Abstract

Results demonstrating laser cooling and observation of individual calcium ions in a Penning trap are presented. We show that we are able to trap, cool, image and manipulate the shape of very small ensembles of ions sufficiently well to produce two-ion ‘Coulomb crystals’ aligned along the magnetic field of a Penning trap. Images are presented which show the individual ions to be resolved in a two-ion crystal. A distinct change in the configuration of such a crystal is observed as the experimental parameters are changed. These structures could eventually be used as building blocks in a Penning trap based quantum computer.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2007 (1)

J. R . Castrejon-Pita, H. Ohadi, D. R. Crick, D. F. A. Winters, D. M. Segal, and R. C.  Thompson, "Novel designs for Penning ion traps," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1581-1594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

D. Porras and J. I. Cirac, "Quantum manipulation of trapped ions in two dimensional Coulomb Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 250501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Reichle, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, S. Seidelin and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental purification of two-atom entanglement," Nature 443, 838 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe, "Scaling and Suppression of Anomalous Heating in Ion Traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Brownnutt, G. Wilpers, P. Gill, R. C. Thompson, and A. G. Sinclair, "Monolithic microfabricated ion trap chip design for scaleable quantum processors," New J. Phys. 8, 232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

J. Chiaverini, J. Britton, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, M. D. Barrett, R. B. Blakestad, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, T. Schaetz and D. J. Wineland, "Implementation of the Semiclassical Quantum Fourier Transform in a scalable system," Science 308, 997 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, "Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrodinger cat’ state," Nature 438, 639-642 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Haffner, W. Hansel, C. F. Roos, J. Benhelm, D. Chekalkar, M. Chwalla, T. K rber, U. D. Rapol, M. Riebe, P. O. Schmidt, C. Becher, O. Guhne, W. Dur, and R. Blatt, "Scalable multiparticle entanglement of trapped ions," Nature 438, 643-646 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, P. J. Lee, M. Acton, L. Deslauriers, and C. Monroe "Implementation of Grover’s quantum search algorithm in a scalable system," Phys. Rev. A. 72, 050306R (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Riebe, H. Haffner, C. F. Roos, W. Hansel, J.  Benhelm, G. P. T.  Lancaster, T. W. Kober, C. Becher, F.  Schmidt-Kaler, D. F. V. James and R. Blatt, "Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms," Nature 429, 734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Barrett, J. Chiaverini, T. Schaetz, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, E. Knill, C. Langer, D. Leibfried, R. Ozeri and D. J. Wineland, "Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits," Nature 429, 737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

D. Leibfried, B. DeMarco, V. Meyer, D. Lucas, M. Barrett, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, B. Jelenkovic, C. Langer, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental demonstration of a robust, high-fidelity geometric two ionqubit phase gate," Nature 422, 412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Haffner, M. Riebe, S. Gulde, G. P. T. Lancaster, T. Deuschle, C. Becher, C. F. Roos, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, "Realization of the Cirac-Zoller controlled-NOT quantum gate." Nature 422, 408-411 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gulde, M. Riebe, G. P. T. Lancaster, C. Becher, J. Eschner, H. Haffner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, I. L. Chuang, and R. Blatt, "Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on an ion-trap quantum computer," Nature 421, 48-50 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. T. Lancaster, H. Haffner, M. A. Wilson, C. Becher, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, "Doppler cooling a single Ca+ ion with a violet extended-cavity diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 805-808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Powell, S. R. de Echaniz, E. S. Phillips, D. M. Segal, and R. C. Thompson, "Improvement of laser cooling of ions in a Penning trap by use of the axialization technique," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 36, 961-970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Ciaramicoli, I. Marzoli, and P. Tombesi, "Scalable quantum processor with trapped electrons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 017901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. Reiss, K. Abich, W. Neuhauser, Ch. Wunderlich, and P. E. Toschek, "Raman cooling and heating of two trapped Ba+ ions," Phys. Rev. A 65, 053401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Kielpinski, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Architecture for a large-scale ion-trap quantum computer," Nature 417, 709-711 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

F. Mintert and Ch. Wunderlich, "Ion-trap quantum logic using long-wavelength radiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 257904-1 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

D. G. Enzer, M. M. Schauer, J. J. Gomez, M. S. Gulley, M. H. Holzscheiter, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, V. D. Sandberg, D. Tupa, A. G. White, R. J. Hughes and D. F. James, "Observation of power-law scaling for phase transitions in linear trapped ion crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2466 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J . Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A . Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M . Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J . Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A . Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M . Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

D. J. Wineland, C. Monroe, W. M. Itano, D. Leibfried, B. E. King, and D. M. Meekhof, "Experimental issues in coherent quantum-state manipulation of trapped atomic ions," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 259 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Minimization of ion micro motion in a Paul trap," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Mitchell, J. J. Bollinger, D. H. E. Dubin, X. P. Huang, W. M. Itano, and R. H. Baughman, "Direct observations of structural phase transitions in planar crystallized ion plasmas," Science 282, 1290-1293 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

R.C. Thompson and D.C. Wilson, "The motion of small numbers of ions in a Penning trap," Z Phys. D 42, 271-277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. DiVincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, "Elementary gates for quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457-3467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Cirac and P. Zoller, "Quantum Computations with Cold Trapped Ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4091 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M . König, G . Bollen, H.-J.  Kluge, T.  Otto and J.  Szerypo, "Quadrupole excitation of stored ion motion at the true cyclotron frequency," Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 142, 95-116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

F. Diedrich, E. Peik, J. M. Chen, W. Quint, and H. Walther, "Observation of a phase transition of stored laser-cooled ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2931-2934 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

W. M. Itano and D. J. Wineland, "Laser cooling of ions stored in harmonic and Penning traps," Phys. Rev. A 25, 35-54 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Abich, K.

D. Reiss, K. Abich, W. Neuhauser, Ch. Wunderlich, and P. E. Toschek, "Raman cooling and heating of two trapped Ba+ ions," Phys. Rev. A 65, 053401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Acton, M.

K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, P. J. Lee, M. Acton, L. Deslauriers, and C. Monroe "Implementation of Grover’s quantum search algorithm in a scalable system," Phys. Rev. A. 72, 050306R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barenco, A.

A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. DiVincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, "Elementary gates for quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457-3467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrett, M.

D. Leibfried, B. DeMarco, V. Meyer, D. Lucas, M. Barrett, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, B. Jelenkovic, C. Langer, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental demonstration of a robust, high-fidelity geometric two ionqubit phase gate," Nature 422, 412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, M. D.

J. Chiaverini, J. Britton, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, M. D. Barrett, R. B. Blakestad, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, T. Schaetz and D. J. Wineland, "Implementation of the Semiclassical Quantum Fourier Transform in a scalable system," Science 308, 997 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Barrett, J. Chiaverini, T. Schaetz, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, E. Knill, C. Langer, D. Leibfried, R. Ozeri and D. J. Wineland, "Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits," Nature 429, 737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baughman, R. H.

T. B. Mitchell, J. J. Bollinger, D. H. E. Dubin, X. P. Huang, W. M. Itano, and R. H. Baughman, "Direct observations of structural phase transitions in planar crystallized ion plasmas," Science 282, 1290-1293 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becher, , C.

M. Riebe, H. Haffner, C. F. Roos, W. Hansel, J.  Benhelm, G. P. T.  Lancaster, T. W. Kober, C. Becher, F.  Schmidt-Kaler, D. F. V. James and R. Blatt, "Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms," Nature 429, 734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Becher, C.

F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Haffner, M. Riebe, S. Gulde, G. P. T. Lancaster, T. Deuschle, C. Becher, C. F. Roos, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, "Realization of the Cirac-Zoller controlled-NOT quantum gate." Nature 422, 408-411 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gulde, M. Riebe, G. P. T. Lancaster, C. Becher, J. Eschner, H. Haffner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, I. L. Chuang, and R. Blatt, "Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on an ion-trap quantum computer," Nature 421, 48-50 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. T. Lancaster, H. Haffner, M. A. Wilson, C. Becher, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, "Doppler cooling a single Ca+ ion with a violet extended-cavity diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 805-808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benhelm, J.

H. Haffner, W. Hansel, C. F. Roos, J. Benhelm, D. Chekalkar, M. Chwalla, T. K rber, U. D. Rapol, M. Riebe, P. O. Schmidt, C. Becher, O. Guhne, W. Dur, and R. Blatt, "Scalable multiparticle entanglement of trapped ions," Nature 438, 643-646 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benhelm, J.

M. Riebe, H. Haffner, C. F. Roos, W. Hansel, J.  Benhelm, G. P. T.  Lancaster, T. W. Kober, C. Becher, F.  Schmidt-Kaler, D. F. V. James and R. Blatt, "Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms," Nature 429, 734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. DiVincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, "Elementary gates for quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457-3467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergquist, J. C.

D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Minimization of ion micro motion in a Paul trap," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berkeland, D. J.

D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Minimization of ion micro motion in a Paul trap," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blakestad, R. B.

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M. Riebe, H. Haffner, C. F. Roos, W. Hansel, J.  Benhelm, G. P. T.  Lancaster, T. W. Kober, C. Becher, F.  Schmidt-Kaler, D. F. V. James and R. Blatt, "Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms," Nature 429, 734 (2004).
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K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, P. J. Lee, M. Acton, L. Deslauriers, and C. Monroe "Implementation of Grover’s quantum search algorithm in a scalable system," Phys. Rev. A. 72, 050306R (2005).
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R. Reichle, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, S. Seidelin and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental purification of two-atom entanglement," Nature 443, 838 (2006).
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D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, "Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrodinger cat’ state," Nature 438, 639-642 (2005).
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J. Chiaverini, J. Britton, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, M. D. Barrett, R. B. Blakestad, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, T. Schaetz and D. J. Wineland, "Implementation of the Semiclassical Quantum Fourier Transform in a scalable system," Science 308, 997 (2005).
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M. D. Barrett, J. Chiaverini, T. Schaetz, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, E. Knill, C. Langer, D. Leibfried, R. Ozeri and D. J. Wineland, "Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits," Nature 429, 737 (2004).
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D. Leibfried, B. DeMarco, V. Meyer, D. Lucas, M. Barrett, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, B. Jelenkovic, C. Langer, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental demonstration of a robust, high-fidelity geometric two ionqubit phase gate," Nature 422, 412 (2003).
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M. Brownnutt, G. Wilpers, P. Gill, R. C. Thompson, and A. G. Sinclair, "Monolithic microfabricated ion trap chip design for scaleable quantum processors," New J. Phys. 8, 232 (2006).
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H. Haffner, W. Hansel, C. F. Roos, J. Benhelm, D. Chekalkar, M. Chwalla, T. K rber, U. D. Rapol, M. Riebe, P. O. Schmidt, C. Becher, O. Guhne, W. Dur, and R. Blatt, "Scalable multiparticle entanglement of trapped ions," Nature 438, 643-646 (2005).
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F. Diedrich, E. Peik, J. M. Chen, W. Quint, and H. Walther, "Observation of a phase transition of stored laser-cooled ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2931-2934 (1987).
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D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, "Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrodinger cat’ state," Nature 438, 639-642 (2005).
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J. Chiaverini, J. Britton, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, M. D. Barrett, R. B. Blakestad, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, T. Schaetz and D. J. Wineland, "Implementation of the Semiclassical Quantum Fourier Transform in a scalable system," Science 308, 997 (2005).
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M. D. Barrett, J. Chiaverini, T. Schaetz, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, E. Knill, C. Langer, D. Leibfried, R. Ozeri and D. J. Wineland, "Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits," Nature 429, 737 (2004).
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Chuang, I. L.

S. Gulde, M. Riebe, G. P. T. Lancaster, C. Becher, J. Eschner, H. Haffner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, I. L. Chuang, and R. Blatt, "Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on an ion-trap quantum computer," Nature 421, 48-50 (2003).
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Chwalla, M.

H. Haffner, W. Hansel, C. F. Roos, J. Benhelm, D. Chekalkar, M. Chwalla, T. K rber, U. D. Rapol, M. Riebe, P. O. Schmidt, C. Becher, O. Guhne, W. Dur, and R. Blatt, "Scalable multiparticle entanglement of trapped ions," Nature 438, 643-646 (2005).
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Crick,, D. R.

J. R . Castrejon-Pita, H. Ohadi, D. R. Crick, D. F. A. Winters, D. M. Segal, and R. C.  Thompson, "Novel designs for Penning ion traps," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1581-1594 (2007).
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D. Leibfried, B. DeMarco, V. Meyer, D. Lucas, M. Barrett, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, B. Jelenkovic, C. Langer, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental demonstration of a robust, high-fidelity geometric two ionqubit phase gate," Nature 422, 412 (2003).
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Deslauriers, L.

L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe, "Scaling and Suppression of Anomalous Heating in Ion Traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006).
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K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, P. J. Lee, M. Acton, L. Deslauriers, and C. Monroe "Implementation of Grover’s quantum search algorithm in a scalable system," Phys. Rev. A. 72, 050306R (2005).
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Deuschle, T.

F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Haffner, M. Riebe, S. Gulde, G. P. T. Lancaster, T. Deuschle, C. Becher, C. F. Roos, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, "Realization of the Cirac-Zoller controlled-NOT quantum gate." Nature 422, 408-411 (2003).
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Diedrich, F.

F. Diedrich, E. Peik, J. M. Chen, W. Quint, and H. Walther, "Observation of a phase transition of stored laser-cooled ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2931-2934 (1987).
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DiVincenzo, D. P.

A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. DiVincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, "Elementary gates for quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457-3467 (1995).
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Dubin, D. H. E.

T. B. Mitchell, J. J. Bollinger, D. H. E. Dubin, X. P. Huang, W. M. Itano, and R. H. Baughman, "Direct observations of structural phase transitions in planar crystallized ion plasmas," Science 282, 1290-1293 (1998).
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D. G. Enzer, M. M. Schauer, J. J. Gomez, M. S. Gulley, M. H. Holzscheiter, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, V. D. Sandberg, D. Tupa, A. G. White, R. J. Hughes and D. F. James, "Observation of power-law scaling for phase transitions in linear trapped ion crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2466 (2000).
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Eschner, J.

G. P. T. Lancaster, H. Haffner, M. A. Wilson, C. Becher, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, "Doppler cooling a single Ca+ ion with a violet extended-cavity diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 805-808 (2003).
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S. Gulde, M. Riebe, G. P. T. Lancaster, C. Becher, J. Eschner, H. Haffner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, I. L. Chuang, and R. Blatt, "Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on an ion-trap quantum computer," Nature 421, 48-50 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Haffner, M. Riebe, S. Gulde, G. P. T. Lancaster, T. Deuschle, C. Becher, C. F. Roos, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, "Realization of the Cirac-Zoller controlled-NOT quantum gate." Nature 422, 408-411 (2003).
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Gill, P.

M. Brownnutt, G. Wilpers, P. Gill, R. C. Thompson, and A. G. Sinclair, "Monolithic microfabricated ion trap chip design for scaleable quantum processors," New J. Phys. 8, 232 (2006).
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Gomez, J. J.

D. G. Enzer, M. M. Schauer, J. J. Gomez, M. S. Gulley, M. H. Holzscheiter, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, V. D. Sandberg, D. Tupa, A. G. White, R. J. Hughes and D. F. James, "Observation of power-law scaling for phase transitions in linear trapped ion crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2466 (2000).
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Gulde, S.

S. Gulde, M. Riebe, G. P. T. Lancaster, C. Becher, J. Eschner, H. Haffner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, I. L. Chuang, and R. Blatt, "Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on an ion-trap quantum computer," Nature 421, 48-50 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Haffner, M. Riebe, S. Gulde, G. P. T. Lancaster, T. Deuschle, C. Becher, C. F. Roos, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, "Realization of the Cirac-Zoller controlled-NOT quantum gate." Nature 422, 408-411 (2003).
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Gulley, M. S.

D. G. Enzer, M. M. Schauer, J. J. Gomez, M. S. Gulley, M. H. Holzscheiter, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, V. D. Sandberg, D. Tupa, A. G. White, R. J. Hughes and D. F. James, "Observation of power-law scaling for phase transitions in linear trapped ion crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2466 (2000).
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Haffner, H.

H. Haffner, W. Hansel, C. F. Roos, J. Benhelm, D. Chekalkar, M. Chwalla, T. K rber, U. D. Rapol, M. Riebe, P. O. Schmidt, C. Becher, O. Guhne, W. Dur, and R. Blatt, "Scalable multiparticle entanglement of trapped ions," Nature 438, 643-646 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Riebe, H. Haffner, C. F. Roos, W. Hansel, J.  Benhelm, G. P. T.  Lancaster, T. W. Kober, C. Becher, F.  Schmidt-Kaler, D. F. V. James and R. Blatt, "Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms," Nature 429, 734 (2004).
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F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Haffner, M. Riebe, S. Gulde, G. P. T. Lancaster, T. Deuschle, C. Becher, C. F. Roos, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, "Realization of the Cirac-Zoller controlled-NOT quantum gate." Nature 422, 408-411 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gulde, M. Riebe, G. P. T. Lancaster, C. Becher, J. Eschner, H. Haffner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, I. L. Chuang, and R. Blatt, "Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on an ion-trap quantum computer," Nature 421, 48-50 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. T. Lancaster, H. Haffner, M. A. Wilson, C. Becher, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, "Doppler cooling a single Ca+ ion with a violet extended-cavity diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 805-808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haljan, P. C.

K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, P. J. Lee, M. Acton, L. Deslauriers, and C. Monroe "Implementation of Grover’s quantum search algorithm in a scalable system," Phys. Rev. A. 72, 050306R (2005).
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Hansel, W

M. Riebe, H. Haffner, C. F. Roos, W. Hansel, J.  Benhelm, G. P. T.  Lancaster, T. W. Kober, C. Becher, F.  Schmidt-Kaler, D. F. V. James and R. Blatt, "Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms," Nature 429, 734 (2004).
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Hansel, W.

H. Haffner, W. Hansel, C. F. Roos, J. Benhelm, D. Chekalkar, M. Chwalla, T. K rber, U. D. Rapol, M. Riebe, P. O. Schmidt, C. Becher, O. Guhne, W. Dur, and R. Blatt, "Scalable multiparticle entanglement of trapped ions," Nature 438, 643-646 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hensinger, W. K.

L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe, "Scaling and Suppression of Anomalous Heating in Ion Traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006).
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Holzscheiter, M. H.

D. G. Enzer, M. M. Schauer, J. J. Gomez, M. S. Gulley, M. H. Holzscheiter, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, V. D. Sandberg, D. Tupa, A. G. White, R. J. Hughes and D. F. James, "Observation of power-law scaling for phase transitions in linear trapped ion crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2466 (2000).
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Huang, X. P.

T. B. Mitchell, J. J. Bollinger, D. H. E. Dubin, X. P. Huang, W. M. Itano, and R. H. Baughman, "Direct observations of structural phase transitions in planar crystallized ion plasmas," Science 282, 1290-1293 (1998).
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Hughes, R. J.

D. G. Enzer, M. M. Schauer, J. J. Gomez, M. S. Gulley, M. H. Holzscheiter, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, V. D. Sandberg, D. Tupa, A. G. White, R. J. Hughes and D. F. James, "Observation of power-law scaling for phase transitions in linear trapped ion crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2466 (2000).
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Hume, D. B.

D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, "Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrodinger cat’ state," Nature 438, 639-642 (2005).
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Itano, W. M

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J . Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A . Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M . Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
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Itano, W. M.

D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, "Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrodinger cat’ state," Nature 438, 639-642 (2005).
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J. Chiaverini, J. Britton, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, M. D. Barrett, R. B. Blakestad, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, T. Schaetz and D. J. Wineland, "Implementation of the Semiclassical Quantum Fourier Transform in a scalable system," Science 308, 997 (2005).
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M. D. Barrett, J. Chiaverini, T. Schaetz, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, E. Knill, C. Langer, D. Leibfried, R. Ozeri and D. J. Wineland, "Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits," Nature 429, 737 (2004).
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D. Leibfried, B. DeMarco, V. Meyer, D. Lucas, M. Barrett, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, B. Jelenkovic, C. Langer, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental demonstration of a robust, high-fidelity geometric two ionqubit phase gate," Nature 422, 412 (2003).
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D. J. Wineland, C. Monroe, W. M. Itano, D. Leibfried, B. E. King, and D. M. Meekhof, "Experimental issues in coherent quantum-state manipulation of trapped atomic ions," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 259 (1998).
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D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Minimization of ion micro motion in a Paul trap," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5025 (1998).
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T. B. Mitchell, J. J. Bollinger, D. H. E. Dubin, X. P. Huang, W. M. Itano, and R. H. Baughman, "Direct observations of structural phase transitions in planar crystallized ion plasmas," Science 282, 1290-1293 (1998).
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W. M. Itano and D. J. Wineland, "Laser cooling of ions stored in harmonic and Penning traps," Phys. Rev. A 25, 35-54 (1982).
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James, D. F.

D. G. Enzer, M. M. Schauer, J. J. Gomez, M. S. Gulley, M. H. Holzscheiter, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, V. D. Sandberg, D. Tupa, A. G. White, R. J. Hughes and D. F. James, "Observation of power-law scaling for phase transitions in linear trapped ion crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2466 (2000).
[CrossRef]

James, D. F. V.

M. Riebe, H. Haffner, C. F. Roos, W. Hansel, J.  Benhelm, G. P. T.  Lancaster, T. W. Kober, C. Becher, F.  Schmidt-Kaler, D. F. V. James and R. Blatt, "Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms," Nature 429, 734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jelenkovic, B.

D. Leibfried, B. DeMarco, V. Meyer, D. Lucas, M. Barrett, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, B. Jelenkovic, C. Langer, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental demonstration of a robust, high-fidelity geometric two ionqubit phase gate," Nature 422, 412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jost, J. D.

R. Reichle, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, S. Seidelin and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental purification of two-atom entanglement," Nature 443, 838 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, "Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrodinger cat’ state," Nature 438, 639-642 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chiaverini, J. Britton, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, M. D. Barrett, R. B. Blakestad, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, T. Schaetz and D. J. Wineland, "Implementation of the Semiclassical Quantum Fourier Transform in a scalable system," Science 308, 997 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Barrett, J. Chiaverini, T. Schaetz, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, E. Knill, C. Langer, D. Leibfried, R. Ozeri and D. J. Wineland, "Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits," Nature 429, 737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kielpinski, D.

D. Kielpinski, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Architecture for a large-scale ion-trap quantum computer," Nature 417, 709-711 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J . Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A . Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M . Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

King, B. E.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J . Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A . Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M . Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Wineland, C. Monroe, W. M. Itano, D. Leibfried, B. E. King, and D. M. Meekhof, "Experimental issues in coherent quantum-state manipulation of trapped atomic ions," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 259 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kluge, , H.-J.

M . König, G . Bollen, H.-J.  Kluge, T.  Otto and J.  Szerypo, "Quadrupole excitation of stored ion motion at the true cyclotron frequency," Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 142, 95-116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Knill, E.

R. Reichle, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, S. Seidelin and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental purification of two-atom entanglement," Nature 443, 838 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, "Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrodinger cat’ state," Nature 438, 639-642 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chiaverini, J. Britton, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, M. D. Barrett, R. B. Blakestad, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, T. Schaetz and D. J. Wineland, "Implementation of the Semiclassical Quantum Fourier Transform in a scalable system," Science 308, 997 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Barrett, J. Chiaverini, T. Schaetz, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, E. Knill, C. Langer, D. Leibfried, R. Ozeri and D. J. Wineland, "Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits," Nature 429, 737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kober, T. W.

M. Riebe, H. Haffner, C. F. Roos, W. Hansel, J.  Benhelm, G. P. T.  Lancaster, T. W. Kober, C. Becher, F.  Schmidt-Kaler, D. F. V. James and R. Blatt, "Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms," Nature 429, 734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

König, , M

M . König, G . Bollen, H.-J.  Kluge, T.  Otto and J.  Szerypo, "Quadrupole excitation of stored ion motion at the true cyclotron frequency," Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 142, 95-116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P. G.

D. G. Enzer, M. M. Schauer, J. J. Gomez, M. S. Gulley, M. H. Holzscheiter, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, V. D. Sandberg, D. Tupa, A. G. White, R. J. Hughes and D. F. James, "Observation of power-law scaling for phase transitions in linear trapped ion crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2466 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lamoreaux, S. K.

D. G. Enzer, M. M. Schauer, J. J. Gomez, M. S. Gulley, M. H. Holzscheiter, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, V. D. Sandberg, D. Tupa, A. G. White, R. J. Hughes and D. F. James, "Observation of power-law scaling for phase transitions in linear trapped ion crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2466 (2000).
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Lancaster, G. P. T.

G. P. T. Lancaster, H. Haffner, M. A. Wilson, C. Becher, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, "Doppler cooling a single Ca+ ion with a violet extended-cavity diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 805-808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Gulde, M. Riebe, G. P. T. Lancaster, C. Becher, J. Eschner, H. Haffner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, I. L. Chuang, and R. Blatt, "Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on an ion-trap quantum computer," Nature 421, 48-50 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Haffner, M. Riebe, S. Gulde, G. P. T. Lancaster, T. Deuschle, C. Becher, C. F. Roos, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, "Realization of the Cirac-Zoller controlled-NOT quantum gate." Nature 422, 408-411 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancaster,, G. P. T.

M. Riebe, H. Haffner, C. F. Roos, W. Hansel, J.  Benhelm, G. P. T.  Lancaster, T. W. Kober, C. Becher, F.  Schmidt-Kaler, D. F. V. James and R. Blatt, "Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms," Nature 429, 734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Langer, C.

R. Reichle, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, S. Seidelin and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental purification of two-atom entanglement," Nature 443, 838 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, "Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrodinger cat’ state," Nature 438, 639-642 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chiaverini, J. Britton, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, M. D. Barrett, R. B. Blakestad, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, T. Schaetz and D. J. Wineland, "Implementation of the Semiclassical Quantum Fourier Transform in a scalable system," Science 308, 997 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Barrett, J. Chiaverini, T. Schaetz, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, E. Knill, C. Langer, D. Leibfried, R. Ozeri and D. J. Wineland, "Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits," Nature 429, 737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Leibfried, B. DeMarco, V. Meyer, D. Lucas, M. Barrett, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, B. Jelenkovic, C. Langer, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental demonstration of a robust, high-fidelity geometric two ionqubit phase gate," Nature 422, 412 (2003).
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Lee, P. J.

K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, P. J. Lee, M. Acton, L. Deslauriers, and C. Monroe "Implementation of Grover’s quantum search algorithm in a scalable system," Phys. Rev. A. 72, 050306R (2005).
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Leibfried, , D.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J . Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A . Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M . Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
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Leibfried, D.

R. Reichle, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, S. Seidelin and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental purification of two-atom entanglement," Nature 443, 838 (2006).
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D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, "Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrodinger cat’ state," Nature 438, 639-642 (2005).
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J. Chiaverini, J. Britton, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, M. D. Barrett, R. B. Blakestad, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, T. Schaetz and D. J. Wineland, "Implementation of the Semiclassical Quantum Fourier Transform in a scalable system," Science 308, 997 (2005).
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M. D. Barrett, J. Chiaverini, T. Schaetz, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, E. Knill, C. Langer, D. Leibfried, R. Ozeri and D. J. Wineland, "Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits," Nature 429, 737 (2004).
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D. Leibfried, B. DeMarco, V. Meyer, D. Lucas, M. Barrett, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, B. Jelenkovic, C. Langer, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental demonstration of a robust, high-fidelity geometric two ionqubit phase gate," Nature 422, 412 (2003).
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D. J. Wineland, C. Monroe, W. M. Itano, D. Leibfried, B. E. King, and D. M. Meekhof, "Experimental issues in coherent quantum-state manipulation of trapped atomic ions," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 259 (1998).
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D. Leibfried, B. DeMarco, V. Meyer, D. Lucas, M. Barrett, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, B. Jelenkovic, C. Langer, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental demonstration of a robust, high-fidelity geometric two ionqubit phase gate," Nature 422, 412 (2003).
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Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J . Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A . Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M . Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
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D. J. Wineland, C. Monroe, W. M. Itano, D. Leibfried, B. E. King, and D. M. Meekhof, "Experimental issues in coherent quantum-state manipulation of trapped atomic ions," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 259 (1998).
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Meyer, V.

D. Leibfried, B. DeMarco, V. Meyer, D. Lucas, M. Barrett, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, B. Jelenkovic, C. Langer, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental demonstration of a robust, high-fidelity geometric two ionqubit phase gate," Nature 422, 412 (2003).
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D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Minimization of ion micro motion in a Paul trap," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5025 (1998).
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T. B. Mitchell, J. J. Bollinger, D. H. E. Dubin, X. P. Huang, W. M. Itano, and R. H. Baughman, "Direct observations of structural phase transitions in planar crystallized ion plasmas," Science 282, 1290-1293 (1998).
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Monroe, C.

L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe, "Scaling and Suppression of Anomalous Heating in Ion Traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006).
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K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, P. J. Lee, M. Acton, L. Deslauriers, and C. Monroe "Implementation of Grover’s quantum search algorithm in a scalable system," Phys. Rev. A. 72, 050306R (2005).
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D. Kielpinski, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Architecture for a large-scale ion-trap quantum computer," Nature 417, 709-711 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J . Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A . Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M . Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Wineland, C. Monroe, W. M. Itano, D. Leibfried, B. E. King, and D. M. Meekhof, "Experimental issues in coherent quantum-state manipulation of trapped atomic ions," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 259 (1998).
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Myatt, C. J

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J . Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A . Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M . Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
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D. Reiss, K. Abich, W. Neuhauser, Ch. Wunderlich, and P. E. Toschek, "Raman cooling and heating of two trapped Ba+ ions," Phys. Rev. A 65, 053401 (2002).
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J. R . Castrejon-Pita, H. Ohadi, D. R. Crick, D. F. A. Winters, D. M. Segal, and R. C.  Thompson, "Novel designs for Penning ion traps," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1581-1594 (2007).
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Olmschenk, S.

L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe, "Scaling and Suppression of Anomalous Heating in Ion Traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006).
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Otto, T.

M . König, G . Bollen, H.-J.  Kluge, T.  Otto and J.  Szerypo, "Quadrupole excitation of stored ion motion at the true cyclotron frequency," Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 142, 95-116 (1995).
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Ozeri, R.

R. Reichle, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, S. Seidelin and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental purification of two-atom entanglement," Nature 443, 838 (2006).
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D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, "Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrodinger cat’ state," Nature 438, 639-642 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chiaverini, J. Britton, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, M. D. Barrett, R. B. Blakestad, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, T. Schaetz and D. J. Wineland, "Implementation of the Semiclassical Quantum Fourier Transform in a scalable system," Science 308, 997 (2005).
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M. D. Barrett, J. Chiaverini, T. Schaetz, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, E. Knill, C. Langer, D. Leibfried, R. Ozeri and D. J. Wineland, "Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits," Nature 429, 737 (2004).
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F. Diedrich, E. Peik, J. M. Chen, W. Quint, and H. Walther, "Observation of a phase transition of stored laser-cooled ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2931-2934 (1987).
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D. G. Enzer, M. M. Schauer, J. J. Gomez, M. S. Gulley, M. H. Holzscheiter, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, V. D. Sandberg, D. Tupa, A. G. White, R. J. Hughes and D. F. James, "Observation of power-law scaling for phase transitions in linear trapped ion crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2466 (2000).
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H. F. Powell, S. R. de Echaniz, E. S. Phillips, D. M. Segal, and R. C. Thompson, "Improvement of laser cooling of ions in a Penning trap by use of the axialization technique," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 36, 961-970 (2003).
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H. F. Powell, S. R. de Echaniz, E. S. Phillips, D. M. Segal, and R. C. Thompson, "Improvement of laser cooling of ions in a Penning trap by use of the axialization technique," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 36, 961-970 (2003).
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F. Diedrich, E. Peik, J. M. Chen, W. Quint, and H. Walther, "Observation of a phase transition of stored laser-cooled ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2931-2934 (1987).
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Reichle, R.

R. Reichle, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, S. Seidelin and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental purification of two-atom entanglement," Nature 443, 838 (2006).
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D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, "Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrodinger cat’ state," Nature 438, 639-642 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiss, D.

D. Reiss, K. Abich, W. Neuhauser, Ch. Wunderlich, and P. E. Toschek, "Raman cooling and heating of two trapped Ba+ ions," Phys. Rev. A 65, 053401 (2002).
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Riebe, M.

M. Riebe, H. Haffner, C. F. Roos, W. Hansel, J.  Benhelm, G. P. T.  Lancaster, T. W. Kober, C. Becher, F.  Schmidt-Kaler, D. F. V. James and R. Blatt, "Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms," Nature 429, 734 (2004).
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S. Gulde, M. Riebe, G. P. T. Lancaster, C. Becher, J. Eschner, H. Haffner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, I. L. Chuang, and R. Blatt, "Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on an ion-trap quantum computer," Nature 421, 48-50 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Haffner, M. Riebe, S. Gulde, G. P. T. Lancaster, T. Deuschle, C. Becher, C. F. Roos, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, "Realization of the Cirac-Zoller controlled-NOT quantum gate." Nature 422, 408-411 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roos, C. F.

H. Haffner, W. Hansel, C. F. Roos, J. Benhelm, D. Chekalkar, M. Chwalla, T. K rber, U. D. Rapol, M. Riebe, P. O. Schmidt, C. Becher, O. Guhne, W. Dur, and R. Blatt, "Scalable multiparticle entanglement of trapped ions," Nature 438, 643-646 (2005).
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M. Riebe, H. Haffner, C. F. Roos, W. Hansel, J.  Benhelm, G. P. T.  Lancaster, T. W. Kober, C. Becher, F.  Schmidt-Kaler, D. F. V. James and R. Blatt, "Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms," Nature 429, 734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Haffner, M. Riebe, S. Gulde, G. P. T. Lancaster, T. Deuschle, C. Becher, C. F. Roos, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, "Realization of the Cirac-Zoller controlled-NOT quantum gate." Nature 422, 408-411 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenband, T.

D. Leibfried, B. DeMarco, V. Meyer, D. Lucas, M. Barrett, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, B. Jelenkovic, C. Langer, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental demonstration of a robust, high-fidelity geometric two ionqubit phase gate," Nature 422, 412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rowe, , M. A.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J . Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A . Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M . Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sackett, C. A

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J . Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A . Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M . Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sandberg, V. D.

D. G. Enzer, M. M. Schauer, J. J. Gomez, M. S. Gulley, M. H. Holzscheiter, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, V. D. Sandberg, D. Tupa, A. G. White, R. J. Hughes and D. F. James, "Observation of power-law scaling for phase transitions in linear trapped ion crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2466 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schaetz, T.

J. Chiaverini, J. Britton, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, M. D. Barrett, R. B. Blakestad, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, T. Schaetz and D. J. Wineland, "Implementation of the Semiclassical Quantum Fourier Transform in a scalable system," Science 308, 997 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Barrett, J. Chiaverini, T. Schaetz, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, E. Knill, C. Langer, D. Leibfried, R. Ozeri and D. J. Wineland, "Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits," Nature 429, 737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schauer, M. M.

D. G. Enzer, M. M. Schauer, J. J. Gomez, M. S. Gulley, M. H. Holzscheiter, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, V. D. Sandberg, D. Tupa, A. G. White, R. J. Hughes and D. F. James, "Observation of power-law scaling for phase transitions in linear trapped ion crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2466 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Kaler, F.

M. Riebe, H. Haffner, C. F. Roos, W. Hansel, J.  Benhelm, G. P. T.  Lancaster, T. W. Kober, C. Becher, F.  Schmidt-Kaler, D. F. V. James and R. Blatt, "Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms," Nature 429, 734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Kaler, F.

F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Haffner, M. Riebe, S. Gulde, G. P. T. Lancaster, T. Deuschle, C. Becher, C. F. Roos, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, "Realization of the Cirac-Zoller controlled-NOT quantum gate." Nature 422, 408-411 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gulde, M. Riebe, G. P. T. Lancaster, C. Becher, J. Eschner, H. Haffner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, I. L. Chuang, and R. Blatt, "Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on an ion-trap quantum computer," Nature 421, 48-50 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. T. Lancaster, H. Haffner, M. A. Wilson, C. Becher, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, "Doppler cooling a single Ca+ ion with a violet extended-cavity diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 805-808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Segal, D. M.

J. R . Castrejon-Pita, H. Ohadi, D. R. Crick, D. F. A. Winters, D. M. Segal, and R. C.  Thompson, "Novel designs for Penning ion traps," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1581-1594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Powell, S. R. de Echaniz, E. S. Phillips, D. M. Segal, and R. C. Thompson, "Improvement of laser cooling of ions in a Penning trap by use of the axialization technique," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 36, 961-970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seidelin, S.

R. Reichle, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, S. Seidelin and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental purification of two-atom entanglement," Nature 443, 838 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, "Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrodinger cat’ state," Nature 438, 639-642 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shor, P.

A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. DiVincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, "Elementary gates for quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457-3467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinclair, A. G.

M. Brownnutt, G. Wilpers, P. Gill, R. C. Thompson, and A. G. Sinclair, "Monolithic microfabricated ion trap chip design for scaleable quantum processors," New J. Phys. 8, 232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sleator, T.

A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. DiVincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, "Elementary gates for quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457-3467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolin, J. A.

A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. DiVincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, "Elementary gates for quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457-3467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterk, J.

L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe, "Scaling and Suppression of Anomalous Heating in Ion Traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stick, D.

L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe, "Scaling and Suppression of Anomalous Heating in Ion Traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Szerypo, J.

M . König, G . Bollen, H.-J.  Kluge, T.  Otto and J.  Szerypo, "Quadrupole excitation of stored ion motion at the true cyclotron frequency," Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 142, 95-116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R. C.

M. Brownnutt, G. Wilpers, P. Gill, R. C. Thompson, and A. G. Sinclair, "Monolithic microfabricated ion trap chip design for scaleable quantum processors," New J. Phys. 8, 232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Powell, S. R. de Echaniz, E. S. Phillips, D. M. Segal, and R. C. Thompson, "Improvement of laser cooling of ions in a Penning trap by use of the axialization technique," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 36, 961-970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R.C.

R.C. Thompson and D.C. Wilson, "The motion of small numbers of ions in a Penning trap," Z Phys. D 42, 271-277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tombesi, P.

G. Ciaramicoli, I. Marzoli, and P. Tombesi, "Scalable quantum processor with trapped electrons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 017901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toschek, P. E.

D. Reiss, K. Abich, W. Neuhauser, Ch. Wunderlich, and P. E. Toschek, "Raman cooling and heating of two trapped Ba+ ions," Phys. Rev. A 65, 053401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tupa, D.

D. G. Enzer, M. M. Schauer, J. J. Gomez, M. S. Gulley, M. H. Holzscheiter, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, V. D. Sandberg, D. Tupa, A. G. White, R. J. Hughes and D. F. James, "Observation of power-law scaling for phase transitions in linear trapped ion crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2466 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Turchette, Q. A.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J . Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A . Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M . Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

F. Diedrich, E. Peik, J. M. Chen, W. Quint, and H. Walther, "Observation of a phase transition of stored laser-cooled ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2931-2934 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinfurter, H.

A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. DiVincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, "Elementary gates for quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457-3467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, A. G.

D. G. Enzer, M. M. Schauer, J. J. Gomez, M. S. Gulley, M. H. Holzscheiter, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, V. D. Sandberg, D. Tupa, A. G. White, R. J. Hughes and D. F. James, "Observation of power-law scaling for phase transitions in linear trapped ion crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2466 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilpers, G.

M. Brownnutt, G. Wilpers, P. Gill, R. C. Thompson, and A. G. Sinclair, "Monolithic microfabricated ion trap chip design for scaleable quantum processors," New J. Phys. 8, 232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D.C.

R.C. Thompson and D.C. Wilson, "The motion of small numbers of ions in a Penning trap," Z Phys. D 42, 271-277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, M. A.

G. P. T. Lancaster, H. Haffner, M. A. Wilson, C. Becher, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, "Doppler cooling a single Ca+ ion with a violet extended-cavity diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 805-808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wineland, D. J.

R. Reichle, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, S. Seidelin and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental purification of two-atom entanglement," Nature 443, 838 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, "Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrodinger cat’ state," Nature 438, 639-642 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chiaverini, J. Britton, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, M. D. Barrett, R. B. Blakestad, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, T. Schaetz and D. J. Wineland, "Implementation of the Semiclassical Quantum Fourier Transform in a scalable system," Science 308, 997 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Barrett, J. Chiaverini, T. Schaetz, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, E. Knill, C. Langer, D. Leibfried, R. Ozeri and D. J. Wineland, "Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits," Nature 429, 737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Leibfried, B. DeMarco, V. Meyer, D. Lucas, M. Barrett, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, B. Jelenkovic, C. Langer, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental demonstration of a robust, high-fidelity geometric two ionqubit phase gate," Nature 422, 412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Kielpinski, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Architecture for a large-scale ion-trap quantum computer," Nature 417, 709-711 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J . Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A . Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M . Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Wineland, C. Monroe, W. M. Itano, D. Leibfried, B. E. King, and D. M. Meekhof, "Experimental issues in coherent quantum-state manipulation of trapped atomic ions," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 259 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Minimization of ion micro motion in a Paul trap," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Itano and D. J. Wineland, "Laser cooling of ions stored in harmonic and Penning traps," Phys. Rev. A 25, 35-54 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Winters,, D. F. A.

J. R . Castrejon-Pita, H. Ohadi, D. R. Crick, D. F. A. Winters, D. M. Segal, and R. C.  Thompson, "Novel designs for Penning ion traps," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1581-1594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wood, C. S.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J . Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A . Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M . Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wunderlich, Ch.

D. Reiss, K. Abich, W. Neuhauser, Ch. Wunderlich, and P. E. Toschek, "Raman cooling and heating of two trapped Ba+ ions," Phys. Rev. A 65, 053401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Mintert and Ch. Wunderlich, "Ion-trap quantum logic using long-wavelength radiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 257904-1 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoller, P.

J. I. Cirac and P. Zoller, "Quantum Computations with Cold Trapped Ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4091 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. P. T. Lancaster, H. Haffner, M. A. Wilson, C. Becher, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, "Doppler cooling a single Ca+ ion with a violet extended-cavity diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 805-808 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. (1)

M . König, G . Bollen, H.-J.  Kluge, T.  Otto and J.  Szerypo, "Quadrupole excitation of stored ion motion at the true cyclotron frequency," Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 142, 95-116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Minimization of ion micro motion in a Paul trap," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5025 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. R . Castrejon-Pita, H. Ohadi, D. R. Crick, D. F. A. Winters, D. M. Segal, and R. C.  Thompson, "Novel designs for Penning ion traps," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1581-1594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. (1)

H. F. Powell, S. R. de Echaniz, E. S. Phillips, D. M. Segal, and R. C. Thompson, "Improvement of laser cooling of ions in a Penning trap by use of the axialization technique," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 36, 961-970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (1)

D. J. Wineland, C. Monroe, W. M. Itano, D. Leibfried, B. E. King, and D. M. Meekhof, "Experimental issues in coherent quantum-state manipulation of trapped atomic ions," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 259 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (9)

D. Kielpinski, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Architecture for a large-scale ion-trap quantum computer," Nature 417, 709-711 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Leibfried, B. DeMarco, V. Meyer, D. Lucas, M. Barrett, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, B. Jelenkovic, C. Langer, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental demonstration of a robust, high-fidelity geometric two ionqubit phase gate," Nature 422, 412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Haffner, M. Riebe, S. Gulde, G. P. T. Lancaster, T. Deuschle, C. Becher, C. F. Roos, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, "Realization of the Cirac-Zoller controlled-NOT quantum gate." Nature 422, 408-411 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gulde, M. Riebe, G. P. T. Lancaster, C. Becher, J. Eschner, H. Haffner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, I. L. Chuang, and R. Blatt, "Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on an ion-trap quantum computer," Nature 421, 48-50 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Riebe, H. Haffner, C. F. Roos, W. Hansel, J.  Benhelm, G. P. T.  Lancaster, T. W. Kober, C. Becher, F.  Schmidt-Kaler, D. F. V. James and R. Blatt, "Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms," Nature 429, 734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Barrett, J. Chiaverini, T. Schaetz, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, E. Knill, C. Langer, D. Leibfried, R. Ozeri and D. J. Wineland, "Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits," Nature 429, 737 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Reichle, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, S. Seidelin and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental purification of two-atom entanglement," Nature 443, 838 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, "Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrodinger cat’ state," Nature 438, 639-642 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Haffner, W. Hansel, C. F. Roos, J. Benhelm, D. Chekalkar, M. Chwalla, T. K rber, U. D. Rapol, M. Riebe, P. O. Schmidt, C. Becher, O. Guhne, W. Dur, and R. Blatt, "Scalable multiparticle entanglement of trapped ions," Nature 438, 643-646 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

M. Brownnutt, G. Wilpers, P. Gill, R. C. Thompson, and A. G. Sinclair, "Monolithic microfabricated ion trap chip design for scaleable quantum processors," New J. Phys. 8, 232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

D. Reiss, K. Abich, W. Neuhauser, Ch. Wunderlich, and P. E. Toschek, "Raman cooling and heating of two trapped Ba+ ions," Phys. Rev. A 65, 053401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. DiVincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, "Elementary gates for quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457-3467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J . Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A . Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M . Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Itano and D. J. Wineland, "Laser cooling of ions stored in harmonic and Penning traps," Phys. Rev. A 25, 35-54 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A. (1)

K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, P. J. Lee, M. Acton, L. Deslauriers, and C. Monroe "Implementation of Grover’s quantum search algorithm in a scalable system," Phys. Rev. A. 72, 050306R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

J. I. Cirac and P. Zoller, "Quantum Computations with Cold Trapped Ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4091 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe, "Scaling and Suppression of Anomalous Heating in Ion Traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Ciaramicoli, I. Marzoli, and P. Tombesi, "Scalable quantum processor with trapped electrons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 017901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Porras and J. I. Cirac, "Quantum manipulation of trapped ions in two dimensional Coulomb Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 250501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Enzer, M. M. Schauer, J. J. Gomez, M. S. Gulley, M. H. Holzscheiter, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, V. D. Sandberg, D. Tupa, A. G. White, R. J. Hughes and D. F. James, "Observation of power-law scaling for phase transitions in linear trapped ion crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2466 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Diedrich, E. Peik, J. M. Chen, W. Quint, and H. Walther, "Observation of a phase transition of stored laser-cooled ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2931-2934 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Mintert and Ch. Wunderlich, "Ion-trap quantum logic using long-wavelength radiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 257904-1 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

T. B. Mitchell, J. J. Bollinger, D. H. E. Dubin, X. P. Huang, W. M. Itano, and R. H. Baughman, "Direct observations of structural phase transitions in planar crystallized ion plasmas," Science 282, 1290-1293 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chiaverini, J. Britton, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, M. D. Barrett, R. B. Blakestad, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, T. Schaetz and D. J. Wineland, "Implementation of the Semiclassical Quantum Fourier Transform in a scalable system," Science 308, 997 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z Phys. D (1)

R.C. Thompson and D.C. Wilson, "The motion of small numbers of ions in a Penning trap," Z Phys. D 42, 271-277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

S. Fishman, G. De Chiara, T. Calarco and G. Morigi, "Structural phase transitions in low-dimensional ion crystals," arXiv:0710.1831.

P. K. Ghosh, Ion Traps, (Oxford University Press 1995).

J. M. Taylor and T. Calarco, "Wigner crystals of ions as quantum hard drives," arXiv:0706.1951.

M. E. M. Storkey. "Studies of laser-cooled trapped ions," PhD thesis, Imperial College London, (2001).

J. L. K. Koo. "Laser cooling and trapping of Ca+ ions in a Penning trap," PhD thesis, Imperial College London, (2003).

R. J. Hendricks, E. S. Phillips, D. M. Segal, and R. C. Thompson, "Laser cooling in the Penning trap: an analytical model for cooling rates in the presence of an axializing field," arXiv:0709.3817v1 [quant-ph] 2007, Accepted for publication in J. Phys. B. (in press).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: GIF (116 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic layout of the Penning trap used in this work.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Partial energy level diagram of 40Ca+ in a 0.98 tesla magnetic field.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fluorescence rate after loading two ions. Time bins are 10 ms wide. Occasional brief quantum jumps can be seen even in the presence of laser light at 854 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Histograms from 40 seconds of data collection with 30 ms time bins show discrete levels of fluorecence rate for small numbers of trapped ions. (d) shows ten seconds of fluorecence (10 ms time bins) from two ions; two levels of signal (plus the background level) can clearly be seen.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Images of ions taken at a magnification of ~4. Magnetic field axis is vertical.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Images of a two-ion crystal as the axialization voltage is varied. Magnetic field axis is vertical. Also see supplementary animation.[Media 1]

Equations (1)

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I sin 1 ( X + Δ X 2 r ) sin 1 ( X Δ X 2 r ) ,

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