Abstract

Nanoscale ridge aperture antennas have been shown to have high transmission efficiency and confined nanoscale radiation in the near field region compared with regularly-shaped apertures. The radiation enhancement is attributed to the fundamental electric-magnetic field propagating in the TE10 mode concentrated in the gap between the ridges. This paper reports experimental demonstration of field enhancement using such ridge antenna apertures in a bowtie shape for the manufacture of nanometer size structures using an NSOM (near field scanning optical microscopy) probe integrated with nanoscale bowtie aperture. Consistent lines with width of 59 nm and as small as 24 nm have be written on photoresist using such probes.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Aizenberg, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, "Imaging the irradiance distribution in the optical near field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3773-3775 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. M. Alkaisi, R. J. Blaikie, S. J. McNab, R. Cheung, and R. S. Cumming, "Sub-diffraction-limited patterning using evanescent near-field optical lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3560-3562 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint of sub-25nm vias and trenches in polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114-3116 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Davy and M. Spajer, "Near field optics: Snapshot of the field emitted by a nanosource using a photosensitive polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3306-3308 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kwon, P. Kim, W. Chang, J. Kim, C. Chun, D. Kim, and S. Jeong, "Nanolithography on photosensitive polymers using near-field scanning optical microscope," in Proceedings of 6th International Sumposium on Laser Precision Microfabrication, (2005).
  6. A. Tarun, M. R. Daza, N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, "Apertureless optical near-field fabrication using an atomic force microscope on photoresists." Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3400-3402 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Koch, E. Fadeeva, M. Engelbrecht, C. Ruffert, H. H. Gatzen, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, "Maskless nonlinear lithography with femtosecond laser pulses." Appl. Phys. A 82, 23-26 (2006).
  8. X. Yin, N. Fang, X. Zhang, I. B. Martini, and B. J. Schwartz, "Near-field two-photon nanolithography using an apertureless optical probe." Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3663-3665 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Chang, J. Kim, S. Cho, and K. Whang, "Femtosecond-Laser-Coupled Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy Patterning Using Self-Assembled Monolayers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2082-2086 (2006).
  10. H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes." Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Oesterschulze, G. Georgiev, M. Müller-Wiegand, A. Vollkopf, and O. Rudow, "Transmission line probe based on a bow-tie antenna," J. Microsc. 202, 39-44 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, "Nanolithography using high transmission nanoscale bowtie apertures," Nano Lett. 6, 361-364 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas." Nano Lett. 6, 355-360 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Wang, E. X. Jin, S. M. Uppuluri, and X. Xu, "Contact optical nanolithography using nanoscale C-shaped apertures," Opt. Express 14, 9902-9908 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Shi and L. Hesselink, "Mechanisms for enhancing power throughput from planar nano-apertures for near-field optical data storage," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41,1632-1635 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Sendur, W. Challener, and C. Peng, "Ridge waveguide as a near field aperture for high density data storage," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2743-2752 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Finite-difference time-domain studies on optical transmission through Planar Nano-Apertures in a Metal Film," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 407-417 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006

J. Koch, E. Fadeeva, M. Engelbrecht, C. Ruffert, H. H. Gatzen, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, "Maskless nonlinear lithography with femtosecond laser pulses." Appl. Phys. A 82, 23-26 (2006).

W. Chang, J. Kim, S. Cho, and K. Whang, "Femtosecond-Laser-Coupled Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy Patterning Using Self-Assembled Monolayers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2082-2086 (2006).

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, "Nanolithography using high transmission nanoscale bowtie apertures," Nano Lett. 6, 361-364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas." Nano Lett. 6, 355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, E. X. Jin, S. M. Uppuluri, and X. Xu, "Contact optical nanolithography using nanoscale C-shaped apertures," Opt. Express 14, 9902-9908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Sendur, W. Challener, and C. Peng, "Ridge waveguide as a near field aperture for high density data storage," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2743-2752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Finite-difference time-domain studies on optical transmission through Planar Nano-Apertures in a Metal Film," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 407-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

X. Shi and L. Hesselink, "Mechanisms for enhancing power throughput from planar nano-apertures for near-field optical data storage," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41,1632-1635 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Tarun, M. R. Daza, N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, "Apertureless optical near-field fabrication using an atomic force microscope on photoresists." Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3400-3402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Yin, N. Fang, X. Zhang, I. B. Martini, and B. J. Schwartz, "Near-field two-photon nanolithography using an apertureless optical probe." Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3663-3665 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. Oesterschulze, G. Georgiev, M. Müller-Wiegand, A. Vollkopf, and O. Rudow, "Transmission line probe based on a bow-tie antenna," J. Microsc. 202, 39-44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. M. Alkaisi, R. J. Blaikie, S. J. McNab, R. Cheung, and R. S. Cumming, "Sub-diffraction-limited patterning using evanescent near-field optical lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3560-3562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. Aizenberg, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, "Imaging the irradiance distribution in the optical near field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3773-3775 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Davy and M. Spajer, "Near field optics: Snapshot of the field emitted by a nanosource using a photosensitive polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3306-3308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint of sub-25nm vias and trenches in polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114-3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1944

H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes." Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Aizenberg, J.

J. Aizenberg, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, "Imaging the irradiance distribution in the optical near field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3773-3775 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alkaisi, M. M.

M. M. Alkaisi, R. J. Blaikie, S. J. McNab, R. Cheung, and R. S. Cumming, "Sub-diffraction-limited patterning using evanescent near-field optical lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3560-3562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes." Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Blaikie, R. J.

M. M. Alkaisi, R. J. Blaikie, S. J. McNab, R. Cheung, and R. S. Cumming, "Sub-diffraction-limited patterning using evanescent near-field optical lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3560-3562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Challener, W.

K. Sendur, W. Challener, and C. Peng, "Ridge waveguide as a near field aperture for high density data storage," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2743-2752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

W. Chang, J. Kim, S. Cho, and K. Whang, "Femtosecond-Laser-Coupled Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy Patterning Using Self-Assembled Monolayers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2082-2086 (2006).

Cheung, R.

M. M. Alkaisi, R. J. Blaikie, S. J. McNab, R. Cheung, and R. S. Cumming, "Sub-diffraction-limited patterning using evanescent near-field optical lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3560-3562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

J. Koch, E. Fadeeva, M. Engelbrecht, C. Ruffert, H. H. Gatzen, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, "Maskless nonlinear lithography with femtosecond laser pulses." Appl. Phys. A 82, 23-26 (2006).

Cho, S.

W. Chang, J. Kim, S. Cho, and K. Whang, "Femtosecond-Laser-Coupled Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy Patterning Using Self-Assembled Monolayers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2082-2086 (2006).

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint of sub-25nm vias and trenches in polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114-3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Conley, N. R.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas." Nano Lett. 6, 355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cumming, R. S.

M. M. Alkaisi, R. J. Blaikie, S. J. McNab, R. Cheung, and R. S. Cumming, "Sub-diffraction-limited patterning using evanescent near-field optical lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3560-3562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davy, S.

S. Davy and M. Spajer, "Near field optics: Snapshot of the field emitted by a nanosource using a photosensitive polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3306-3308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Daza, M. R.

A. Tarun, M. R. Daza, N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, "Apertureless optical near-field fabrication using an atomic force microscope on photoresists." Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3400-3402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Engelbrecht, M.

J. Koch, E. Fadeeva, M. Engelbrecht, C. Ruffert, H. H. Gatzen, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, "Maskless nonlinear lithography with femtosecond laser pulses." Appl. Phys. A 82, 23-26 (2006).

Fadeeva, E.

J. Koch, E. Fadeeva, M. Engelbrecht, C. Ruffert, H. H. Gatzen, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, "Maskless nonlinear lithography with femtosecond laser pulses." Appl. Phys. A 82, 23-26 (2006).

Fang, N.

X. Yin, N. Fang, X. Zhang, I. B. Martini, and B. J. Schwartz, "Near-field two-photon nanolithography using an apertureless optical probe." Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3663-3665 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fromm, D. P.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas." Nano Lett. 6, 355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gatzen, H. H.

J. Koch, E. Fadeeva, M. Engelbrecht, C. Ruffert, H. H. Gatzen, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, "Maskless nonlinear lithography with femtosecond laser pulses." Appl. Phys. A 82, 23-26 (2006).

Georgiev, G.

E. Oesterschulze, G. Georgiev, M. Müller-Wiegand, A. Vollkopf, and O. Rudow, "Transmission line probe based on a bow-tie antenna," J. Microsc. 202, 39-44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hayazawa, N.

A. Tarun, M. R. Daza, N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, "Apertureless optical near-field fabrication using an atomic force microscope on photoresists." Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3400-3402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

X. Shi and L. Hesselink, "Mechanisms for enhancing power throughput from planar nano-apertures for near-field optical data storage," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41,1632-1635 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

A. Tarun, M. R. Daza, N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, "Apertureless optical near-field fabrication using an atomic force microscope on photoresists." Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3400-3402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jin, E. X.

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, "Nanolithography using high transmission nanoscale bowtie apertures," Nano Lett. 6, 361-364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, E. X. Jin, S. M. Uppuluri, and X. Xu, "Contact optical nanolithography using nanoscale C-shaped apertures," Opt. Express 14, 9902-9908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Finite-difference time-domain studies on optical transmission through Planar Nano-Apertures in a Metal Film," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 407-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

A. Tarun, M. R. Daza, N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, "Apertureless optical near-field fabrication using an atomic force microscope on photoresists." Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3400-3402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

W. Chang, J. Kim, S. Cho, and K. Whang, "Femtosecond-Laser-Coupled Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy Patterning Using Self-Assembled Monolayers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2082-2086 (2006).

Kino, G. S.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas." Nano Lett. 6, 355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koch, J.

J. Koch, E. Fadeeva, M. Engelbrecht, C. Ruffert, H. H. Gatzen, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, "Maskless nonlinear lithography with femtosecond laser pulses." Appl. Phys. A 82, 23-26 (2006).

Krauss, P. R.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint of sub-25nm vias and trenches in polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114-3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Martini, I. B.

X. Yin, N. Fang, X. Zhang, I. B. Martini, and B. J. Schwartz, "Near-field two-photon nanolithography using an apertureless optical probe." Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3663-3665 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

M. M. Alkaisi, R. J. Blaikie, S. J. McNab, R. Cheung, and R. S. Cumming, "Sub-diffraction-limited patterning using evanescent near-field optical lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3560-3562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas." Nano Lett. 6, 355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Wiegand, M.

E. Oesterschulze, G. Georgiev, M. Müller-Wiegand, A. Vollkopf, and O. Rudow, "Transmission line probe based on a bow-tie antenna," J. Microsc. 202, 39-44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oesterschulze, E.

E. Oesterschulze, G. Georgiev, M. Müller-Wiegand, A. Vollkopf, and O. Rudow, "Transmission line probe based on a bow-tie antenna," J. Microsc. 202, 39-44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ostendorf, A.

J. Koch, E. Fadeeva, M. Engelbrecht, C. Ruffert, H. H. Gatzen, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, "Maskless nonlinear lithography with femtosecond laser pulses." Appl. Phys. A 82, 23-26 (2006).

Paul, K. E.

J. Aizenberg, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, "Imaging the irradiance distribution in the optical near field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3773-3775 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C.

K. Sendur, W. Challener, and C. Peng, "Ridge waveguide as a near field aperture for high density data storage," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2743-2752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Renstrom, P. J.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint of sub-25nm vias and trenches in polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114-3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

J. Aizenberg, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, "Imaging the irradiance distribution in the optical near field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3773-3775 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rudow, O.

E. Oesterschulze, G. Georgiev, M. Müller-Wiegand, A. Vollkopf, and O. Rudow, "Transmission line probe based on a bow-tie antenna," J. Microsc. 202, 39-44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ruffert, C.

J. Koch, E. Fadeeva, M. Engelbrecht, C. Ruffert, H. H. Gatzen, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, "Maskless nonlinear lithography with femtosecond laser pulses." Appl. Phys. A 82, 23-26 (2006).

Schuck, P. J.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas." Nano Lett. 6, 355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, B. J.

X. Yin, N. Fang, X. Zhang, I. B. Martini, and B. J. Schwartz, "Near-field two-photon nanolithography using an apertureless optical probe." Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3663-3665 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sendur, K.

K. Sendur, W. Challener, and C. Peng, "Ridge waveguide as a near field aperture for high density data storage," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2743-2752 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shi, X.

X. Shi and L. Hesselink, "Mechanisms for enhancing power throughput from planar nano-apertures for near-field optical data storage," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41,1632-1635 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spajer, M.

S. Davy and M. Spajer, "Near field optics: Snapshot of the field emitted by a nanosource using a photosensitive polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3306-3308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sundaramurthy, A.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas." Nano Lett. 6, 355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tarun, A.

A. Tarun, M. R. Daza, N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, "Apertureless optical near-field fabrication using an atomic force microscope on photoresists." Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3400-3402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Uppuluri, S. M.

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, "Nanolithography using high transmission nanoscale bowtie apertures," Nano Lett. 6, 361-364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, E. X. Jin, S. M. Uppuluri, and X. Xu, "Contact optical nanolithography using nanoscale C-shaped apertures," Opt. Express 14, 9902-9908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vollkopf, A.

E. Oesterschulze, G. Georgiev, M. Müller-Wiegand, A. Vollkopf, and O. Rudow, "Transmission line probe based on a bow-tie antenna," J. Microsc. 202, 39-44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, E. X. Jin, S. M. Uppuluri, and X. Xu, "Contact optical nanolithography using nanoscale C-shaped apertures," Opt. Express 14, 9902-9908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, "Nanolithography using high transmission nanoscale bowtie apertures," Nano Lett. 6, 361-364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Whang, K.

W. Chang, J. Kim, S. Cho, and K. Whang, "Femtosecond-Laser-Coupled Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy Patterning Using Self-Assembled Monolayers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2082-2086 (2006).

Whitesides, G. M.

J. Aizenberg, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, "Imaging the irradiance distribution in the optical near field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3773-3775 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, "Nanolithography using high transmission nanoscale bowtie apertures," Nano Lett. 6, 361-364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, E. X. Jin, S. M. Uppuluri, and X. Xu, "Contact optical nanolithography using nanoscale C-shaped apertures," Opt. Express 14, 9902-9908 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Finite-difference time-domain studies on optical transmission through Planar Nano-Apertures in a Metal Film," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 407-417 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X.

X. Yin, N. Fang, X. Zhang, I. B. Martini, and B. J. Schwartz, "Near-field two-photon nanolithography using an apertureless optical probe." Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3663-3665 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Yin, N. Fang, X. Zhang, I. B. Martini, and B. J. Schwartz, "Near-field two-photon nanolithography using an apertureless optical probe." Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3663-3665 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

J. Koch, E. Fadeeva, M. Engelbrecht, C. Ruffert, H. H. Gatzen, A. Ostendorf, and B. N. Chichkov, "Maskless nonlinear lithography with femtosecond laser pulses." Appl. Phys. A 82, 23-26 (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. Yin, N. Fang, X. Zhang, I. B. Martini, and B. J. Schwartz, "Near-field two-photon nanolithography using an apertureless optical probe." Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3663-3665 (2002).
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Nano Lett.

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Other

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