Abstract

As an approach using bistable nematic liquid crystals, we present a liquid crystal display with viewing angle control using two stable states, splay and 180°-twist at π cell, with three terminal electrode structures. The splay state is controlled by in-plane switching for a wide viewing angle (WVA), while the 180°-twist state is operated by vertical switching for a narrow viewing angle (NVA). With this bistable mode, we fabricated viewing angle-controlled LCDs without additional optical components.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, "Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect," The 18th International Display Research Conference Asia Display ’98 (Society for Information Display, Seoul, Korea, 1998), 383-386.
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    [CrossRef]
  4. S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, "Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-alignment liquid crystal cell," J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177-L179 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, "Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 729-732 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K.-W. Chien, Y. -J. Hsu, and H.-M. Chen, "Dual light source for backlight systems for smart viewing-adjustable LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1425-1428 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New peeping prevention technology to control viewing angle properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Adachi and M. Shimura, "Controllable viewing -angle displays using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal cell," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 705-708 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, "Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3716-3718 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, "Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler/BERAN, "A Fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryt. 113, 329-339 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, and G.-D. Lee, "Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing," J. Phys. D 39, 5143-5148 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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  17. I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, "Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179-1181 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, "In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, "In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (7)

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, "Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, and G.-D. Lee, "Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing," J. Phys. D 39, 5143-5148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, "Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 729-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K.-W. Chien, Y. -J. Hsu, and H.-M. Chen, "Dual light source for backlight systems for smart viewing-adjustable LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1425-1428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New peeping prevention technology to control viewing angle properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Adachi and M. Shimura, "Controllable viewing -angle displays using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal cell," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 705-708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, "Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, "Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3716-3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, "Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179-1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, "Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-alignment liquid crystal cell," J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177-L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler/BERAN, "A Fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryt. 113, 329-339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, M.

M. Adachi and M. Shimura, "Controllable viewing -angle displays using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal cell," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 705-708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J.-I.

J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, "Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler/BERAN, "A Fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryt. 113, 329-339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. S.

H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, "Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 729-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. P.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, "Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-M.

K.-W. Chien, Y. -J. Hsu, and H.-M. Chen, "Dual light source for backlight systems for smart viewing-adjustable LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1425-1428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chien, K.-W.

K.-W. Chien, Y. -J. Hsu, and H.-M. Chen, "Dual light source for backlight systems for smart viewing-adjustable LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1425-1428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, and G.-D. Lee, "Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing," J. Phys. D 39, 5143-5148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. C.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.-W.

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, and G.-D. Lee, "Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing," J. Phys. D 39, 5143-5148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, I. J.

H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, "Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 729-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dozov, I.

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, "Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179-1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Durand, G.

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, "Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179-1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, J.

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, "In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.-X.

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, "Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3716-3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gwag, J. S.

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, "In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirama, N.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New peeping prevention technology to control viewing angle properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y. -J.

K.-W. Chien, Y. -J. Hsu, and H.-M. Chen, "Dual light source for backlight systems for smart viewing-adjustable LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1425-1428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, E.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jhun, C. G.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, "Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, H. S.

H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, "Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 729-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kanetsuna, T.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New peeping prevention technology to control viewing angle properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, "Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, "Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, and G.-D. Lee, "Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing," J. Phys. D 39, 5143-5148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-M.

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, and G.-D. Lee, "Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing," J. Phys. D 39, 5143-5148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, S.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New peeping prevention technology to control viewing angle properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New peeping prevention technology to control viewing angle properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koehler/BERAN, K. R.

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler/BERAN, "A Fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryt. 113, 329-339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kurogi, S.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New peeping prevention technology to control viewing angle properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H.-S.

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, "Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3716-3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, Y.-H.

J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, "Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. S.

H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, "Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 729-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.-D.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, and G.-D. Lee, "Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing," J. Phys. D 39, 5143-5148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, and G.-D. Lee, "Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing," J. Phys. D 39, 5143-5148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. R.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, "Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, U. J.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, "Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.-R.

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, and G.-D. Lee, "Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing," J. Phys. D 39, 5143-5148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y. J.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Z.-G.

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, "Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3716-3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, T.

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, "Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-alignment liquid crystal cell," J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177-L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nobili, M.

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, "Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179-1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oh-e, M.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Okada, N.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New peeping prevention technology to control viewing angle properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. K.

H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, "Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 729-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. H.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, J. M.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sekiguchi, S.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New peeping prevention technology to control viewing angle properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shimura, M.

M. Adachi and M. Shimura, "Controllable viewing -angle displays using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal cell," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 705-708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Son, J.-H.

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, and G.-D. Lee, "Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing," J. Phys. D 39, 5143-5148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takatoh, K.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New peeping prevention technology to control viewing angle properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, "Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-alignment liquid crystal cell," J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177-L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Uemura, K.

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New peeping prevention technology to control viewing angle properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M.

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, "Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3716-3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, Y.

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, "Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-alignment liquid crystal cell," J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177-L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. S.

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, and G.-D. Lee, "Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing," J. Phys. D 39, 5143-5148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, "In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoneya, M.

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, "In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T. H.

J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, "Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.-H.

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, "Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. K.

H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, "Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 729-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, "Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3895-3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, "Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2881-2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T. H. Yoon, "Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, K. H. Park. and H. C. Choi, "Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, "Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3716-3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Jhun, C. P. Chen, U. J. Lee, S. R. Lee, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, "Tristate liquid crystal display with memory and dynamic operating mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, "Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1179-1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Gwag, J. Fukuda, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, "In-plane bistable nematic liquid crystal devices based on nanoimprinted surface relief," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 073504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Miyashita, Y. Yamaguchi, and T. Uchida, "Wide-viewing-angle display mode using bend-alignment liquid crystal cell," J. Appl. Phys. 34, L177-L179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Son, S.-W. Choi, W.-R. Lee, K.-M. Kim, J. S. Yang, J. C. Kim, H. Choi, and G.-D. Lee, "Compensation for phase dispersion in horizontal-switching liquid crystal cell for improved viewing," J. Phys. D 39, 5143-5148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler/BERAN, "A Fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryt. 113, 329-339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Symp. Digest Tech. Papers (4)

H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, "Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 729-732 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K.-W. Chien, Y. -J. Hsu, and H.-M. Chen, "Dual light source for backlight systems for smart viewing-adjustable LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1425-1428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Takatoh, S. Kobayashi, S. Kimura, N. Okada, T. Kanetsuna, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, S. Sekiguchi, and K. Uemura, "New peeping prevention technology to control viewing angle properties of TFT-LCDs," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 1340-1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Adachi and M. Shimura, "Controllable viewing -angle displays using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal cell," SID Int, Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 37, 705-708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. P. Bryan-Brown, C. V. Brown, J. C. Jones, E. L. Wood, I. C. Sage, P. Brett, and J. Ruding, "Grating aligned bistable nematic device," Digest of Technical Papers of 1997 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, Boston, Massachusetts, 1997), 37-40.

K. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, "Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect," The 18th International Display Research Conference Asia Display ’98 (Society for Information Display, Seoul, Korea, 1998), 383-386.

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, "A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology," Digest of Technical Papers of 1998 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, Anaheim, 1998), 1077-1080.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Switching structure at two modes of π cell with bistable state to control viewing angle: a) cross section of the used LC cell; b) horizontal switching in splay state for wide viewing angle; c) vertical switching in 180°-twisted state for narrow viewing angle.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Numerically-calculated viewing angle characteristics: (a) viewing angle characteristics of splay state with horizontal switching, which shows wide viewing angle characteristics; (b) viewing angle characteristics of 180°-twisted state with vertical switching, which shows narrow viewing angle characteristics.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

V-T curves of NVA mode by the vertical switching and WVA mode by the horizontal switching.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured viewing angle characteristics: (a) viewing angle characteristics of splay state with horizontal switching. As expected by optical calculation, horizontal switching shows wide viewing angle characteristics; (b) viewing angle characteristics of 180°-twisted state with vertical switching, which shows narrow viewing angle characteristics as estimated by optical calculations.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

LC director profiles from side in the cell structure with top floating electrode.

Equations (2)

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T = 1 1 + u 2 sin 2 ( 1 + u 2 ϕ
u = π d λ ϕ ( n e n o )

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