Abstract

We present a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) technique that can quantify the polarization changes (the degrees of circular polarization, DOCP) caused by the scattering changes induced by cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The axial and lateral resolutions of our PS-OCT system are 13 µm and 15 µm, respectively. Uterine cervical conization tissue samples from 18 patients were examined, and 71 areas were imaged for in vitro studies; about 2–4 areas per sample were imaged and processed for diagnosis. The scanned areas had a size of 2 mm (axial) × 2 mm (lateral) × 4 mm (transversal). We quantified the slope of the axial decay of the DOCP signal near the cervical epithelium by a linear fitting procedure. The excised samples were then investigated by two pathologists, and their histological findings were later compared with the PS-OCT results. Our results show that the sensitivity and specificity are 94.7% and 71.2%, respectively.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007

I. Charalambous, R. Cucu, A. Dogariu, and A. Podoleanu, "Experimental investigation of circular light depolarization using polarization sensitive OCT," Proc. SPIE 6429, 64291S (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J.-T. Oh, S-W. Lee, Y.-S. Kim, K.-B. Suhr, and B.-M. Kim, "Quantification of the wound healing using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

K. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions," Gynecol. Oncol. 99, S84?S88 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zuluaga, M. Follen, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical coherence tomography: A pilot study of a new imaging technique for noninvasive examination of cervical tissue," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 193, 83?88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Lee, J.-T. Oh, and B.-M. Kim, "Microscopic imaging of articular cartilage using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Eng. Res. 26, 33?38 (2005).

T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy," Appl. Opt. 44, 2072?2081 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207?212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

R. A. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, C. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer (Suppl.)  98, 2015?2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 484?494 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. K. Niblack, J. O. Schenk, and M. E. Brezinski, "Dispersion in a grating-based optical delay line for optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 42, 4115?4118 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, A. Malpica, C. Liang, and M. R. Descour, "Fiber optic confocal reflectance microscopy: a new real-time technique to view nuclear morphology in cervical squamous epithelium in vivo," Opt. Express 11, 3171?3181 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1233?1242 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, "Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 359?371 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 587?594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, G. Yao, and L. V. Wang, "Degree of polarization in laser speckles from turbid media: Implications in tissue optics," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 307?312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

A. D. Kim and M. Moscoso, "Influence of the relative refractive index on the depolarization of multiply scattered," Phys. Rev. E. 64, 026612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Athanassiandou, N. Kavantzas, M. Gonidi, P. Athanassiades, A. Liossi, L. Nakopoulou, E. Petrakakou, and P. Davaris, "Correlations between nuclear/cytoplasmic area ratio and classification of cervical smears," J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 20, 481?486 (2001).

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, and I. V. Larina, "Noninvasive monitoring of glucose concentration with optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 26, 992?994 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. P. Morgan and M. E. Ridgway, "Polarization properties of light backscattered from a two layer scattering medium," Opt. Express 7, 395?402 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. de R. Miranda, L. Deligdisch, J. Gil, and P. Dottino, "Morphometric characterization of HPV-related lesions of uterine cervix," J. Low. Genit. Tract. Dis. 4, 204?207 (2000).

1999

R. Hornung, T. H. Pham, K. A. Keefe, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, and B. J. Tromberg, "Quantitative near-intrared spectroscopy of cervical dysplasia in vivo," Human Reproduction 14, 2908?2916 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Ducros, J. F. de Boer, H. Huang, L. C. Chao, and Z. Chen, " Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the rabbit eye," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1159?1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Development of a multivariate statistical algorithm to analyze human cervical tissue fluorescence spectra acquired in vivo," Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 46?62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelength," Photochem. Photobiol. 6, 720?735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. Mahadevan, M. F. Mitchell, E. Silva, S. Thomsen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Study of the fluorescence properties of normal and neoplastic human cervical tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 647?655 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178?1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arifler, D.

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 484?494 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Athanassiades, P.

P. Athanassiandou, N. Kavantzas, M. Gonidi, P. Athanassiades, A. Liossi, L. Nakopoulou, E. Petrakakou, and P. Davaris, "Correlations between nuclear/cytoplasmic area ratio and classification of cervical smears," J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 20, 481?486 (2001).

Athanassiandou, P.

P. Athanassiandou, N. Kavantzas, M. Gonidi, P. Athanassiades, A. Liossi, L. Nakopoulou, E. Petrakakou, and P. Davaris, "Correlations between nuclear/cytoplasmic area ratio and classification of cervical smears," J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 20, 481?486 (2001).

Atkinson, E. N.

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 587?594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkinson, N.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Development of a multivariate statistical algorithm to analyze human cervical tissue fluorescence spectra acquired in vivo," Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 46?62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelength," Photochem. Photobiol. 6, 720?735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berns, M. W.

R. Hornung, T. H. Pham, K. A. Keefe, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, and B. J. Tromberg, "Quantitative near-intrared spectroscopy of cervical dysplasia in vivo," Human Reproduction 14, 2908?2916 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boiko, I.

A. Zuluaga, M. Follen, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical coherence tomography: A pilot study of a new imaging technique for noninvasive examination of cervical tissue," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 193, 83?88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Breslin, T. M.

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1233?1242 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brewer, M. A.

R. A. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, C. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer (Suppl.)  98, 2015?2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

Carlson, K.

K. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions," Gynecol. Oncol. 99, S84?S88 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carraro, A.

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 484?494 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. K.

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 587?594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178?1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, L. C.

M. G. Ducros, J. F. de Boer, H. Huang, L. C. Chao, and Z. Chen, " Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the rabbit eye," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1159?1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Charalambous, I.

I. Charalambous, R. Cucu, A. Dogariu, and A. Podoleanu, "Experimental investigation of circular light depolarization using polarization sensitive OCT," Proc. SPIE 6429, 64291S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207?212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Ducros, J. F. de Boer, H. Huang, L. C. Chao, and Z. Chen, " Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the rabbit eye," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1159?1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and S. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 212?218 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collier, T.

T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy," Appl. Opt. 44, 2072?2081 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions," Gynecol. Oncol. 99, S84?S88 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cucu, R.

I. Charalambous, R. Cucu, A. Dogariu, and A. Podoleanu, "Experimental investigation of circular light depolarization using polarization sensitive OCT," Proc. SPIE 6429, 64291S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davaris, P.

P. Athanassiandou, N. Kavantzas, M. Gonidi, P. Athanassiades, A. Liossi, L. Nakopoulou, E. Petrakakou, and P. Davaris, "Correlations between nuclear/cytoplasmic area ratio and classification of cervical smears," J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 20, 481?486 (2001).

de Boer, J. F.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207?212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, "Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 359?371 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Ducros, J. F. de Boer, H. Huang, L. C. Chao, and Z. Chen, " Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the rabbit eye," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1159?1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and S. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 212?218 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Descour, M.

K. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions," Gynecol. Oncol. 99, S84?S88 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Descour, M. R.

Dogariu, A.

I. Charalambous, R. Cucu, A. Dogariu, and A. Podoleanu, "Experimental investigation of circular light depolarization using polarization sensitive OCT," Proc. SPIE 6429, 64291S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drezek, R. A.

R. A. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, C. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer (Suppl.)  98, 2015?2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ducros, M. G.

M. G. Ducros, J. F. de Boer, H. Huang, L. C. Chao, and Z. Chen, " Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the rabbit eye," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1159?1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Esenaliev, R. O.

Faupel, M. L.

R. A. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, C. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer (Suppl.)  98, 2015?2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

R. A. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, C. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer (Suppl.)  98, 2015?2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feldchtein, F. I.

Ferenczy, A.

R. A. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, C. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer (Suppl.)  98, 2015?2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178?1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

K. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions," Gynecol. Oncol. 99, S84?S88 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy," Appl. Opt. 44, 2072?2081 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zuluaga, M. Follen, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical coherence tomography: A pilot study of a new imaging technique for noninvasive examination of cervical tissue," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 193, 83?88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, C. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer (Suppl.)  98, 2015?2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 484?494 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, A. Malpica, C. Liang, and M. R. Descour, "Fiber optic confocal reflectance microscopy: a new real-time technique to view nuclear morphology in cervical squamous epithelium in vivo," Opt. Express 11, 3171?3181 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 587?594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178?1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geliknov, V. M.

Gelikonov, G. V.

Gilchrist, K. W.

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1233?1242 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonidi, M.

P. Athanassiandou, N. Kavantzas, M. Gonidi, P. Athanassiades, A. Liossi, L. Nakopoulou, E. Petrakakou, and P. Davaris, "Correlations between nuclear/cytoplasmic area ratio and classification of cervical smears," J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 20, 481?486 (2001).

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178?1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guillaud, M.

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 484?494 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178?1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hornung, R.

R. Hornung, T. H. Pham, K. A. Keefe, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, and B. J. Tromberg, "Quantitative near-intrared spectroscopy of cervical dysplasia in vivo," Human Reproduction 14, 2908?2916 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178?1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

M. G. Ducros, J. F. de Boer, H. Huang, L. C. Chao, and Z. Chen, " Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the rabbit eye," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1159?1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. L.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207?212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jung, W. Q.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207?212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J.-H.

S.-W. Lee, J.-H. Kang, J.-Y. Yoo, M.-S. Kang, J.-T. Oh, and B.-M. Kim, "Quantifcation of scattering changes using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. (submitted).
[PubMed]

Kang, M.-S.

S.-W. Lee, J.-H. Kang, J.-Y. Yoo, M.-S. Kang, J.-T. Oh, and B.-M. Kim, "Quantifcation of scattering changes using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. (submitted).
[PubMed]

Kavantzas, N.

P. Athanassiandou, N. Kavantzas, M. Gonidi, P. Athanassiades, A. Liossi, L. Nakopoulou, E. Petrakakou, and P. Davaris, "Correlations between nuclear/cytoplasmic area ratio and classification of cervical smears," J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 20, 481?486 (2001).

Keefe, K. A.

R. Hornung, T. H. Pham, K. A. Keefe, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, and B. J. Tromberg, "Quantitative near-intrared spectroscopy of cervical dysplasia in vivo," Human Reproduction 14, 2908?2916 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keikhanzadeh, K.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207?212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, A. D.

A. D. Kim and M. Moscoso, "Influence of the relative refractive index on the depolarization of multiply scattered," Phys. Rev. E. 64, 026612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.-M.

J.-T. Oh, S-W. Lee, Y.-S. Kim, K.-B. Suhr, and B.-M. Kim, "Quantification of the wound healing using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Lee, J.-T. Oh, and B.-M. Kim, "Microscopic imaging of articular cartilage using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Eng. Res. 26, 33?38 (2005).

S.-W. Lee, J.-H. Kang, J.-Y. Yoo, M.-S. Kang, J.-T. Oh, and B.-M. Kim, "Quantifcation of scattering changes using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. (submitted).
[PubMed]

Kim, Y.-S.

J.-T. Oh, S-W. Lee, Y.-S. Kim, K.-B. Suhr, and B.-M. Kim, "Quantification of the wound healing using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, M. D.

Kuranov, R. V.

Larin, K. V.

Larina, I. V.

Lee, S.-W.

S.-W. Lee, J.-T. Oh, and B.-M. Kim, "Microscopic imaging of articular cartilage using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Eng. Res. 26, 33?38 (2005).

S.-W. Lee, J.-H. Kang, J.-Y. Yoo, M.-S. Kang, J.-T. Oh, and B.-M. Kim, "Quantifcation of scattering changes using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. (submitted).
[PubMed]

Lee, S-W.

J.-T. Oh, S-W. Lee, Y.-S. Kim, K.-B. Suhr, and B.-M. Kim, "Quantification of the wound healing using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, G. Yao, and L. V. Wang, "Degree of polarization in laser speckles from turbid media: Implications in tissue optics," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 307?312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, C.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178?1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liossi, A.

P. Athanassiandou, N. Kavantzas, M. Gonidi, P. Athanassiades, A. Liossi, L. Nakopoulou, E. Petrakakou, and P. Davaris, "Correlations between nuclear/cytoplasmic area ratio and classification of cervical smears," J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 20, 481?486 (2001).

Mahadevan, A.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Development of a multivariate statistical algorithm to analyze human cervical tissue fluorescence spectra acquired in vivo," Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 46?62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mahadevan, M. F. Mitchell, E. Silva, S. Thomsen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Study of the fluorescence properties of normal and neoplastic human cervical tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 647?655 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelength," Photochem. Photobiol. 6, 720?735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Malekafzali, A.

Malpica, A.

T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy," Appl. Opt. 44, 2072?2081 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zuluaga, M. Follen, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical coherence tomography: A pilot study of a new imaging technique for noninvasive examination of cervical tissue," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 193, 83?88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 484?494 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, A. Malpica, C. Liang, and M. R. Descour, "Fiber optic confocal reflectance microscopy: a new real-time technique to view nuclear morphology in cervical squamous epithelium in vivo," Opt. Express 11, 3171?3181 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 587?594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Development of a multivariate statistical algorithm to analyze human cervical tissue fluorescence spectra acquired in vivo," Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 46?62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelength," Photochem. Photobiol. 6, 720?735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, "Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 359?371 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirabal, Y. N.

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 587?594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, M. F.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Development of a multivariate statistical algorithm to analyze human cervical tissue fluorescence spectra acquired in vivo," Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 46?62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelength," Photochem. Photobiol. 6, 720?735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahadevan, M. F. Mitchell, E. Silva, S. Thomsen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Study of the fluorescence properties of normal and neoplastic human cervical tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 647?655 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, S. P.

Moscoso, M.

A. D. Kim and M. Moscoso, "Influence of the relative refractive index on the depolarization of multiply scattered," Phys. Rev. E. 64, 026612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakopoulou, L.

P. Athanassiandou, N. Kavantzas, M. Gonidi, P. Athanassiades, A. Liossi, L. Nakopoulou, E. Petrakakou, and P. Davaris, "Correlations between nuclear/cytoplasmic area ratio and classification of cervical smears," J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 20, 481?486 (2001).

Nelson, J. S.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207?212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, S.

Niblack, W. K.

Oh, J.-T.

J.-T. Oh, S-W. Lee, Y.-S. Kim, K.-B. Suhr, and B.-M. Kim, "Quantification of the wound healing using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Lee, J.-T. Oh, and B.-M. Kim, "Microscopic imaging of articular cartilage using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Eng. Res. 26, 33?38 (2005).

S.-W. Lee, J.-H. Kang, J.-Y. Yoo, M.-S. Kang, J.-T. Oh, and B.-M. Kim, "Quantifcation of scattering changes using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. (submitted).
[PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1233?1242 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207?212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavlova, I.

K. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions," Gynecol. Oncol. 99, S84?S88 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrakakou, E.

P. Athanassiandou, N. Kavantzas, M. Gonidi, P. Athanassiades, A. Liossi, L. Nakopoulou, E. Petrakakou, and P. Davaris, "Correlations between nuclear/cytoplasmic area ratio and classification of cervical smears," J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 20, 481?486 (2001).

Pham, T. H.

R. Hornung, T. H. Pham, K. A. Keefe, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, and B. J. Tromberg, "Quantitative near-intrared spectroscopy of cervical dysplasia in vivo," Human Reproduction 14, 2908?2916 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

R. A. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, C. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer (Suppl.)  98, 2015?2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Podoleanu, A.

I. Charalambous, R. Cucu, A. Dogariu, and A. Podoleanu, "Experimental investigation of circular light depolarization using polarization sensitive OCT," Proc. SPIE 6429, 64291S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178?1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1233?1242 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelength," Photochem. Photobiol. 6, 720?735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Development of a multivariate statistical algorithm to analyze human cervical tissue fluorescence spectra acquired in vivo," Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 46?62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy," Appl. Opt. 44, 2072?2081 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions," Gynecol. Oncol. 99, S84?S88 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zuluaga, M. Follen, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical coherence tomography: A pilot study of a new imaging technique for noninvasive examination of cervical tissue," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 193, 83?88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 484?494 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, C. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer (Suppl.)  98, 2015?2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.-B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, A. Malpica, C. Liang, and M. R. Descour, "Fiber optic confocal reflectance microscopy: a new real-time technique to view nuclear morphology in cervical squamous epithelium in vivo," Opt. Express 11, 3171?3181 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 587?594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Development of a multivariate statistical algorithm to analyze human cervical tissue fluorescence spectra acquired in vivo," Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 46?62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelength," Photochem. Photobiol. 6, 720?735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahadevan, M. F. Mitchell, E. Silva, S. Thomsen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Study of the fluorescence properties of normal and neoplastic human cervical tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 647?655 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ridgway, M. E.

Rollins, A. M.

Schenk, J. O.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178?1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segeev, A. M.

Silva, E.

A. Mahadevan, M. F. Mitchell, E. Silva, S. Thomsen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Study of the fluorescence properties of normal and neoplastic human cervical tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 647?655 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207?212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and S. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 212?218 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staerkel, G.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelength," Photochem. Photobiol. 6, 720?735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178?1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suhr, K.-B.

J.-T. Oh, S-W. Lee, Y.-S. Kim, K.-B. Suhr, and B.-M. Kim, "Quantification of the wound healing using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sung, K.-B.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178?1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tadir, Y.

R. Hornung, T. H. Pham, K. A. Keefe, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, and B. J. Tromberg, "Quantitative near-intrared spectroscopy of cervical dysplasia in vivo," Human Reproduction 14, 2908?2916 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, S.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Development of a multivariate statistical algorithm to analyze human cervical tissue fluorescence spectra acquired in vivo," Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 46?62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mahadevan, M. F. Mitchell, E. Silva, S. Thomsen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Study of the fluorescence properties of normal and neoplastic human cervical tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 647?655 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, S. L.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelength," Photochem. Photobiol. 6, 720?735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

R. Hornung, T. H. Pham, K. A. Keefe, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, and B. J. Tromberg, "Quantitative near-intrared spectroscopy of cervical dysplasia in vivo," Human Reproduction 14, 2908?2916 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ung-arunyawee, R.

Wang, L. V.

J. Li, G. Yao, and L. V. Wang, "Degree of polarization in laser speckles from turbid media: Implications in tissue optics," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 307?312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, T.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelength," Photochem. Photobiol. 6, 720?735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Development of a multivariate statistical algorithm to analyze human cervical tissue fluorescence spectra acquired in vivo," Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 46?62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, F.

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1233?1242 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, G.

J. Li, G. Yao, and L. V. Wang, "Degree of polarization in laser speckles from turbid media: Implications in tissue optics," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 307?312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

Yoo, J.-Y.

S.-W. Lee, J.-H. Kang, J.-Y. Yoo, M.-S. Kang, J.-T. Oh, and B.-M. Kim, "Quantifcation of scattering changes using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. (submitted).
[PubMed]

Zhang, J.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207?212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, C.

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1233?1242 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuluaga, A.

A. Zuluaga, M. Follen, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical coherence tomography: A pilot study of a new imaging technique for noninvasive examination of cervical tissue," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 193, 83?88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.

A. Zuluaga, M. Follen, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical coherence tomography: A pilot study of a new imaging technique for noninvasive examination of cervical tissue," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 193, 83?88 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Cancer

R. A. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, C. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer (Suppl.)  98, 2015?2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gynecol. Oncol.

K. Carlson, I. Pavlova, T. Collier, M. Descour, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Confocal microscopy: Imaging cervical precancerous lesions," Gynecol. Oncol. 99, S84?S88 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Human Reproduction

R. Hornung, T. H. Pham, K. A. Keefe, M. W. Berns, Y. Tadir, and B. J. Tromberg, "Quantitative near-intrared spectroscopy of cervical dysplasia in vivo," Human Reproduction 14, 2908?2916 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. G. Ducros, J. F. de Boer, H. Huang, L. C. Chao, and Z. Chen, " Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the rabbit eye," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1159?1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1233?1242 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Eng. Res.

S.-W. Lee, J.-T. Oh, and B.-M. Kim, "Microscopic imaging of articular cartilage using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Eng. Res. 26, 33?38 (2005).

J. Biomed. Opt.

J.-T. Oh, S-W. Lee, Y.-S. Kim, K.-B. Suhr, and B.-M. Kim, "Quantification of the wound healing using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Lee, J.-H. Kang, J.-Y. Yoo, M.-S. Kang, J.-T. Oh, and B.-M. Kim, "Quantifcation of scattering changes using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. (submitted).
[PubMed]

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 587?594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, "Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 359?371 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. L. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 207?212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, G. Yao, and L. V. Wang, "Degree of polarization in laser speckles from turbid media: Implications in tissue optics," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 307?312 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 484?494 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.

P. Athanassiandou, N. Kavantzas, M. Gonidi, P. Athanassiades, A. Liossi, L. Nakopoulou, E. Petrakakou, and P. Davaris, "Correlations between nuclear/cytoplasmic area ratio and classification of cervical smears," J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 20, 481?486 (2001).

J. Low. Genit. Tract. Dis.

C. R. de R. Miranda, L. Deligdisch, J. Gil, and P. Dottino, "Morphometric characterization of HPV-related lesions of uterine cervix," J. Low. Genit. Tract. Dis. 4, 204?207 (2000).

Lasers Surg. Med.

A. Mahadevan, M. F. Mitchell, E. Silva, S. Thomsen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Study of the fluorescence properties of normal and neoplastic human cervical tissue," Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 647?655 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Development of a multivariate statistical algorithm to analyze human cervical tissue fluorescence spectra acquired in vivo," Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 46?62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photochem. Photobiol.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelength," Photochem. Photobiol. 6, 720?735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E.

A. D. Kim and M. Moscoso, "Influence of the relative refractive index on the depolarization of multiply scattered," Phys. Rev. E. 64, 026612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. of SPIE

I. Charalambous, R. Cucu, A. Dogariu, and A. Podoleanu, "Experimental investigation of circular light depolarization using polarization sensitive OCT," Proc. SPIE 6429, 64291S (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178?1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J.-Y. Yoo, S.-W. Lee, M.-S. Kang, Y.-T. Kim, B.-M. Kim, "Early-stage diagnosis of cervix using PS-OCT," presented at the Photonics West 2006, USA, 21?26 Jan. (2006).

I. J. Bigio, J. R. Mourant, J. Boyer, and T. M. Johnson, "Invited: Elastic scattering spectroscopy for diagnosis of tissue pathologies," in Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, E. Sevick-Muraca and D. Benaron, eds., Vol. 3 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), paper SP1.

T. C. Wright and A. Ferenczy, "Anatomy and histology of the cervix," in Blaustein's Pathology of the Female Genital Tract, R. J. Kurman, ed., (Springer-Verlag, 2002), pp. 207?224.

A. A. Garcia, O. Hamid, and A. El-Khoueiry, "Cervical cancer," http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic324.htm.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of PS-OCT system with a rapid scanning optical delay line (RSOD). LP: linear polarizer, NBS: non-polarization beam splitter, BS: beam splitter, QWP: quarter-wave plate, PBS: polarization beam splitter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Example of the scanned areas of cervical tissue. 3-D images are obtained with a lateral scanning range of 2 mm and a transversal scanning range of 4 mm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

PS-OCT images of normal and abnormal cervical tissues. (a) to (c) are backscattered intensity images. (d) to (f) are the corresponding S3/S0 images. (a) and (b) are the images of normal cervical tissue. (c) is the image of abnormal cervical tissue with H-SIL. (g) and (h) are the histological images of normal and abnormal tissues, respectively. The physical dimensions of each image are approximately 2 mm (depth) × 2 mm (width).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A 3-D volume image of normal human cervical tissue. The 3-D volume image was constructed with 200 backscattered intensity images. The scanned area has a size of 2 mm (depth) × 2 mm (lateral) × 4 mm (transversal).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) SNR graph of the averaged intensity signal from Fig. 3(a). (b) Averaged DOCP signal from Fig. 3(b). (c) Magnified DOCP signal near epithelium. The slope of the DOCP was quantified from 80 µm to 250 µm. The result shows that the slope of the DOCP signal in epithelium is 0.76204 mm−1.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Histological diagnosis map of the cervix. Red and blue bars present areas scanned by our PS-OCT system and represent histological diagnosis. Note that each sample area is divided to 6 or 9 sub-areas. CIN: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIS: carcinoma in situ, L-SIL: lowgrade squamous intraepithelial lesions, H-SIL: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Diagnoses with decay slopes of DOCP presented in each image (left) by using a threshold value of 1.8 mm−1 and the corresponding diagnosis maps (right) found by histology. If any of the sub-areas is diagnosed as H-SIL by the PS-OCT reading, we say that the whole area contains the H-SIL tissue. (c) was the only sample that turned out to be malignant when the PS-OCT reading was benign.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Number of female subjects based on age group

Tables Icon

Table 2. The sensitivity (true-positive) and specificity (false-negative) when the threshold value was adjusted.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Diagnoses with the PS-OCT using a threshold of 1.8 mm−1 vs. pathological diagnosis in cervical tissues. The sensitivity is 94.7%, and the specificity is 71.2%.

Equations (1)

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S d = [ S 0 S 1 S 2 S 3 ] = [ I t ( I 0 ° I 90 ° ) ( I + 45 ° I 45 ° ) ( I rc I lc ) ] = [ E ox 2 + E oy 2 E ox 2 E oy 2 2 E ox E oy cos ( ε ox ε oy ) 2 E ox E oy sin ( ε ox ε oy ) ]

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