Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology which generates high resolution, cross-sectional images in situ, without the need for excisional biopsy. Previous clinical studies using endoscopic OCT with standard 10–15 µm axial resolution have demonstrated its capability in diagnosing Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD). Quantitative OCT image analysis has shown promise for detecting HGD in Barrett’s esophagus patients. We recently developed an endoscopic OCT system with an improved axial resolution of ~5 µm. The goal in this manuscript is to compare standard resolution OCT and ultrahigh resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) for image quality and computeraided detection using normal and Barrett’s esophagus. OCT images of gastrointestinal (GI) tissues were obtained using UHR-OCT (5.5 µm) and standard resolution OCT (13 µm). Image quality including the speckle size and sharpness was compared. Texture features of endoscopic OCT images from normal and Barrett’s esophagus were extracted using quantitative metrics including spatial frequency analysis and statistical texture analysis. These features were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the vector dimension and increase the discriminative power, followed by linear discrimination analysis (LDA). UHR-OCT images of GI tissues improved visualization of fine architectural features compared to standard resolution OCT. In addition, the quantitative image feature analysis showed enhanced discrimination of normal and Barrett’s esophagus with UHR-OCT. The ability of UHR-OCT to resolve tissue morphology at improved resolution enables visualization of subtle features in OCT images, which may be useful in disease diagnosis. Enhanced classification of image features using UHR-OCT promises to help in the computer-aided diagnosis of GI diseases.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (2)

Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. Desai, P.R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. Huang, A. Koski, J.M. Schmitt, J.G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, S.W. Huang, A.D. Aguirre, and J.G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution line-scanning optical coherence microscopy," Opt. Lett. 32, 1971-1973 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

K.W. Gossage, C.M. Smith, E.M. Kanter, L.P. Hariri, A.L. Stone, J.J. Rodriguez, S.K. Williams, and J.K. Barton, "Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms," Physics in Medicine and Biology 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.A. Evans, J.M. Poneros, B.E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E.F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G.Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N.S. Nishioka, and G.J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Qi, M.V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J.E. Willis, and A.M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Qi, D.Y. Rowland, M.V. Sivak, and A.M. Rollins, "Fractal analysis with classification tree for classification of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using multiple endoscopic optical coherence tomography images," Gastroenterology 130, A310-A310 (2006).

A.R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L.P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J.K. Barton, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

P.L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A.D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T.H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S.J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J.L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Isenberg, M.V. Sivak, A. Chak, R.C.K. Wong, J.E. Willis, B. Wolf, D.Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Schuman, L.A. Paunescu, A.M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J.S. Duker, "Comparison of Ultrahigh- and Standard-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging Macular Pathology," Ophthalmology 112, 1922-1935 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

P.R. Herz, Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, J.G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, "Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Duker, L.A. Paunescu, W. Drexler, C.R. Baumal, C.A. Puliafito, E. Reichel, A.H. Rogers, and J.S. Schuman, "Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular hole pathology and repair," Ophthalmology 111, 2033-2043 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

P.R. Pfau, M.V. Sivak, Jr., A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, J.A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, "Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 196-202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.W. Gossage, T.S. Tkaczyk, J.J. Rodriguez, and J.K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-5 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, P. Gardner, A. Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.P. Wade, J. Miyan, N.P. Lockyer, J.C. Vickerman, N.W. Clarke, J.H. Shanks, L.J. Scott, C.A. Hart, and M. Brown, "Applications of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in studies of benign prostate and prostate cancer. A pilot study," Journal of Pathology 201, 99-108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, T.H. Ko, I. Hartl, and J.G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence microscopy for high-speed, in vivo cellular imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 2064-2066 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, "Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 564-573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T.C.B. Schut, R. Wolthuis, P.J. Caspers, and G.J. Puppels, "Real-time tissue characterization on the basis of in vivo Raman spectra," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 580-585 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R.K. Ghanta, F.X. Kärtner, J.S. Schuman, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nature Medicine 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, "Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 2633-2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.M. Poneros, S. Brand, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, and N.S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, and N.S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467-474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J.A. Izatt, A.M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X.D. Li, S.A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M.L. Krinsky, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

J.M. Schmitt, "Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F.X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S.A. Boppart, X.D. Li, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.M. Schmitt, S.H. Xiang, and K.M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

A.J. Cameron and H.A. Carpenter, "Barrett's esophagus, high-grade dysplasia, and early adenocarcinoma: a pathological study," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 92, 586-591 (1997).
[PubMed]

G.J. Tearney, M.E. Brezinski, B.E. Bouma, S.A. Boppart, C. Pitvis, J.F. Southern, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.M. Sergeev, V.M. Gelikonov, G.V. Gelikonov, F.I. Feldchtein, R.V. Kuranov, N.D. Gladkova, N.M. Shakhova, L.B. Suopova, A.V. Shakhov, I.A. Kuznetzova, A.N. Denisenko, V.V. Pochinko, Y.P. Chumakov, and O.S. Streltzova, "In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa," Opt. Express 1, 432-440 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J.A. Izatt, M.D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M.V. Sivak, Jr., "Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. Harwood, T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, S. Kelman, and L. Davis, "Texture Classification by Center-Symmetrical Autocorrelation, Using Kullback Discrimination of Distributions," Pattern Recognition Letters 16, 1-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguirre, A.D.

Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. Desai, P.R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. Huang, A. Koski, J.M. Schmitt, J.G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, S.W. Huang, A.D. Aguirre, and J.G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution line-scanning optical coherence microscopy," Opt. Lett. 32, 1971-1973 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A.D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T.H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S.J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J.L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.R. Herz, Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, J.G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, "Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, T.H. Ko, I. Hartl, and J.G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence microscopy for high-speed, in vivo cellular imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 2064-2066 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barr, H.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, "Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 564-573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J.K.

A.R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L.P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J.K. Barton, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K.W. Gossage, C.M. Smith, E.M. Kanter, L.P. Hariri, A.L. Stone, J.J. Rodriguez, S.K. Williams, and J.K. Barton, "Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms," Physics in Medicine and Biology 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.W. Gossage, T.S. Tkaczyk, J.J. Rodriguez, and J.K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-5 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumal, C.R.

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Duker, L.A. Paunescu, W. Drexler, C.R. Baumal, C.A. Puliafito, E. Reichel, A.H. Rogers, and J.S. Schuman, "Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular hole pathology and repair," Ophthalmology 111, 2033-2043 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S.A.

X.D. Li, S.A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M.L. Krinsky, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F.X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S.A. Boppart, X.D. Li, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G.J. Tearney, M.E. Brezinski, B.E. Bouma, S.A. Boppart, C. Pitvis, J.F. Southern, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.E.

J.A. Evans, J.M. Poneros, B.E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E.F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G.Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N.S. Nishioka, and G.J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.M. Poneros, S. Brand, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, and N.S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, and N.S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467-474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.J. Tearney, M.E. Brezinski, B.E. Bouma, S.A. Boppart, C. Pitvis, J.F. Southern, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourquin, S.

P.L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A.D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T.H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S.J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J.L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand, S.

J.M. Poneros, S. Brand, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, and N.S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bressner, J.

J.A. Evans, J.M. Poneros, B.E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E.F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G.Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N.S. Nishioka, and G.J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M.E.

X.D. Li, S.A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M.L. Krinsky, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G.J. Tearney, M.E. Brezinski, B.E. Bouma, S.A. Boppart, C. Pitvis, J.F. Southern, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, M.

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, P. Gardner, A. Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.P. Wade, J. Miyan, N.P. Lockyer, J.C. Vickerman, N.W. Clarke, J.H. Shanks, L.J. Scott, C.A. Hart, and M. Brown, "Applications of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in studies of benign prostate and prostate cancer. A pilot study," Journal of Pathology 201, 99-108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cameron, A.J.

A.J. Cameron and H.A. Carpenter, "Barrett's esophagus, high-grade dysplasia, and early adenocarcinoma: a pathological study," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 92, 586-591 (1997).
[PubMed]

Carpenter, H.A.

A.J. Cameron and H.A. Carpenter, "Barrett's esophagus, high-grade dysplasia, and early adenocarcinoma: a pathological study," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 92, 586-591 (1997).
[PubMed]

Caspers, P.J.

T.C.B. Schut, R. Wolthuis, P.J. Caspers, and G.J. Puppels, "Real-time tissue characterization on the basis of in vivo Raman spectra," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 580-585 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chak, A.

G. Isenberg, M.V. Sivak, A. Chak, R.C.K. Wong, J.E. Willis, B. Wolf, D.Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.R. Pfau, M.V. Sivak, Jr., A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, J.A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, "Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 196-202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J.A. Izatt, A.M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, S.W. Huang, A.D. Aguirre, and J.G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution line-scanning optical coherence microscopy," Opt. Lett. 32, 1971-1973 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. Desai, P.R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. Huang, A. Koski, J.M. Schmitt, J.G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A.D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T.H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S.J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J.L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.R. Herz, Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, J.G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, "Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chumakov, Y.P.

Clarke, N.W.

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, P. Gardner, A. Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.P. Wade, J. Miyan, N.P. Lockyer, J.C. Vickerman, N.W. Clarke, J.H. Shanks, L.J. Scott, C.A. Hart, and M. Brown, "Applications of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in studies of benign prostate and prostate cancer. A pilot study," Journal of Pathology 201, 99-108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Compton, C.C.

J.M. Poneros, S. Brand, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, and N.S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, and N.S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467-474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connolly, J.L.

P.L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A.D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T.H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S.J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J.L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conwell, D.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, "Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 2633-2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crow, P.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, "Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 564-573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Das, A.

G. Isenberg, M.V. Sivak, A. Chak, R.C.K. Wong, J.E. Willis, B. Wolf, D.Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, L.

D. Harwood, T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, S. Kelman, and L. Davis, "Texture Classification by Center-Symmetrical Autocorrelation, Using Kullback Discrimination of Distributions," Pattern Recognition Letters 16, 1-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davros, B.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, "Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 2633-2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denisenko, A.N.

Desai, S.

Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. Desai, P.R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. Huang, A. Koski, J.M. Schmitt, J.G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donchenko, E.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, "Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 2633-2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

A.R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L.P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J.K. Barton, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Schuman, L.A. Paunescu, A.M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J.S. Duker, "Comparison of Ultrahigh- and Standard-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging Macular Pathology," Ophthalmology 112, 1922-1935 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Duker, L.A. Paunescu, W. Drexler, C.R. Baumal, C.A. Puliafito, E. Reichel, A.H. Rogers, and J.S. Schuman, "Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular hole pathology and repair," Ophthalmology 111, 2033-2043 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R.K. Ghanta, F.X. Kärtner, J.S. Schuman, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nature Medicine 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.D. Li, S.A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M.L. Krinsky, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F.X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S.A. Boppart, X.D. Li, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duker, J.S.

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Schuman, L.A. Paunescu, A.M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J.S. Duker, "Comparison of Ultrahigh- and Standard-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging Macular Pathology," Ophthalmology 112, 1922-1935 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Duker, L.A. Paunescu, W. Drexler, C.R. Baumal, C.A. Puliafito, E. Reichel, A.H. Rogers, and J.S. Schuman, "Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular hole pathology and repair," Ophthalmology 111, 2033-2043 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumot, J.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, "Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 2633-2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwyer, J.

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, P. Gardner, A. Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.P. Wade, J. Miyan, N.P. Lockyer, J.C. Vickerman, N.W. Clarke, J.H. Shanks, L.J. Scott, C.A. Hart, and M. Brown, "Applications of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in studies of benign prostate and prostate cancer. A pilot study," Journal of Pathology 201, 99-108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, J.A.

J.A. Evans, J.M. Poneros, B.E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E.F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G.Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N.S. Nishioka, and G.J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falk, G.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, "Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 2633-2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldchtein, F.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, "Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 2633-2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldchtein, F.I.

Figueiredo, M.

Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. Desai, P.R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. Huang, A. Koski, J.M. Schmitt, J.G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.G.

Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. Desai, P.R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. Huang, A. Koski, J.M. Schmitt, J.G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, S.W. Huang, A.D. Aguirre, and J.G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution line-scanning optical coherence microscopy," Opt. Lett. 32, 1971-1973 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A.D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T.H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S.J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J.L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Schuman, L.A. Paunescu, A.M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J.S. Duker, "Comparison of Ultrahigh- and Standard-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging Macular Pathology," Ophthalmology 112, 1922-1935 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Duker, L.A. Paunescu, W. Drexler, C.R. Baumal, C.A. Puliafito, E. Reichel, A.H. Rogers, and J.S. Schuman, "Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular hole pathology and repair," Ophthalmology 111, 2033-2043 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.R. Herz, Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, J.G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, "Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, T.H. Ko, I. Hartl, and J.G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence microscopy for high-speed, in vivo cellular imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 2064-2066 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R.K. Ghanta, F.X. Kärtner, J.S. Schuman, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nature Medicine 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.D. Li, S.A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M.L. Krinsky, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F.X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S.A. Boppart, X.D. Li, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G.J. Tearney, M.E. Brezinski, B.E. Bouma, S.A. Boppart, C. Pitvis, J.F. Southern, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardner, P.

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, P. Gardner, A. Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.P. Wade, J. Miyan, N.P. Lockyer, J.C. Vickerman, N.W. Clarke, J.H. Shanks, L.J. Scott, C.A. Hart, and M. Brown, "Applications of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in studies of benign prostate and prostate cancer. A pilot study," Journal of Pathology 201, 99-108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gazi, E.

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, P. Gardner, A. Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.P. Wade, J. Miyan, N.P. Lockyer, J.C. Vickerman, N.W. Clarke, J.H. Shanks, L.J. Scott, C.A. Hart, and M. Brown, "Applications of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in studies of benign prostate and prostate cancer. A pilot study," Journal of Pathology 201, 99-108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, G.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, "Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 2633-2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, G.V.

Gelikonov, V.M.

Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, P. Gardner, A. Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.P. Wade, J. Miyan, N.P. Lockyer, J.C. Vickerman, N.W. Clarke, J.H. Shanks, L.J. Scott, C.A. Hart, and M. Brown, "Applications of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in studies of benign prostate and prostate cancer. A pilot study," Journal of Pathology 201, 99-108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghanta, R.K.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R.K. Ghanta, F.X. Kärtner, J.S. Schuman, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nature Medicine 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladkova, N.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, "Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 2633-2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladkova, N.D.

Goldblum, J.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, "Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 2633-2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodnow, J.

Gossage, K.W.

K.W. Gossage, C.M. Smith, E.M. Kanter, L.P. Hariri, A.L. Stone, J.J. Rodriguez, S.K. Williams, and J.K. Barton, "Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms," Physics in Medicine and Biology 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.W. Gossage, T.S. Tkaczyk, J.J. Rodriguez, and J.K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-5 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halpern, E.F.

J.A. Evans, J.M. Poneros, B.E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E.F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G.Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N.S. Nishioka, and G.J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hariri, L.P.

K.W. Gossage, C.M. Smith, E.M. Kanter, L.P. Hariri, A.L. Stone, J.J. Rodriguez, S.K. Williams, and J.K. Barton, "Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms," Physics in Medicine and Biology 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L.P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J.K. Barton, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hart, C.A.

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, P. Gardner, A. Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.P. Wade, J. Miyan, N.P. Lockyer, J.C. Vickerman, N.W. Clarke, J.H. Shanks, L.J. Scott, C.A. Hart, and M. Brown, "Applications of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in studies of benign prostate and prostate cancer. A pilot study," Journal of Pathology 201, 99-108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Schuman, L.A. Paunescu, A.M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J.S. Duker, "Comparison of Ultrahigh- and Standard-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging Macular Pathology," Ophthalmology 112, 1922-1935 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, T.H. Ko, I. Hartl, and J.G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence microscopy for high-speed, in vivo cellular imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 2064-2066 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harwood, D.

D. Harwood, T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, S. Kelman, and L. Davis, "Texture Classification by Center-Symmetrical Autocorrelation, Using Kullback Discrimination of Distributions," Pattern Recognition Letters 16, 1-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M.R.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

A.R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L.P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J.K. Barton, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herz, P.R.

Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. Desai, P.R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. Huang, A. Koski, J.M. Schmitt, J.G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.R. Herz, Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, J.G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, "Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiung, P.

Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. Desai, P.R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. Huang, A. Koski, J.M. Schmitt, J.G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, T.H. Ko, I. Hartl, and J.G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence microscopy for high-speed, in vivo cellular imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 2064-2066 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiung, P.L.

P.L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A.D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T.H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S.J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J.L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. Desai, P.R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. Huang, A. Koski, J.M. Schmitt, J.G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S.

Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. Desai, P.R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. Huang, A. Koski, J.M. Schmitt, J.G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S.W.

Ippen, E.P.

Isenberg, G.

X. Qi, M.V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J.E. Willis, and A.M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Isenberg, M.V. Sivak, A. Chak, R.C.K. Wong, J.E. Willis, B. Wolf, D.Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isenberg, G.A.

P.R. Pfau, M.V. Sivak, Jr., A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, J.A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, "Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 196-202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J.A. Izatt, A.M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Schuman, L.A. Paunescu, A.M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J.S. Duker, "Comparison of Ultrahigh- and Standard-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging Macular Pathology," Ophthalmology 112, 1922-1935 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J.A.

P.R. Pfau, M.V. Sivak, Jr., A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, J.A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, "Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 196-202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J.A. Izatt, A.M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.A. Izatt, M.D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M.V. Sivak, Jr., "Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kanter, E.M.

K.W. Gossage, C.M. Smith, E.M. Kanter, L.P. Hariri, A.L. Stone, J.J. Rodriguez, S.K. Williams, and J.K. Barton, "Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms," Physics in Medicine and Biology 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kartner, F.X.

Kärtner, F.X.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R.K. Ghanta, F.X. Kärtner, J.S. Schuman, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nature Medicine 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelman, S.

D. Harwood, T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, S. Kelman, and L. Davis, "Texture Classification by Center-Symmetrical Autocorrelation, Using Kullback Discrimination of Distributions," Pattern Recognition Letters 16, 1-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, C.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, "Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 564-573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kinnard, M.

P.R. Pfau, M.V. Sivak, Jr., A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, J.A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, "Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 196-202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, M.

X.D. Li, S.A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M.L. Krinsky, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T.H.

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Schuman, L.A. Paunescu, A.M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J.S. Duker, "Comparison of Ultrahigh- and Standard-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging Macular Pathology," Ophthalmology 112, 1922-1935 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A.D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T.H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S.J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J.L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Duker, L.A. Paunescu, W. Drexler, C.R. Baumal, C.A. Puliafito, E. Reichel, A.H. Rogers, and J.S. Schuman, "Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular hole pathology and repair," Ophthalmology 111, 2033-2043 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, T.H. Ko, I. Hartl, and J.G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence microscopy for high-speed, in vivo cellular imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 2064-2066 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, K.

M.V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J.A. Izatt, A.M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.A. Izatt, M.D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M.V. Sivak, Jr., "Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koski, A.

Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. Desai, P.R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. Huang, A. Koski, J.M. Schmitt, J.G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.R. Herz, Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, J.G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, "Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalevicz, A.M.

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Schuman, L.A. Paunescu, A.M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J.S. Duker, "Comparison of Ultrahigh- and Standard-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging Macular Pathology," Ophthalmology 112, 1922-1935 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krinsky, M.L.

X.D. Li, S.A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M.L. Krinsky, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M.D.

J.A. Izatt, M.D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M.V. Sivak, Jr., "Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuranov, R.V.

Kuznetzova, I.A.

Lauwers, G.Y.

J.A. Evans, J.M. Poneros, B.E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E.F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G.Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N.S. Nishioka, and G.J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.D.

X.D. Li, S.A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M.L. Krinsky, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F.X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S.A. Boppart, X.D. Li, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.P.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lockyer, N.P.

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, P. Gardner, A. Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.P. Wade, J. Miyan, N.P. Lockyer, J.C. Vickerman, N.W. Clarke, J.H. Shanks, L.J. Scott, C.A. Hart, and M. Brown, "Applications of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in studies of benign prostate and prostate cancer. A pilot study," Journal of Pathology 201, 99-108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mashimo, H.

Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. Desai, P.R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. Huang, A. Koski, J.M. Schmitt, J.G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A.D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T.H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S.J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J.L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.R. Herz, Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, J.G. Fujimoto, H. Mashimo, J. Schmitt, A. Koski, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, "Ultrahigh resolution optical biopsy with endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 3532-3542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.D. Li, S.A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M.L. Krinsky, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McNally, J.

A.R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L.P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J.K. Barton, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mino-Kenudson, M.

J.A. Evans, J.M. Poneros, B.E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E.F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G.Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N.S. Nishioka, and G.J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyan, J.

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, P. Gardner, A. Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.P. Wade, J. Miyan, N.P. Lockyer, J.C. Vickerman, N.W. Clarke, J.H. Shanks, L.J. Scott, C.A. Hart, and M. Brown, "Applications of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in studies of benign prostate and prostate cancer. A pilot study," Journal of Pathology 201, 99-108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R.K. Ghanta, F.X. Kärtner, J.S. Schuman, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nature Medicine 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F.X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S.A. Boppart, X.D. Li, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mutinga, M.

X.D. Li, S.A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M.L. Krinsky, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, N.S.

J.A. Evans, J.M. Poneros, B.E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E.F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G.Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N.S. Nishioka, and G.J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.M. Poneros, S. Brand, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, and N.S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, and N.S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467-474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ojala, T.

D. Harwood, T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, S. Kelman, and L. Davis, "Texture Classification by Center-Symmetrical Autocorrelation, Using Kullback Discrimination of Distributions," Pattern Recognition Letters 16, 1-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pantanowitz, L.

P.L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A.D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T.H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S.J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J.L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paunescu, L.A.

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Schuman, L.A. Paunescu, A.M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J.S. Duker, "Comparison of Ultrahigh- and Standard-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging Macular Pathology," Ophthalmology 112, 1922-1935 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Duker, L.A. Paunescu, W. Drexler, C.R. Baumal, C.A. Puliafito, E. Reichel, A.H. Rogers, and J.S. Schuman, "Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular hole pathology and repair," Ophthalmology 111, 2033-2043 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedrosa, M.

Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. Desai, P.R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. Huang, A. Koski, J.M. Schmitt, J.G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersen, C.

Pfau, P.R.

P.R. Pfau, M.V. Sivak, Jr., A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, J.A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, "Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 196-202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phatak, D.

P.L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A.D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T.H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S.J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J.L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pietikainen, M.

D. Harwood, T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, S. Kelman, and L. Davis, "Texture Classification by Center-Symmetrical Autocorrelation, Using Kullback Discrimination of Distributions," Pattern Recognition Letters 16, 1-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

X.D. Li, S.A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M.L. Krinsky, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F.X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S.A. Boppart, X.D. Li, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pitvis, C.

G.J. Tearney, M.E. Brezinski, B.E. Bouma, S.A. Boppart, C. Pitvis, J.F. Southern, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pochinko, V.V.

Poneros, J.M.

J.A. Evans, J.M. Poneros, B.E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E.F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G.Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N.S. Nishioka, and G.J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.M. Poneros, S. Brand, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, and N.S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ponsky, J.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, "Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 2633-2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Povazay, B.

A.R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L.P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J.K. Barton, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C.A.

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Duker, L.A. Paunescu, W. Drexler, C.R. Baumal, C.A. Puliafito, E. Reichel, A.H. Rogers, and J.S. Schuman, "Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular hole pathology and repair," Ophthalmology 111, 2033-2043 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puppels, G.J.

T.C.B. Schut, R. Wolthuis, P.J. Caspers, and G.J. Puppels, "Real-time tissue characterization on the basis of in vivo Raman spectra," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 580-585 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qi, X.

X. Qi, D.Y. Rowland, M.V. Sivak, and A.M. Rollins, "Fractal analysis with classification tree for classification of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using multiple endoscopic optical coherence tomography images," Gastroenterology 130, A310-A310 (2006).

X. Qi, M.V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J.E. Willis, and A.M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raza, S.

P.L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A.D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T.H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S.J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J.L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichel, E.

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Duker, L.A. Paunescu, W. Drexler, C.R. Baumal, C.A. Puliafito, E. Reichel, A.H. Rogers, and J.S. Schuman, "Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular hole pathology and repair," Ophthalmology 111, 2033-2043 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, J.

G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, "Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 2633-2639 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, J.J.

K.W. Gossage, C.M. Smith, E.M. Kanter, L.P. Hariri, A.L. Stone, J.J. Rodriguez, S.K. Williams, and J.K. Barton, "Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms," Physics in Medicine and Biology 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.W. Gossage, T.S. Tkaczyk, J.J. Rodriguez, and J.K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-5 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, A.H.

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Duker, L.A. Paunescu, W. Drexler, C.R. Baumal, C.A. Puliafito, E. Reichel, A.H. Rogers, and J.S. Schuman, "Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular hole pathology and repair," Ophthalmology 111, 2033-2043 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A.

G. Isenberg, M.V. Sivak, A. Chak, R.C.K. Wong, J.E. Willis, B. Wolf, D.Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.R. Pfau, M.V. Sivak, Jr., A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, J.A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, "Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 196-202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A.M.

X. Qi, M.V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J.E. Willis, and A.M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Qi, D.Y. Rowland, M.V. Sivak, and A.M. Rollins, "Fractal analysis with classification tree for classification of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using multiple endoscopic optical coherence tomography images," Gastroenterology 130, A310-A310 (2006).

M.V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J.A. Izatt, A.M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rowland, D.Y.

X. Qi, D.Y. Rowland, M.V. Sivak, and A.M. Rollins, "Fractal analysis with classification tree for classification of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using multiple endoscopic optical coherence tomography images," Gastroenterology 130, A310-A310 (2006).

G. Isenberg, M.V. Sivak, A. Chak, R.C.K. Wong, J.E. Willis, B. Wolf, D.Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

A.R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L.P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J.K. Barton, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J.

Schmitt, J.M.

Y. Chen, A.D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, S. Desai, P.R. Herz, M. Pedrosa, Q. Huang, M. Figueiredo, S. Huang, A. Koski, J.M. Schmitt, J.G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of Barrett's esophagus: preliminary descriptive clinical study correlating images with histology," Endoscopy 39, 599-605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.M. Schmitt, S.H. Xiang, and K.M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.M. Schmitt, "Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schnitt, S.J.

P.L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A.D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T.H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S.J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J.L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J.S.

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Schuman, L.A. Paunescu, A.M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J.S. Duker, "Comparison of Ultrahigh- and Standard-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging Macular Pathology," Ophthalmology 112, 1922-1935 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Duker, L.A. Paunescu, W. Drexler, C.R. Baumal, C.A. Puliafito, E. Reichel, A.H. Rogers, and J.S. Schuman, "Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular hole pathology and repair," Ophthalmology 111, 2033-2043 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R.K. Ghanta, F.X. Kärtner, J.S. Schuman, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nature Medicine 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schut, T.C.B.

T.C.B. Schut, R. Wolthuis, P.J. Caspers, and G.J. Puppels, "Real-time tissue characterization on the basis of in vivo Raman spectra," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 580-585 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scott, L.J.

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, P. Gardner, A. Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.P. Wade, J. Miyan, N.P. Lockyer, J.C. Vickerman, N.W. Clarke, J.H. Shanks, L.J. Scott, C.A. Hart, and M. Brown, "Applications of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in studies of benign prostate and prostate cancer. A pilot study," Journal of Pathology 201, 99-108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A.M.

Shakhov, A.V.

Shakhova, N.M.

Shanks, J.H.

E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, P. Gardner, A. Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.P. Wade, J. Miyan, N.P. Lockyer, J.C. Vickerman, N.W. Clarke, J.H. Shanks, L.J. Scott, C.A. Hart, and M. Brown, "Applications of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in studies of benign prostate and prostate cancer. A pilot study," Journal of Pathology 201, 99-108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shepherd, N.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, "Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 564-573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shishkov, M.

J.A. Evans, J.M. Poneros, B.E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E.F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G.Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N.S. Nishioka, and G.J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivak, M.V.

X. Qi, M.V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J.E. Willis, and A.M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Qi, D.Y. Rowland, M.V. Sivak, and A.M. Rollins, "Fractal analysis with classification tree for classification of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using multiple endoscopic optical coherence tomography images," Gastroenterology 130, A310-A310 (2006).

G. Isenberg, M.V. Sivak, A. Chak, R.C.K. Wong, J.E. Willis, B. Wolf, D.Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.R. Pfau, M.V. Sivak, Jr., A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, J.A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, "Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 196-202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J.A. Izatt, A.M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.A. Izatt, M.D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M.V. Sivak, Jr., "Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C.M.

K.W. Gossage, C.M. Smith, E.M. Kanter, L.P. Hariri, A.L. Stone, J.J. Rodriguez, S.K. Williams, and J.K. Barton, "Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms," Physics in Medicine and Biology 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J.F.

G.J. Tearney, M.E. Brezinski, B.E. Bouma, S.A. Boppart, C. Pitvis, J.F. Southern, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W.G.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, A.L.

K.W. Gossage, C.M. Smith, E.M. Kanter, L.P. Hariri, A.L. Stone, J.J. Rodriguez, S.K. Williams, and J.K. Barton, "Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms," Physics in Medicine and Biology 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, N.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, "Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 564-573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Streltzova, O.S.

Suopova, L.B.

Swanson, E.A.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.J.

J.A. Evans, J.M. Poneros, B.E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E.F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G.Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N.S. Nishioka, and G.J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 4, 38-43 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.M. Poneros, S. Brand, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, and N.S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, and N.S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467-474 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.J. Tearney, M.E. Brezinski, B.E. Bouma, S.A. Boppart, C. Pitvis, J.F. Southern, and J.G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tkaczyk, T.S.

K.W. Gossage, T.S. Tkaczyk, J.J. Rodriguez, and J.K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-5 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tumlinson, A.R.

A.R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L.P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J.K. Barton, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ung-Runyawee, R.

M.V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J.A. Izatt, A.M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474-479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Unterhuber, A.

A.R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L.P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J.K. Barton, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
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X.D. Li, S.A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M.L. Krinsky, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
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G. Zuccaro, N. Gladkova, J. Vargo, F. Feldchtein, E. Zagaynova, D. Conwell, G. Falk, J. Goldblum, J. Dumot, J. Ponsky, G. Gelikonov, B. Davros, E. Donchenko, and J. Richter, "Optical coherence tomography of the esophagus and proximal stomach in health and disease," Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96, 2633-2639 (2001).
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E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, P. Gardner, A. Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.P. Wade, J. Miyan, N.P. Lockyer, J.C. Vickerman, N.W. Clarke, J.H. Shanks, L.J. Scott, C.A. Hart, and M. Brown, "Applications of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in studies of benign prostate and prostate cancer. A pilot study," Journal of Pathology 201, 99-108 (2003).
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E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, P. Gardner, A. Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.P. Wade, J. Miyan, N.P. Lockyer, J.C. Vickerman, N.W. Clarke, J.H. Shanks, L.J. Scott, C.A. Hart, and M. Brown, "Applications of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in studies of benign prostate and prostate cancer. A pilot study," Journal of Pathology 201, 99-108 (2003).
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J.A. Izatt, M.D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M.V. Sivak, Jr., "Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017-1028 (1996).
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P.R. Pfau, M.V. Sivak, Jr., A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, J.A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, "Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 196-202 (2003).
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K.W. Gossage, C.M. Smith, E.M. Kanter, L.P. Hariri, A.L. Stone, J.J. Rodriguez, S.K. Williams, and J.K. Barton, "Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms," Physics in Medicine and Biology 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
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M.V. Sivak, Jr., K. Kobayashi, J.A. Izatt, A.M. Rollins, R. Ung-Runyawee, A. Chak, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, and J. Willis, "High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 474-479 (2000).
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Willis, J.E.

X. Qi, M.V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J.E. Willis, and A.M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
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G. Isenberg, M.V. Sivak, A. Chak, R.C.K. Wong, J.E. Willis, B. Wolf, D.Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
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T.C.B. Schut, R. Wolthuis, P.J. Caspers, and G.J. Puppels, "Real-time tissue characterization on the basis of in vivo Raman spectra," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 580-585 (2002).
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P.R. Pfau, M.V. Sivak, Jr., A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, J.A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, "Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 196-202 (2003).
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G. Isenberg, M.V. Sivak, A. Chak, R.C.K. Wong, J.E. Willis, B. Wolf, D.Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
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J.M. Schmitt, S.H. Xiang, and K.M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
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J.A. Evans, J.M. Poneros, B.E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E.F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G.Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N.S. Nishioka, and G.J. Tearney, "Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 4, 38-43 (2006).
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X.D. Li, S.A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M.L. Krinsky, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 921-930 (2000).
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X. Qi, D.Y. Rowland, M.V. Sivak, and A.M. Rollins, "Fractal analysis with classification tree for classification of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using multiple endoscopic optical coherence tomography images," Gastroenterology 130, A310-A310 (2006).

J.M. Poneros, S. Brand, B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, and N.S. Nishioka, "Diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia by optical coherence tomography," Gastroenterology 120, 7-12 (2001).
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G. Isenberg, M.V. Sivak, A. Chak, R.C.K. Wong, J.E. Willis, B. Wolf, D.Y. Rowland, A. Das, and A. Rollins, "Accuracy of endoscopic optical coherence tomography in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a prospective, double-blinded study," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 825-831 (2005).
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B.E. Bouma, G.J. Tearney, C.C. Compton, and N.S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51, 467-474 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

P.R. Pfau, M.V. Sivak, Jr., A. Chak, M. Kinnard, R.C. Wong, G.A. Isenberg, J.A. Izatt, A. Rollins, and V. Westphal, "Criteria for the diagnosis of dysplasia by endoscopic optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 196-202 (2003).
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P.L. Hsiung, L. Pantanowitz, A.D. Aguirre, Y. Chen, D. Phatak, T.H. Ko, S. Bourquin, S.J. Schnitt, S. Raza, J.L. Connolly, H. Mashimo, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography ex vivo imaging of the large and small intestines," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 561-574 (2005).
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J.A. Izatt, M.D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M.V. Sivak, Jr., "Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017-1028 (1996).
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X. Qi, M.V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J.E. Willis, and A.M. Rollins, "Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044010 (2006).
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A.R. Tumlinson, B. Povazay, L.P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, and J.K. Barton, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
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J.M. Schmitt, S.H. Xiang, and K.M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
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K.W. Gossage, T.S. Tkaczyk, J.J. Rodriguez, and J.K. Barton, "Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 570-5 (2003).
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N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, "Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 564-573 (2002).
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E. Gazi, J. Dwyer, P. Gardner, A. Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.P. Wade, J. Miyan, N.P. Lockyer, J.C. Vickerman, N.W. Clarke, J.H. Shanks, L.J. Scott, C.A. Hart, and M. Brown, "Applications of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in studies of benign prostate and prostate cancer. A pilot study," Journal of Pathology 201, 99-108 (2003).
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Nature Medicine (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R.K. Ghanta, F.X. Kärtner, J.S. Schuman, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nature Medicine 7, 502-507 (2001).
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Ophthalmology (2)

T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Duker, L.A. Paunescu, W. Drexler, C.R. Baumal, C.A. Puliafito, E. Reichel, A.H. Rogers, and J.S. Schuman, "Comparison of ultrahigh- and standard-resolution optical coherence tomography for imaging macular hole pathology and repair," Ophthalmology 111, 2033-2043 (2004).
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T.H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, J.S. Schuman, L.A. Paunescu, A.M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, W. Drexler, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, and J.S. Duker, "Comparison of Ultrahigh- and Standard-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging Macular Pathology," Ophthalmology 112, 1922-1935 (2005).
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Opt. Express (2)

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D. Harwood, T. Ojala, M. Pietikainen, S. Kelman, and L. Davis, "Texture Classification by Center-Symmetrical Autocorrelation, Using Kullback Discrimination of Distributions," Pattern Recognition Letters 16, 1-10 (1995).
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K.W. Gossage, C.M. Smith, E.M. Kanter, L.P. Hariri, A.L. Stone, J.J. Rodriguez, S.K. Williams, and J.K. Barton, "Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms," Physics in Medicine and Biology 51, 1563-1575 (2006).
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Science (2)

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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M.J. Cobb, M.P. Upton, Y.C. Chen, D.J. MacDonald, J.H. Hwang, M.B. Kimmey, and X.D. Li, OCT Assessment of Subsquamous Barrett's Epithelium, in Biomedical Optics. 2006, Optical Society of America.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The schematic of the OCT system. (LCS: low-coherence source; BS: 90/10 fiber based beam splitter; PC: polarization controller; AGC: air-gap coupling; DCG: dispersion compensating glass; PBS: polarization beam splitter; D: detector; BPF: band-pass filter; DEMOD: amplitude demodulator; Σ: vector summation).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The spectrum (A) and point spread function (B) of both superluminescent diode (SLD) for standard resolution imaging and Cr:Forsterite laser source for ultrahigh-resolution imaging.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(A) Diagram illustrating the partition of NxN 2D DFT of OCT image into 4 regions for texture analysis (Fx and Fz are the spatial frequencies in the lateral and axial dimensions, respectively). (B) Representative region of interest (ROI) from an EOCT image of normal esophagus (500 µm×500 µm, 256×256 pixels) and (C) its 2D DFT. (D) Representative region of interest (ROI) from an EOCT image of Barrett’s esophagus (500 µm×500 µm, 256×256 pixels) and (E) its 2D DFT.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(A) Diagram illustrating the 3×3 neighborhood of pixels used to compute CSAC measures. (B) Representative region of interest (ROI) from an EOCT image of normal esophagus (500 µm×500 µm, 256×256 pixels) and (C) Barrett’s esophagus (500 µm×500 µm, 256×256 pixels). (D)-(I) Histograms of the distribution of local CSAC measurements.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Ex vivo imaging of a gastric nodule using UHR- and standard resolution OCT. (A) UHR-OCT image with 4x enlargement in (B); (C) Standard resolution OCT image with 4x enlargement in (D). UHR-OCT image shows reduced speckle size and resolves finer morphological features. Ex vivo imaging enables UHR and standard resolution OCT image the same tissue region exactly.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Representative axial scans from UHR- and standard resolution OCT image (indicated by the red-dotted lines in Fig. 5). (A) Axial scan from UHR-OCT image with zoomed region in (B). (C) Axial scan from standard resolution OCT image with zoomed region in (D). A-scan of UHR-OCT reveals finer patterns in tissue structure as shown by sharper modulation pattern compared to standard resolution OCT (red oval).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison of UHR- and standard resolution OCT images of a biopsy specimen of Barrett’s esophagus ex vivo. (A) Standard resolution OCT image with 4x enlargement in (D); (B) UHR-OCT image with 4x enlargement in (E); (C) Corresponding histology (H&E, original mag. x40) with 4x enlargement in (F). UHR-OCT image shows reduced speckle size and visualizes fine morphological features more clearly than standard resolution.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of normal esophagus using UHR- and standard resolution OCT. (A) UHR-OCT image with 4x enlargement (B); (C) Standard resolution OCT image with 4x enlargement (D). UHR-OCT image shows reduced speckle size and resolves finer morphological features (indicated by arrows).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Representative axial scans from OCT images (indicated by the red-dotted lines in Fig. 8). (A) Axial scan from UHR-OCT image with zoomed region in (B). (C) Axial scan from standard resolution OCT image with zoomed region in (D). A-scan of UHR-OCT reveals finer patterns in tissue structure as shown by sharper modulation pattern compared to standard resolution OCT (red oval).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of Barrett’s esophagus using UHR- and standard resolution OCT. (A) UHR-OCT image with 4x enlargement (B); (C) Standard resolution OCT image with 4x enlargement (D). UHR-OCT image shows reduced speckle size and resolves finer morphological features (indicated by arrows).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Scatter plots of first two linear discrimination functions (LD1 and LD2) from PCA-LDA for normal and Barrett’s esophagus using 2D-DFT features from (A) standard resolution OCT images and (B) UHR-OCT images. (C) and (D) are the corresponding box plots for the distribution of LD1, which has the maximum separation between groups (“+” denotes outlier). The normal and Barrett’s groups are further separated using UHR-OCT.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Scatter plots of first two linear discrimination functions (LD1 and LD2) from PCA-LDA for normal and Barrett’s esophagus using CSAC features from (A) standard resolution OCT images and (B) UHR-OCT images. (C) and (D) are the corresponding box plots for the distribution of LD1, which has the maximum separation between groups (“+” denotes outlier). The normal and Barrett’s groups are further separated using UHR-OCT.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. One-way ANOVA significance comparisons for UHR- and standard resolution (SDR) OCT classifications of normal and Barrett’s esophagus.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ z = 2 ln 2 π λ 0 2 Δ λ
F ( x , z ) = m = 0 N 1 n = 0 N 1 I ( m , n ) e j ( 2 Π N ) xm e j ( 2 Π N ) zn , x , z = 0 , 1 , , N 1 .
SCOV = 1 4 ( g i u ) ( g i u )
VAR = 1 8 ( g i 2 + g i 2 ) u 2
BVAR = 1 16 ( g i + g i ) 2 u 2
WVAR = 1 16 ( g i g i ) 2
SVR = WVAR BVAR
SAC = SCOV VAR
u = 1 8 ( g i + g i )

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