Abstract

In this paper we present a system for intraocular distance measurement of the human eye in vivo with high sensitivity. The instrument is based on Fourier domain low coherence interferometry (FD-LCI). Stateof-the-art FD-LCI systems are limited to a depth range of only a few mm, because the depth range is determined by the spectral resolution of the spectrometer. To measure larger distances (e.g. human eye length) we implemented two separate reference arms with different arm lengths into the interferometer. Each reference arm length corresponds to a different depth position within the sample (e.g. cornea and retina). Therefore two different depth sections, each with a depth range of a few mm can be imaged simultaneously. With the new system axial distances could be measured with a precision of 8µm. We demonstrate the performance of the instrument by measuring the axial eye length of 9 patients with cataract and compare our results with those obtained using the IOL Master (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc.).

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. F. Fercher and E. Roth, "Ophthalmic laser interferometry," Proc. SPIE 658, 48-51 (1986).
  2. A. F. Fercher, K. Mengedoht, and W. Werner, "Eye length measurement by interferometry with partially coherent light," Opt. Lett. 13, 186-188 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. K. Hitzenberger, "Optical measurement of the axial eye length by laser Doppler interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 616-624 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  4. A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, and M. Juchem, "Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light," J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327-1333 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Kiss, O. Findl, R. Menapace, M. Wirtitsch, W. Drexler, Ch. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Biometry of cataractous eyes using partial coherence interferometry: Clinical feasibility study of a commercial prototype I," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 254-259 (2002).
  6. O. Findl, "Biometry and intraocular lens power calculation," Cur. Opin. Opthalmol. 16, 61-64 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher "Performance of Fourier Domain vs. Time Domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma,"Improved signal to noise ratio in spectral domain compared with time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt,"Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. F. Fercher, R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, and M. Wojtkowski, "Complex Spectral Interferometry OCT," Proc. SPIE 3564, 173-178 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, B. J. Vakoc, A. E. Desjardins, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Increased ranging depth in optical frequency domain imaging by frequency encoding," Opt. Lett. 32, 2768-2770 (2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C.K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthal. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. J. Zawadzki, B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, M. Sarunic, S. Laut, J. S. Werner, and J. A. Izatt, " Exposure time dependence of image quality in high-speed retinal in vivo Fourier-domain OCT," Proc. SPIE 5688, 45-52 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C.K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthal. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

R. J. Zawadzki, B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, M. Sarunic, S. Laut, J. S. Werner, and J. A. Izatt, " Exposure time dependence of image quality in high-speed retinal in vivo Fourier-domain OCT," Proc. SPIE 5688, 45-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Findl, "Biometry and intraocular lens power calculation," Cur. Opin. Opthalmol. 16, 61-64 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

B. Kiss, O. Findl, R. Menapace, M. Wirtitsch, W. Drexler, Ch. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Biometry of cataractous eyes using partial coherence interferometry: Clinical feasibility study of a commercial prototype I," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 254-259 (2002).

1999 (1)

A. F. Fercher, R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, and M. Wojtkowski, "Complex Spectral Interferometry OCT," Proc. SPIE 3564, 173-178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, "Investigation of dispersion effects in Ocular Media by Multiple Wavelength Partial Coherence Interferometry," Exp. Eye Res. 66, 25-33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

C. K. Hitzenberger, "Optical measurement of the axial eye length by laser Doppler interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 616-624 (1991).
[PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, and M. Juchem, "Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light," J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327-1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

A. F. Fercher and E. Roth, "Ophthalmic laser interferometry," Proc. SPIE 658, 48-51 (1986).

1984 (1)

A. F. Fercher, "In vivo measurement of fundus pulsations by laser interferometry," J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1469-1471 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Baumgartner, A.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, "Investigation of dispersion effects in Ocular Media by Multiple Wavelength Partial Coherence Interferometry," Exp. Eye Res. 66, 25-33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Bower, B. A.

R. J. Zawadzki, B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, M. Sarunic, S. Laut, J. S. Werner, and J. A. Izatt, " Exposure time dependence of image quality in high-speed retinal in vivo Fourier-domain OCT," Proc. SPIE 5688, 45-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cense, B.

Choma, M. A.

de Boer, J. F.

Desjardins, A. E.

Dobre, G. M.

Drexler, W.

B. Kiss, O. Findl, R. Menapace, M. Wirtitsch, W. Drexler, Ch. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Biometry of cataractous eyes using partial coherence interferometry: Clinical feasibility study of a commercial prototype I," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 254-259 (2002).

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, "Investigation of dispersion effects in Ocular Media by Multiple Wavelength Partial Coherence Interferometry," Exp. Eye Res. 66, 25-33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher "Performance of Fourier Domain vs. Time Domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kiss, O. Findl, R. Menapace, M. Wirtitsch, W. Drexler, Ch. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Biometry of cataractous eyes using partial coherence interferometry: Clinical feasibility study of a commercial prototype I," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 254-259 (2002).

A. F. Fercher, R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, and M. Wojtkowski, "Complex Spectral Interferometry OCT," Proc. SPIE 3564, 173-178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, "Investigation of dispersion effects in Ocular Media by Multiple Wavelength Partial Coherence Interferometry," Exp. Eye Res. 66, 25-33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, and M. Juchem, "Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light," J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327-1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, K. Mengedoht, and W. Werner, "Eye length measurement by interferometry with partially coherent light," Opt. Lett. 13, 186-188 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher and E. Roth, "Ophthalmic laser interferometry," Proc. SPIE 658, 48-51 (1986).

A. F. Fercher, "In vivo measurement of fundus pulsations by laser interferometry," J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1469-1471 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Findl, O.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C.K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthal. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Findl, "Biometry and intraocular lens power calculation," Cur. Opin. Opthalmol. 16, 61-64 (2005)
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kiss, O. Findl, R. Menapace, M. Wirtitsch, W. Drexler, Ch. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Biometry of cataractous eyes using partial coherence interferometry: Clinical feasibility study of a commercial prototype I," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 254-259 (2002).

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, "Investigation of dispersion effects in Ocular Media by Multiple Wavelength Partial Coherence Interferometry," Exp. Eye Res. 66, 25-33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geitzenauer, W.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C.K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthal. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C.K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthal. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, and M. Juchem, "Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light," J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327-1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher "Performance of Fourier Domain vs. Time Domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, and M. Wojtkowski, "Complex Spectral Interferometry OCT," Proc. SPIE 3564, 173-178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, "Investigation of dispersion effects in Ocular Media by Multiple Wavelength Partial Coherence Interferometry," Exp. Eye Res. 66, 25-33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, "Measurement of corneal thickness by low-coherence interferometry," Appl. Opt. 31, 6637- 6640 (1992)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, "Optical measurement of the axial eye length by laser Doppler interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 616-624 (1991).
[PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.K.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C.K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthal. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, Ch. K.

B. Kiss, O. Findl, R. Menapace, M. Wirtitsch, W. Drexler, Ch. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Biometry of cataractous eyes using partial coherence interferometry: Clinical feasibility study of a commercial prototype I," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 254-259 (2002).

Izatt, J. A.

R. J. Zawadzki, B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, M. Sarunic, S. Laut, J. S. Werner, and J. A. Izatt, " Exposure time dependence of image quality in high-speed retinal in vivo Fourier-domain OCT," Proc. SPIE 5688, 45-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt,"Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, D. A.

Juchem, M.

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, and M. Juchem, "Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light," J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327-1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kiss, B.

B. Kiss, O. Findl, R. Menapace, M. Wirtitsch, W. Drexler, Ch. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Biometry of cataractous eyes using partial coherence interferometry: Clinical feasibility study of a commercial prototype I," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 254-259 (2002).

Laut, S.

R. J. Zawadzki, B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, M. Sarunic, S. Laut, J. S. Werner, and J. A. Izatt, " Exposure time dependence of image quality in high-speed retinal in vivo Fourier-domain OCT," Proc. SPIE 5688, 45-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leydolt, C.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C.K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthal. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Menapace, R.

B. Kiss, O. Findl, R. Menapace, M. Wirtitsch, W. Drexler, Ch. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Biometry of cataractous eyes using partial coherence interferometry: Clinical feasibility study of a commercial prototype I," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 254-259 (2002).

Mengedoht, K.

Michels, S.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C.K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthal. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Motaghian Nezam, S. M. R.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C.K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthal. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A. G.

Roth, E.

A. F. Fercher and E. Roth, "Ophthalmic laser interferometry," Proc. SPIE 658, 48-51 (1986).

Sarunic, M.

R. J. Zawadzki, B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, M. Sarunic, S. Laut, J. S. Werner, and J. A. Izatt, " Exposure time dependence of image quality in high-speed retinal in vivo Fourier-domain OCT," Proc. SPIE 5688, 45-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sarunic, M. V.

Sattmann, H.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, and M. Wojtkowski, "Complex Spectral Interferometry OCT," Proc. SPIE 3564, 173-178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, "Investigation of dispersion effects in Ocular Media by Multiple Wavelength Partial Coherence Interferometry," Exp. Eye Res. 66, 25-33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C.K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthal. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Vakoc, B. J.

Webb, D. J.

Werner, J. S.

R. J. Zawadzki, B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, M. Sarunic, S. Laut, J. S. Werner, and J. A. Izatt, " Exposure time dependence of image quality in high-speed retinal in vivo Fourier-domain OCT," Proc. SPIE 5688, 45-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Werner, W.

Wirtitsch, M.

B. Kiss, O. Findl, R. Menapace, M. Wirtitsch, W. Drexler, Ch. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Biometry of cataractous eyes using partial coherence interferometry: Clinical feasibility study of a commercial prototype I," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 254-259 (2002).

Wojtkowski, M.

A. F. Fercher, R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, and M. Wojtkowski, "Complex Spectral Interferometry OCT," Proc. SPIE 3564, 173-178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Zawadzki, R. J.

R. J. Zawadzki, B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, M. Sarunic, S. Laut, J. S. Werner, and J. A. Izatt, " Exposure time dependence of image quality in high-speed retinal in vivo Fourier-domain OCT," Proc. SPIE 5688, 45-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, M.

R. J. Zawadzki, B. A. Bower, M. Zhao, M. Sarunic, S. Laut, J. S. Werner, and J. A. Izatt, " Exposure time dependence of image quality in high-speed retinal in vivo Fourier-domain OCT," Proc. SPIE 5688, 45-52 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Cur. Opin. Opthalmol. (1)

O. Findl, "Biometry and intraocular lens power calculation," Cur. Opin. Opthalmol. 16, 61-64 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, O. Findl, H. Sattmann, and A. F. Fercher, "Investigation of dispersion effects in Ocular Media by Multiple Wavelength Partial Coherence Interferometry," Exp. Eye Res. 66, 25-33 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inves. Ophthal. Vis. Science (1)

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C.K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthal. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

C. K. Hitzenberger, "Optical measurement of the axial eye length by laser Doppler interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 616-624 (1991).
[PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (1)

B. Kiss, O. Findl, R. Menapace, M. Wirtitsch, W. Drexler, Ch. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Biometry of cataractous eyes using partial coherence interferometry: Clinical feasibility study of a commercial prototype I," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 254-259 (2002).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, and M. Juchem, "Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light," J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327-1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of FD-LCI system with 2 reference arms. SLD, superluminescent diode (Λ 0=832nm); FBC1, FBC2, fiber collimators (f=9mm); FBC3, fiber collimator (f=100mm); NPBS1, NPBS2, non-polarizing beam splitters (50:50); NDF, neutral density filter, RM1, RM2, reference mirrors; S, sample; TG, transmission grating (1200lines/mm); L1, imaging lens (f=150mm); CCD1, line scan camera.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Sample- glass plate, d=10.114± 0.001mm, (b). A-scan of the glass sample. The reference offset is 14.490mm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Composite A-scan of healthy human eye in vivo. The retina is located close to the origin of the graph and the front surface of the cornea further away. Both structures have a negative frequency sign but reverse order. The posterior surface of the cornea is located at the end of the depth range (not visible (below the noise floor) due to highest sensitivity decay in this region).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Bland-Altmann plot: agreement of axial length measurement between data measured with the FD-LCI system and (TD-) IOL Master (mean 9µm, median 11µm, standard deviation (SD) 11µm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Tomogram of the human retina in vivo; (b). A-scan along the position represented by cursor in Fig. 5 (a); 1- inner limiting membrane, 2- boundary between the inner and outer segment of photoreceptors, 3- end-tip photoreceptor layer, 4- retinal pigment epithelium, 5-choroid.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Composite A-scan (200 single A-scans) of the human retina in vivo at central fovea region after averaging over whole data set. The labeling is similar as in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

M-scan comprising 200 A-scans of the human retina in vivo at central fovea region. The labeling is similar as in Fig. 5.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of the FD-LCI system compared with IOL Master supplied with multimode lased diode (MMLD)

Tables Icon

Table 2. Measurements of the human eye length in vivo with the FD-LCI system and with IOL Master

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