Abstract

A GaInAsP photonic crystal slab microlaser with an integrated passive waveguide was fabricated by a MOCVD butt-joint regrowth process. The boundary between the active and passive regions was optimized for high light transmission. In addition, the edge of the waveguide was designed to output a narrow beam, and the light detection was improved. Consequently, a maximum output power of 0.17 mW was obtained with a differential quantum efficiency of 20%, which would increase to more than 40% under ideal detection conditions.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, "Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express 15, 7506?7514 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Chuo, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915?1917 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Room temperature continuous-wave lasing in photonic crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 14, 6308?6315 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, "Observation of light transmission in photonic crystal waveguides with bends," Electron. Lett. 35, 654?655 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, "Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 72, 161318(R) (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. K. Hwang, S. K. Kim, J. K. Yang, S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, "Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Park, S. Kim, C. Moon, H. Jeon, and H. J. Kim, "Butt-end fiber coupling to a surface-emitting Gamma-point photonic crystal band edge laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171115 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Watanabe and T. Baba, "Active/passive-integrated photonic crystal slab microlaser," Electron. Lett. 42, 695?696 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Ide, J. Hashimoto, K. Nozaki, E. Mizuta, and T. Baba, "InP etching by HI/Xe inductively coupled plasma for photonic-crystal device fabrication," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L102?L104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Y. Park, S. Kim, C. Moon, H. Jeon, and H. J. Kim, "Butt-end fiber coupling to a surface-emitting Gamma-point photonic crystal band edge laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, "Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express 15, 7506?7514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Room temperature continuous-wave lasing in photonic crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 14, 6308?6315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Watanabe and T. Baba, "Active/passive-integrated photonic crystal slab microlaser," Electron. Lett. 42, 695?696 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Ide, J. Hashimoto, K. Nozaki, E. Mizuta, and T. Baba, "InP etching by HI/Xe inductively coupled plasma for photonic-crystal device fabrication," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L102?L104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

I. K. Hwang, S. K. Kim, J. K. Yang, S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, "Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Chuo, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915?1917 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, "Observation of light transmission in photonic crystal waveguides with bends," Electron. Lett. 35, 654?655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Agio, M.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arakawa, Y.

Baba, T.

K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, "Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express 15, 7506?7514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Watanabe and T. Baba, "Active/passive-integrated photonic crystal slab microlaser," Electron. Lett. 42, 695?696 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Ide, J. Hashimoto, K. Nozaki, E. Mizuta, and T. Baba, "InP etching by HI/Xe inductively coupled plasma for photonic-crystal device fabrication," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L102?L104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, "Observation of light transmission in photonic crystal waveguides with bends," Electron. Lett. 35, 654?655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barclay, P.

K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Chuo, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915?1917 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Birner, A.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Chuo, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915?1917 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chuo, A. Y.

K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Chuo, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915?1917 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fukaya, N.

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, "Observation of light transmission in photonic crystal waveguides with bends," Electron. Lett. 35, 654?655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Chuo, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915?1917 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, J.

T. Ide, J. Hashimoto, K. Nozaki, E. Mizuta, and T. Baba, "InP etching by HI/Xe inductively coupled plasma for photonic-crystal device fabrication," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L102?L104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, I. K.

I. K. Hwang, S. K. Kim, J. K. Yang, S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, "Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ide, T.

T. Ide, J. Hashimoto, K. Nozaki, E. Mizuta, and T. Baba, "InP etching by HI/Xe inductively coupled plasma for photonic-crystal device fabrication," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L102?L104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, S.

Iwamoto, S.

Jeon, H.

Y. Park, S. Kim, C. Moon, H. Jeon, and H. J. Kim, "Butt-end fiber coupling to a surface-emitting Gamma-point photonic crystal band edge laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

Y. Park, S. Kim, C. Moon, H. Jeon, and H. J. Kim, "Butt-end fiber coupling to a surface-emitting Gamma-point photonic crystal band edge laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

Y. Park, S. Kim, C. Moon, H. Jeon, and H. J. Kim, "Butt-end fiber coupling to a surface-emitting Gamma-point photonic crystal band edge laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

I. K. Hwang, S. K. Kim, J. K. Yang, S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, "Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. K.

I. K. Hwang, S. K. Kim, J. K. Yang, S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, "Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kita, S.

Kramper, P.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumagai, N.

Lee, S. H.

I. K. Hwang, S. K. Kim, J. K. Yang, S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, "Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

I. K. Hwang, S. K. Kim, J. K. Yang, S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, "Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mizuta, E.

T. Ide, J. Hashimoto, K. Nozaki, E. Mizuta, and T. Baba, "InP etching by HI/Xe inductively coupled plasma for photonic-crystal device fabrication," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L102?L104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moon, C.

Y. Park, S. Kim, C. Moon, H. Jeon, and H. J. Kim, "Butt-end fiber coupling to a surface-emitting Gamma-point photonic crystal band edge laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Müller, F.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakata, Y.

Nomura, M.

Nozaki, K.

K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, "Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser," Opt. Express 15, 7506?7514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ide, J. Hashimoto, K. Nozaki, E. Mizuta, and T. Baba, "InP etching by HI/Xe inductively coupled plasma for photonic-crystal device fabrication," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L102?L104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Chuo, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915?1917 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Y. Park, S. Kim, C. Moon, H. Jeon, and H. J. Kim, "Butt-end fiber coupling to a surface-emitting Gamma-point photonic crystal band edge laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, K.

K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Chuo, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915?1917 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, H.

H. Watanabe and T. Baba, "Active/passive-integrated photonic crystal slab microlaser," Electron. Lett. 42, 695?696 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

Wehrspohn, R. B.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J. K.

I. K. Hwang, S. K. Kim, J. K. Yang, S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, "Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yonekura, J.

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, "Observation of light transmission in photonic crystal waveguides with bends," Electron. Lett. 35, 654?655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

I. K. Hwang, S. K. Kim, J. K. Yang, S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, "Curved-microfiber photon coupling for photonic crystal light emitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, S. Kim, C. Moon, H. Jeon, and H. J. Kim, "Butt-end fiber coupling to a surface-emitting Gamma-point photonic crystal band edge laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Chuo, and C. Gmachl, "Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915?1917 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, "Observation of light transmission in photonic crystal waveguides with bends," Electron. Lett. 35, 654?655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Watanabe and T. Baba, "Active/passive-integrated photonic crystal slab microlaser," Electron. Lett. 42, 695?696 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Ide, J. Hashimoto, K. Nozaki, E. Mizuta, and T. Baba, "InP etching by HI/Xe inductively coupled plasma for photonic-crystal device fabrication," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L102?L104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, "Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 72, 161318(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scanning electron microscope images of the fabricated microlaser and waveguide in the GaInAsP active/passive-integrated PC slab. (a) Top view. (b) Cross-sectional view.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dependence of the light output on the airhole radius ratio r p/r a. (a) Calculated photonic bands (angular frequency ω versus wavenumber k) of the passive waveguide and the resulting intensity distributions for light propagation. (b) Theoretical (solid curve) and experimental (dots) plots of the output optical power.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dependence of the light output on the edge structure of the passive waveguide. Dashed line shows the waveguide edge. Holes of end 3 rows are expanded by 20% to simulate the fabricated devices. (a) Calculated radiative distribution. (b) Theoretical (curves) and experimental (dots) plots of the output optical power as a function of the distance d from the edge of the waveguide to the center of the last airholes.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Laser characteristics. (a) Device (blue square) and lensed fiber with a numerical aperture of 0.56 for detection (right side). (b) Near-field images of the laser beam cross sections. (c) Output versus input powers of the best device for two different calculations (A and B) of the pump spot size. The inset shows the measured spectral intensity of the output beam.

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