Abstract

We report on the development of a high-speed, wide bandwidth Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) wavelength swept laser of around 1300 nm using two gain media for high-resolution and high-speed Fourier domain optical coherence tomography. The wavelength swept laser is capable of FWHM scanning range of more than 135 nm at 45.6 kHz sweeping rate. The measured axial resolution of the forward scan is 6.6 µm in air and 4.7 µm in tissue. The peak power is 11.4 mW for both the forward and backward scans. The measured system sensitivity is achieved up to 100.7 dB. We also demonstrate OCT imaging using the FDML wavelength swept laser with two semiconductor optical amplifiers.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 178-1181, (1991)
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Kerbage, H. Lim, W. Sun, M. Mujat, and J. F. de Boer, "Large depth-high resolution full 3D imaging of the anterior segments of the eye using high speed optical frequency domain imaging," Opt. Express 15, 7117-7125, (2007)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Yun, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, B. Park, and J. de Boer, "High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 ?m wavelength," Opt. Express 11, 3598-3604, (2003)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Y. Oh, B. E. Bouma, N. Iftimia, S. H. Yun, R. Yelin, and G. J. Tearney, "Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence microscopy using InGaAs camera," Opt Express 14, 726-735, (2006)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. H. Yun, G. Tearney, Johannes de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt Express 11, 2953-2963, (2003)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, "Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator," Opt. Lett. 30, 147-149, (2005)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength swept filter," Opt. Lett. 28, 1981-1983, (2003)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, "Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles," Opt. Express 13, 3513-3518, (2005)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier domain mode locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt Express 14, 3225-3237, (2006)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s," Opt. Lett. 31, 2975-2977, (2006)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography at up to 370,000 lines per second using buffered Fourier domain mode-locked lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 626-628, (2007)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. W. Jenkins, D. C. Adler, M. Gargesha, R. Huber, F. Rothenberg, J. Belding, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. M. Rollins, "Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography imaging and visualization of the embryonic avian heart using a buffered Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser," Opt Express 15, 6251-6267, (2007)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photon. 1, 709-716, (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with two semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 678-680, (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Rao, and Z. Chen, "Swept laser source at 1 mm for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073901, (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second," Opt. Lett. 32, 2049-2051, (2007)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

2003 (3)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 178-1181, (1991)
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

Belding, J.

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 178-1181, (1991)
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photon. 1, 709-716, (2007)
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

J. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Rao, and Z. Chen, "Swept laser source at 1 mm for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073901, (2006)
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. P.

Connolly, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photon. 1, 709-716, (2007)
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 178-1181, (1991)
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photon. 1, 709-716, (2007)
[CrossRef]

M. W. Jenkins, D. C. Adler, M. Gargesha, R. Huber, F. Rothenberg, J. Belding, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. M. Rollins, "Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography imaging and visualization of the embryonic avian heart using a buffered Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser," Opt Express 15, 6251-6267, (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography at up to 370,000 lines per second using buffered Fourier domain mode-locked lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 626-628, (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second," Opt. Lett. 32, 2049-2051, (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s," Opt. Lett. 31, 2975-2977, (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier domain mode locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt Express 14, 3225-3237, (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, "Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles," Opt. Express 13, 3513-3518, (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 178-1181, (1991)
[CrossRef]

Gargesha, M.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 178-1181, (1991)
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 178-1181, (1991)
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 178-1181, (1991)
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photon. 1, 709-716, (2007)
[CrossRef]

M. W. Jenkins, D. C. Adler, M. Gargesha, R. Huber, F. Rothenberg, J. Belding, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. M. Rollins, "Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography imaging and visualization of the embryonic avian heart using a buffered Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser," Opt Express 15, 6251-6267, (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography at up to 370,000 lines per second using buffered Fourier domain mode-locked lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 626-628, (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second," Opt. Lett. 32, 2049-2051, (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s," Opt. Lett. 31, 2975-2977, (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier domain mode locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt Express 14, 3225-3237, (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, "Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles," Opt. Express 13, 3513-3518, (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Jenkins, M. W.

Johannes de Boer, G.

Kerbage, C.

Lim, H.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 178-1181, (1991)
[CrossRef]

Mujat, M.

Nelson, J. S.

Oh, W. Y.

W. Y. Oh, B. E. Bouma, N. Iftimia, S. H. Yun, R. Yelin, and G. J. Tearney, "Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence microscopy using InGaAs camera," Opt Express 14, 726-735, (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with two semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 678-680, (2005)
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 178-1181, (1991)
[CrossRef]

Rao, B.

J. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Rao, and Z. Chen, "Swept laser source at 1 mm for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073901, (2006)
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A. M.

Rothenberg, F.

Schmitt, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photon. 1, 709-716, (2007)
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 178-1181, (1991)
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 178-1181, (1991)
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 178-1181, (1991)
[CrossRef]

Taira, K.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Wang, Q.

J. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Rao, and Z. Chen, "Swept laser source at 1 mm for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073901, (2006)
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

Wilson, D. L.

Wojtkowski, M.

Yelin, R.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Rao, and Z. Chen, "Swept laser source at 1 mm for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073901, (2006)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with two semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 678-680, (2005)
[CrossRef]

Nature Photon. (1)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photon. 1, 709-716, (2007)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, "Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles," Opt. Express 13, 3513-3518, (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, B. E. Bouma, N. Iftimia, S. H. Yun, R. Yelin, and G. J. Tearney, "Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence microscopy using InGaAs camera," Opt Express 14, 726-735, (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier domain mode locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt Express 14, 3225-3237, (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. Tearney, Johannes de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt Express 11, 2953-2963, (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yun, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, B. Park, and J. de Boer, "High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 ?m wavelength," Opt. Express 11, 3598-3604, (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, D. C. Adler, M. Gargesha, R. Huber, F. Rothenberg, J. Belding, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. M. Rollins, "Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography imaging and visualization of the embryonic avian heart using a buffered Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser," Opt Express 15, 6251-6267, (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kerbage, H. Lim, W. Sun, M. Mujat, and J. F. de Boer, "Large depth-high resolution full 3D imaging of the anterior segments of the eye using high speed optical frequency domain imaging," Opt. Express 15, 7117-7125, (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 178-1181, (1991)
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for a wide-bandwidth, high-speed of a FDML wavelength swept laser and an SSOCT system. (PC: polarization controller; FC: fiber coupler; OC: optical circulator; SOA: semiconductor optical amplifier; Coll.: collimator)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

ASE spectrum of two SOAs used in a FDML wavelength swept laser.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical spectra and transient intensity profiles: (a) optical spectrum of laser cavity 1 and its transient intensity profile (b); (c) optical spectrum of laser cavity 2 and its transient. intensity profile (d); (e) optical spectrum of combined laser cavity and its transient intensity profile (f).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Forward scan point spread function (PSF) of the FDML laser system: (a) axial resolution and (b) axial resolution as a function of depth.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Sensitivity of the FDML laser system as a function of depth.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

OCT images of (a) human finger and (b) nail fold in vivo with FDML wavelength swept laser at 45.6 kHz sweep rate.

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