum dot intersublevel detector with photoresponse in the terahertz range. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011117.
[CrossRef]

Su, X. , Chakrabarti, S. , Bhattacharya, P. , Ariyawansa, G. , and Perera, A.G.U.  (2005). A Resonant Tunneling Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetector. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 974-979.
[CrossRef]

Asgari,

Asgari, A. , Kalafi, M. , and Faraone, L.  (2005). The Effects of GaN Capping Layer Thickness on Two-dimensional Electron Mobility in GaN/AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures. Physica E (Amsterdam) 25, 431-437.
[CrossRef]

Bai, J.

Liu, J. , Bai, Y. , and Xiong, G.  (2004). Studies of the Second-order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities of GaN/AlGaN Quantum Well. Physica E (Amsterdam) 23, 70-74.
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. , Bai, Y. , and Xiong, G.  (2004). Studies of the Second-order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities of GaN/AlGaN Quantum Well. Physica E (Amsterdam) 23, 70-74.
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. , Bai, Y. , and Xiong, G.  (2004). Studies of the Second-order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities of GaN/AlGaN Quantum Well. Physica E (Amsterdam) 23, 70-74.
[CrossRef]

Balandin, W.G.

Liu, J.L. , Wu, W.G. , Balandin, A. , Jin, G.L. , and Wang, K.L.  (1999). Intersubband absorption in boron-doped multiple Ge quantum dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 185-187.
[CrossRef]

Barseghyan,

Barseghyan, M.G. , and Kirakosyan, A.A.  (2005). Light absorption by a two-dimensional quantum dot superlattice. Physica E (Amsterdam) 27, 474-480.
[CrossRef]

Berryman,

Berryman, K.W. , Lyon, S.A. , and Segev, M.  (1997). Mid-infrared photoconductivity in InAs quantum dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1861-1863.
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, D.G.

Ghosh, S. , Lenihan, A.S. , Dutt, M.V.G. , Qasaimeh, O. , Steel, D.G. , and Bhattacharya, P.  (2001). Nonlinear Optical and Electro-optic Properties of InAs/GaAs Self-organized Quantum Dots. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1455-1458.
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, J.

Huang, G. , Yang, J. , Bhattacharya, P. , Ariyawansa, G. , and Perera, A.G.  (2008). A multicolor quantum dot intersublevel detector with photoresponse in the terahertz range. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011117.
[CrossRef]

Kochman, B. , Stiff-Roberts, A.D. , Chakrabarti, S. , Phillips, J.D. , Krishna, S. , Singh, J. , and Bhattacharya, P.  (2003). Absorption, Carrier Lifetime, and Gain in InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 459-467.
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

X. H. Su, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, G. Ariyawansa and A. G. Perera, "Terahertz detection with tunneling quantum dot intersublevel photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031117-1-031117-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, S.

Su, X. , Chakrabarti, S. , Bhattacharya, P. , Ariyawansa, G. , and Perera, A.G.U.  (2005). A Resonant Tunneling Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetector. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 974-979.
[CrossRef]

Bois, E.

Rosencher, E. , Bois, P. , Nagle, J. , and Delaitre, S.  (1989). Second Harmonic Generation by Intersubband Transitions in Compositionally Asymmetrical MQWs. Electron. Lett. 25, 1063-1065.
[CrossRef]

Boucaud, P.

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, T. Brunhes, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, J. M. Gerard, "Second-harmonic Generation Resonant with S-P Transition in InAs/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. B 63, 113312_1-113312_4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boucaud, T.

Brunhes, T. , Boucaud, P. , Sauvage, S. , Glotin, F. , Prazeres, R. , Ortega, J.-M. , Lemaitre, A. , and Gerard, J.-M.  (1999). Midinfrared Second-harmonic Generation in P-type InAs/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 835-837.
[CrossRef]

Brunhes,

Brunhes, T. , Boucaud, P. , Sauvage, S. , Glotin, F. , Prazeres, R. , Ortega, J.-M. , Lemaitre, A. , and Gerard, J.-M.  (1999). Midinfrared Second-harmonic Generation in P-type InAs/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 835-837.
[CrossRef]

Brunhes, T.

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, T. Brunhes, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, J. M. Gerard, "Second-harmonic Generation Resonant with S-P Transition in InAs/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. B 63, 113312_1-113312_4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buchanan, A.G.U.

Chakrabarti, A.D.

Kochman, B. , Stiff-Roberts, A.D. , Chakrabarti, S. , Phillips, J.D. , Krishna, S. , Singh, J. , and Bhattacharya, P.  (2003). Absorption, Carrier Lifetime, and Gain in InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 459-467.
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarti, X.

Su, X. , Chakrabarti, S. , Bhattacharya, P. , Ariyawansa, G. , and Perera, A.G.U.  (2005). A Resonant Tunneling Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetector. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 974-979.
[CrossRef]

Chang,

Chang, K. , and Xia, J.B.  (1998). Spatially Separated Excitons in Quantum-Dot Quantum Well Structures. Phys. Rev. B 57, 9780-9786.
[CrossRef]

Chua,

Chua, Y.C. , Decuir, E.A. , Jr., Passmore, B.S. , Sharif, K.H. , Manasreha, M.O. , Wang, Z.M. , and Salamo, G.J.  (2004). Tuning In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs multiple quantum dots for long-wavelength infrared detectors. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1003-1005.
[CrossRef]

Clifford, J.

G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina and E. H. Sargent, "Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors," Nature photonics,  1, 531-534 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina and E. H. sergeant, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature,  442, 180 - 183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cyr, S.

Mcdonald, S.A. , Konstantatos, G. , Zhang, S. , Cyr, P.W. , Klem, E.J.D. , Levina, L. , and Sargent, E.H.  (2005). Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics. Nat. Mater. 4, 138-142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decuir, Y.C.

Chua, Y.C. , Decuir, E.A. , Jr., Passmore, B.S. , Sharif, K.H. , Manasreha, M.O. , Wang, Z.M. , and Salamo, G.J.  (2004). Tuning In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs multiple quantum dots for long-wavelength infrared detectors. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1003-1005.
[CrossRef]

Delaitre, J.

Rosencher, E. , Bois, P. , Nagle, J. , and Delaitre, S.  (1989). Second Harmonic Generation by Intersubband Transitions in Compositionally Asymmetrical MQWs. Electron. Lett. 25, 1063-1065.
[CrossRef]

Dutt, A.S.

Ghosh, S. , Lenihan, A.S. , Dutt, M.V.G. , Qasaimeh, O. , Steel, D.G. , and Bhattacharya, P.  (2001). Nonlinear Optical and Electro-optic Properties of InAs/GaAs Self-organized Quantum Dots. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1455-1458.
[CrossRef]

Faraone, M.

Asgari, A. , Kalafi, M. , and Faraone, L.  (2005). The Effects of GaN Capping Layer Thickness on Two-dimensional Electron Mobility in GaN/AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures. Physica E (Amsterdam) 25, 431-437.
[CrossRef]

Feng, G.

Zhang, X. , Xiong, G. , and Feng, X.  (2006). Well Width-dependent Third-order Optical Nonlinearities of a ZnS/CdSe Cylindrical Quantum Dot Quantum Well. Physica E (Amsterdam) 33, 120-124.
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A.

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina and E. H. sergeant, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature,  442, 180 - 183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerard, A.

Brunhes, T. , Boucaud, P. , Sauvage, S. , Glotin, F. , Prazeres, R. , Ortega, J.-M. , Lemaitre, A. , and Gerard, J.-M.  (1999). Midinfrared Second-harmonic Generation in P-type InAs/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 835-837.
[CrossRef]

Gerard, J. M.

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, T. Brunhes, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, J. M. Gerard, "Second-harmonic Generation Resonant with S-P Transition in InAs/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. B 63, 113312_1-113312_4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh,

Ghosh, S. , Lenihan, A.S. , Dutt, M.V.G. , Qasaimeh, O. , Steel, D.G. , and Bhattacharya, P.  (2001). Nonlinear Optical and Electro-optic Properties of InAs/GaAs Self-organized Quantum Dots. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1455-1458.
[CrossRef]

Glotin, F.

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, T. Brunhes, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, J. M. Gerard, "Second-harmonic Generation Resonant with S-P Transition in InAs/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. B 63, 113312_1-113312_4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Glotin, S.

Brunhes, T. , Boucaud, P. , Sauvage, S. , Glotin, F. , Prazeres, R. , Ortega, J.-M. , Lemaitre, A. , and Gerard, J.-M.  (1999). Midinfrared Second-harmonic Generation in P-type InAs/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 835-837.
[CrossRef]

Guo,

Guo, K.X. , and Yu, Y.B.  (2005). Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities in Si/SiO2 Parabolic Quantum Dots. Chin. J. Physiol. 43, 932-940.

Guo, K.X. , and Yu, Y.B.  (2005). Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities in Si/SiO2 Parabolic Quantum Dots. Chin. J. Physiol. 43, 932-940.

Hoogland, S.

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina and E. H. sergeant, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature,  442, 180 - 183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howard, I.

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina and E. H. sergeant, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature,  442, 180 - 183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang,

Huang, G. , Yang, J. , Bhattacharya, P. , Ariyawansa, G. , and Perera, A.G.  (2008). A multicolor quantum dot intersublevel detector with photoresponse in the terahertz range. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011117.
[CrossRef]

Iizuka, N.

Suzuki, N. , Iizuka, N. , and Kaneko, K.  (2005). "Simulation of Ultrafast GaN /AlN Intersubband Optical Switches," IEICE Trans. Electron.E 88-C, 342-348.
[CrossRef]

Jin, A.

Liu, J.L. , Wu, W.G. , Balandin, A. , Jin, G.L. , and Wang, K.L.  (1999). Intersubband absorption in boron-doped multiple Ge quantum dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 185-187.
[CrossRef]

Kalafi, A.

Asgari, A. , Kalafi, M. , and Faraone, L.  (2005). The Effects of GaN Capping Layer Thickness on Two-dimensional Electron Mobility in GaN/AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures. Physica E (Amsterdam) 25, 431-437.
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, N.

Suzuki, N. , Iizuka, N. , and Kaneko, K.  (2005). "Simulation of Ultrafast GaN /AlN Intersubband Optical Switches," IEICE Trans. Electron.E 88-C, 342-348.
[CrossRef]

Khmyrova, V.

Ryzhii, V. , Khmyrova, I. , Ryzhii, M. , and Mitin, V.  (2004). Comparison of dark current, responsivity and detectivity in different intersubband infrared photodetectors. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 8-16.
[CrossRef]

Kirakosyan, M.G.

Barseghyan, M.G. , and Kirakosyan, A.A.  (2005). Light absorption by a two-dimensional quantum dot superlattice. Physica E (Amsterdam) 27, 474-480.
[CrossRef]

Klem, E.

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina and E. H. sergeant, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature,  442, 180 - 183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klem, P.W.

Mcdonald, S.A. , Konstantatos, G. , Zhang, S. , Cyr, P.W. , Klem, E.J.D. , Levina, L. , and Sargent, E.H.  (2005). Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics. Nat. Mater. 4, 138-142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kochman,

Kochman, B. , Stiff-Roberts, A.D. , Chakrabarti, S. , Phillips, J.D. , Krishna, S. , Singh, J. , and Bhattacharya, P.  (2003). Absorption, Carrier Lifetime, and Gain in InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 459-467.
[CrossRef]

Konstantatos, G.

G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina and E. H. Sargent, "Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors," Nature photonics,  1, 531-534 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina and E. H. sergeant, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature,  442, 180 - 183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konstantatos, S.A.

Mcdonald, S.A. , Konstantatos, G. , Zhang, S. , Cyr, P.W. , Klem, E.J.D. , Levina, L. , and Sargent, E.H.  (2005). Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics. Nat. Mater. 4, 138-142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishna, A.

Krishna, J.D.

Kochman, B. , Stiff-Roberts, A.D. , Chakrabarti, S. , Phillips, J.D. , Krishna, S. , Singh, J. , and Bhattacharya, P.  (2003). Absorption, Carrier Lifetime, and Gain in InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 459-467.
[CrossRef]

Lemaitre, J.-M.

Brunhes, T. , Boucaud, P. , Sauvage, S. , Glotin, F. , Prazeres, R. , Ortega, J.-M. , Lemaitre, A. , and Gerard, J.-M.  (1999). Midinfrared Second-harmonic Generation in P-type InAs/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 835-837.
[CrossRef]

Lenihan, S.

Ghosh, S. , Lenihan, A.S. , Dutt, M.V.G. , Qasaimeh, O. , Steel, D.G. , and Bhattacharya, P.  (2001). Nonlinear Optical and Electro-optic Properties of InAs/GaAs Self-organized Quantum Dots. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1455-1458.
[CrossRef]

Levina, E.J.D.

Mcdonald, S.A. , Konstantatos, G. , Zhang, S. , Cyr, P.W. , Klem, E.J.D. , Levina, L. , and Sargent, E.H.  (2005). Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics. Nat. Mater. 4, 138-142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levina, L.

G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina and E. H. Sargent, "Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors," Nature photonics,  1, 531-534 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina and E. H. sergeant, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature,  442, 180 - 183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levine,

Levine, B.F.  (1993). Quantum -well infrared photodetectors. J. Appl. Phys. 74, R1-R81.
[CrossRef]

Liu,

Liu, J. , Bai, Y. , and Xiong, G.  (2004). Studies of the Second-order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities of GaN/AlGaN Quantum Well. Physica E (Amsterdam) 23, 70-74.
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. , Bai, Y. , and Xiong, G.  (2004). Studies of the Second-order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities of GaN/AlGaN Quantum Well. Physica E (Amsterdam) 23, 70-74.
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. , Bai, Y. , and Xiong, G.  (2004). Studies of the Second-order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities of GaN/AlGaN Quantum Well. Physica E (Amsterdam) 23, 70-74.
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.L. , Wu, W.G. , Balandin, A. , Jin, G.L. , and Wang, K.L.  (1999). Intersubband absorption in boron-doped multiple Ge quantum dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 185-187.
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

Lyon, K.W.

Berryman, K.W. , Lyon, S.A. , and Segev, M.  (1997). Mid-infrared photoconductivity in InAs quantum dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1861-1863.
[CrossRef]

Manasreha, K.H.

Chua, Y.C. , Decuir, E.A. , Jr., Passmore, B.S. , Sharif, K.H. , Manasreha, M.O. , Wang, Z.M. , and Salamo, G.J.  (2004). Tuning In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs multiple quantum dots for long-wavelength infrared detectors. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1003-1005.
[CrossRef]

Matsik, M.B.M.

Mcdonald,

Mcdonald, S.A. , Konstantatos, G. , Zhang, S. , Cyr, P.W. , Klem, E.J.D. , Levina, L. , and Sargent, E.H.  (2005). Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics. Nat. Mater. 4, 138-142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitin, M.

Ryzhii, V. , Khmyrova, I. , Ryzhii, M. , and Mitin, V.  (2004). Comparison of dark current, responsivity and detectivity in different intersubband infrared photodetectors. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 8-16.
[CrossRef]

Nagle, P.

Rosencher, E. , Bois, P. , Nagle, J. , and Delaitre, S.  (1989). Second Harmonic Generation by Intersubband Transitions in Compositionally Asymmetrical MQWs. Electron. Lett. 25, 1063-1065.
[CrossRef]

Ortega, J. M.

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, T. Brunhes, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, J. M. Gerard, "Second-harmonic Generation Resonant with S-P Transition in InAs/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. B 63, 113312_1-113312_4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ortega, R.

Brunhes, T. , Boucaud, P. , Sauvage, S. , Glotin, F. , Prazeres, R. , Ortega, J.-M. , Lemaitre, A. , and Gerard, J.-M.  (1999). Midinfrared Second-harmonic Generation in P-type InAs/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 835-837.
[CrossRef]

Passmore, E.A.

Chua, Y.C. , Decuir, E.A. , Jr., Passmore, B.S. , Sharif, K.H. , Manasreha, M.O. , Wang, Z.M. , and Salamo, G.J.  (2004). Tuning In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs multiple quantum dots for long-wavelength infrared detectors. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1003-1005.
[CrossRef]

Perera, A. G.

X. H. Su, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, G. Ariyawansa and A. G. Perera, "Terahertz detection with tunneling quantum dot intersublevel photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031117-1-031117-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perera, G.

Huang, G. , Yang, J. , Bhattacharya, P. , Ariyawansa, G. , and Perera, A.G.  (2008). A multicolor quantum dot intersublevel detector with photoresponse in the terahertz range. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011117.
[CrossRef]

Su, X. , Chakrabarti, S. , Bhattacharya, P. , Ariyawansa, G. , and Perera, A.G.U.  (2005). A Resonant Tunneling Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetector. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 974-979.
[CrossRef]

Perera, S.G.

Phillips, S.

Kochman, B. , Stiff-Roberts, A.D. , Chakrabarti, S. , Phillips, J.D. , Krishna, S. , Singh, J. , and Bhattacharya, P.  (2003). Absorption, Carrier Lifetime, and Gain in InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 459-467.
[CrossRef]

Prazeres, F.

Brunhes, T. , Boucaud, P. , Sauvage, S. , Glotin, F. , Prazeres, R. , Ortega, J.-M. , Lemaitre, A. , and Gerard, J.-M.  (1999). Midinfrared Second-harmonic Generation in P-type InAs/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 835-837.
[CrossRef]

Prazeres, R.

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, T. Brunhes, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, J. M. Gerard, "Second-harmonic Generation Resonant with S-P Transition in InAs/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. B 63, 113312_1-113312_4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qasaimeh, M.V.G.

Ghosh, S. , Lenihan, A.S. , Dutt, M.V.G. , Qasaimeh, O. , Steel, D.G. , and Bhattacharya, P.  (2001). Nonlinear Optical and Electro-optic Properties of InAs/GaAs Self-organized Quantum Dots. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1455-1458.
[CrossRef]

Rasooli Saghai, A.

Rostami, A. , and Rasooli Saghai, H.  (2007). A novel proposal for ultra-high optical nonlinearity in GaN/AlGaN spherical centered defect quantum dot (SCDQD). Microelectron. J. 38, 342-351.
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Rinzan, A.B.

Rosencher,

Rosencher, E. , Bois, P. , Nagle, J. , and Delaitre, S.  (1989). Second Harmonic Generation by Intersubband Transitions in Compositionally Asymmetrical MQWs. Electron. Lett. 25, 1063-1065.
[CrossRef]

Rostami,

Rostami, A. , and Rasooli Saghai, H.  (2007). A novel proposal for ultra-high optical nonlinearity in GaN/AlGaN spherical centered defect quantum dot (SCDQD). Microelectron. J. 38, 342-351.
[CrossRef]

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Ryzhii, V. , Khmyrova, I. , Ryzhii, M. , and Mitin, V.  (2004). Comparison of dark current, responsivity and detectivity in different intersubband infrared photodetectors. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 8-16.
[CrossRef]

Ryzhii, I.

Ryzhii, V. , Khmyrova, I. , Ryzhii, M. , and Mitin, V.  (2004). Comparison of dark current, responsivity and detectivity in different intersubband infrared photodetectors. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 8-16.
[CrossRef]

Salamo, Z.M.

Chua, Y.C. , Decuir, E.A. , Jr., Passmore, B.S. , Sharif, K.H. , Manasreha, M.O. , Wang, Z.M. , and Salamo, G.J.  (2004). Tuning In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs multiple quantum dots for long-wavelength infrared detectors. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1003-1005.
[CrossRef]

Sargent, E. H.

G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina and E. H. Sargent, "Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors," Nature photonics,  1, 531-534 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, L.

Mcdonald, S.A. , Konstantatos, G. , Zhang, S. , Cyr, P.W. , Klem, E.J.D. , Levina, L. , and Sargent, E.H.  (2005). Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics. Nat. Mater. 4, 138-142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauvage, P.

Brunhes, T. , Boucaud, P. , Sauvage, S. , Glotin, F. , Prazeres, R. , Ortega, J.-M. , Lemaitre, A. , and Gerard, J.-M.  (1999). Midinfrared Second-harmonic Generation in P-type InAs/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 835-837.
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, S.

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, T. Brunhes, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J. M. Ortega, J. M. Gerard, "Second-harmonic Generation Resonant with S-P Transition in InAs/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots," Phys. Rev. B 63, 113312_1-113312_4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Segev, S.A.

Berryman, K.W. , Lyon, S.A. , and Segev, M.  (1997). Mid-infrared photoconductivity in InAs quantum dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1861-1863.
[CrossRef]

Sharif, B.S.

Chua, Y.C. , Decuir, E.A. , Jr., Passmore, B.S. , Sharif, K.H. , Manasreha, M.O. , Wang, Z.M. , and Salamo, G.J.  (2004). Tuning In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs multiple quantum dots for long-wavelength infrared detectors. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1003-1005.
[CrossRef]

Singh, S.

Kochman, B. , Stiff-Roberts, A.D. , Chakrabarti, S. , Phillips, J.D. , Krishna, S. , Singh, J. , and Bhattacharya, P.  (2003). Absorption, Carrier Lifetime, and Gain in InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 459-467.
[CrossRef]

Steel, O.

Ghosh, S. , Lenihan, A.S. , Dutt, M.V.G. , Qasaimeh, O. , Steel, D.G. , and Bhattacharya, P.  (2001). Nonlinear Optical and Electro-optic Properties of InAs/GaAs Self-organized Quantum Dots. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 1455-1458.
[CrossRef]

Stiff-Roberts, B.

Kochman, B. , Stiff-Roberts, A.D. , Chakrabarti, S. , Phillips, J.D. , Krishna, S. , Singh, J. , and Bhattacharya, P.  (2003). Absorption, Carrier Lifetime, and Gain in InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 459-467.
[CrossRef]

Stintz, G.

Su,

Su, X. , Chakrabarti, S. , Bhattacharya, P. , Ariyawansa, G. , and Perera, A.G.U.  (2005). A Resonant Tunneling Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetector. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 974-979.
[CrossRef]

Su, X. H.

X. H. Su, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, G. Ariyawansa and A. G. Perera, "Terahertz detection with tunneling quantum dot intersublevel photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031117-1-031117-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki,

Suzuki, N. , Iizuka, N. , and Kaneko, K.  (2005). "Simulation of Ultrafast GaN /AlN Intersubband Optical Switches," IEICE Trans. Electron.E 88-C, 342-348.
[CrossRef]

von Winckel, H.C.

Wang, G.L.

Liu, J.L. , Wu, W.G. , Balandin, A. , Jin, G.L. , and Wang, K.L.  (1999). Intersubband absorption in boron-doped multiple Ge quantum dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 185-187.
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.O.

Chua, Y.C. , Decuir, E.A. , Jr., Passmore, B.S. , Sharif, K.H. , Manasreha, M.O. , Wang, Z.M. , and Salamo, G.J.  (2004). Tuning In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs multiple quantum dots for long-wavelength infrared detectors. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1003-1005.
[CrossRef]

Weerasekara,

Wu, J.L.

Liu, J.L. , Wu, W.G. , Balandin, A. , Jin, G.L. , and Wang, K.L.  (1999). Intersubband absorption in boron-doped multiple Ge quantum dots. Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 185-187.
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Xia, K.

Chang, K. , and Xia, J.B.  (1998). Spatially Separated Excitons in Quantum-Dot Quantum Well Structures. Phys. Rev. B 57, 9780-9786.
[CrossRef]

Xiong, X.

Zhang, X. , Xiong, G. , and Feng, X.  (2006). Well Width-dependent Third-order Optical Nonlinearities of a ZnS/CdSe Cylindrical Quantum Dot Quantum Well. Physica E (Amsterdam) 33, 120-124.
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y.

Liu, J. , Bai, Y. , and Xiong, G.  (2004). Studies of the Second-order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities of GaN/AlGaN Quantum Well. Physica E (Amsterdam) 23, 70-74.
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. , Bai, Y. , and Xiong, G.  (2004). Studies of the Second-order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities of GaN/AlGaN Quantum Well. Physica E (Amsterdam) 23, 70-74.
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. , Bai, Y. , and Xiong, G.  (2004). Studies of the Second-order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities of GaN/AlGaN Quantum Well. Physica E (Amsterdam) 23, 70-74.
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

Huang, G. , Yang, J. , Bhattacharya, P. , Ariyawansa, G. , and Perera, A.G.  (2008). A multicolor quantum dot intersublevel detector with photoresponse in the terahertz range. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011117.
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

X. H. Su, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, G. Ariyawansa and A. G. Perera, "Terahertz detection with tunneling quantum dot intersublevel photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031117-1-031117-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Guo, K.X. , and Yu, Y.B.  (2005). Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities in Si/SiO2 Parabolic Quantum Dots. Chin. J. Physiol. 43, 932-940.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SCDQD structure and related spatial potential. (b) CDQB structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Energy levels (ground and first excited states) vs. defect size (A°). (b) Wave functions vs. dot size (A°) with different defect sizes. (c) Dipole transition matrix element vs. defect size with different defect mole fractions (b=75 A°, xb=0.35) for SCDQD structure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility. (b) Third order susceptibility of QEOE (m2/V2). (c) Third order susceptibility of THG (m2/V2) vs. pump photon energy with different defect size (b=75 A°, xb=0.35, xd=0.1, ħΓ=0.3 me V) for SCDQD structure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Energy levels. (b) Dipole matrix element & Fermi difference vs. external voltage. (c) Absorption coefficient (ground state → first excited state) vs. pump photon energy for different external voltages (D=10A°) (d) Absorption coefficient (ground state → third excited state) vs. pump photon energy (Barrier=120 A°,Well =80 A°, xb=0.45, xd= 0.1) for CDQB structure.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Detectivity of different photodetector structures (with defect and double barrier (A: a=55 A°, b=70 A°, c=90 A°, d=110 A°, Lspacer=130 A°, xb=0.3, xd=0.1, Vext=2V), with defect without double barrier (B) and without defect without double barrier (C)) at 83 °K, (b) Detectivity of RT-SCDQD based THZ-IR photodetector at room temperature and (c) Absorption coefficient (ground state → first excited state) (xb=0.3, xd=0.1) vs. pump photon energy. Inset figure in part (b), shows 3-D scheme and potential distribution of RT-SCDQD.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Carrier sheet density of ground state, (a) with different central defect sizes (B=120 A°,W=80 A°, xb=0.35, xd=0.27). (b) with different deviations from center position. (c) QEOE (m2/V2). (d) THG (m2/V2) vs. pump photon energy with different deviation from center position (Barrier=120 A°, Well=80 A°, D=10 A°, xb=0.35, xd=0.27) for CDQB structure.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Material parameters [15, 27, 28]

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison between detectivity of proposed structure and some experimental reported results

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

{ ħ 2 2 m i * x , y , z 2 + V i ( x , y , z ) } ψ ( x , y , z ) = E ψ ( x , y , z )
ε i * x , y , z 2 Φ ( x , y , z ) = e [ N D + ( x , y , z ) n ( x , y , z ) ]
V i ( x , y , z ) = E C i e Φ i ( x , y , z )
n ( x , y , z ) = 2 k ψ k ( x , y , z ) 2 { 1 + exp [ E k E F ] K B T } 1
+ N D + d ν = + n d ν
ψ n m = R n ( r ) Y m ( θ , ϕ ) ,
χ ( 2 ) = N d e 3 d ij 3 ε ħ 2 [ 1 ( ω ω ij i γ ij ) × ( 2 ω 2 ω ij i γ ij ) ]
χ ( 3 ) ( 2 ω 1 + ω 2 ; ω 1 , ω 2 ) = 2 i N d q 4 d ij 4 ε 0 ħ 3 [ 1 [ i ( ω 0 2 ω 1 + ω 2 ) + γ ij ] [ i ( ω 2 ω 1 ) + γ ij ] ] ×
[ 1 i ( ω 0 ω 1 ) + γ ij + 1 i ( ω 2 ω 0 ) + γ ij ] ,
α ( ω ) = 4 π ω e 2 V o ħ c ε 0 ε r i , j d ij 2 × { f ( E i ) f ( E j ) } × γ ij γ ij 2 + ( ω ω ij ) 2 ,

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