Abstract

The dielectric functions of plasma deposited silver on SiO2 through all stages of Volmer-Weber growth at room temperature and 150°C were determined unambiguously by applying a model-independent inversion method to dynamic in situ spectroscopic ellipsometric data. The results show large differences in the localized plasmon resonance and the percolation threshold at the two temperatures. Using these model-independent dielectric functions we assess the effectiveness of modelling the plasmon resonance by fitting a Lorentz oscillator. The methods show agreement for the position of the plasmon resonance below the percolation threshold and for the effective film thickness up to 5.6 nm at room temperature and 11.5 nm at 150°C, however the line shape of the resonance is described by the Lorentzian only in the early stages of film growth.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (4)

V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nat. Photonics 1,41-48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. W. H. Oates, L. Ryves, and M. M. M. Bilek, "Dynamic spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of nanostructural changes in plasmonic silver films,"  15, Opt. Express15987-15998 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. de Vries, E. S. Kooij, H. Wormeester, A. A. Mewe, and B. Poelsema, "Ellipsometric study of percolation in electroless deposited silver films," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Wu, T. Kim, A. S. Brown, M. Losurdo, G. Bruno, and H. O. Everitt, "Real-time plasmon resonance tuning of liquid Ga nanoparticles by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,103119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

E. Langereis, S. B. S. Heil, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, "In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study on the growth of ultrathin TiN films by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 100,023534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, T. A. Klar, and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative index metamaterial combining magnetic resonators with metal films," Opt. Express 14,7872 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, "Spectroscopy of metamaterials from infrared to optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 404-414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, "Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 74,205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

T. W. H. Oates and A. Mücklich, "Evolution of plasmon resonances during plasma deposition of silver nanoparticles," Nanotechnology 16, 2606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: a brief retrospective," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36,485-496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Ryves, M. M. M. Bilek, T. W. H. Oates, R. N. Tarrant, D. R. McKenzie, F. A. Burgmann, and D. G. McCulloch, "Synthesis and in-situ ellipsometric monitoring of Ti/C nanostructured multilayers using a high-current, dual source pulsed cathodic arc," Thin Solid Films 482,133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. K. Pribil, B. Johs, and N. J. Ianno, "Dielectric function of thin metal films by combined in situ transmission ellipsometry and intensity measurements," Thin Solid Films 455 -456,443-449 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Amassian, P. Desjardins, and L. Martinu, "Study of TiO2 film growth mechanisms in low-pressure plasma by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 447-44840-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. W. H. Oates, D. R. McKenzie, and M. M. M. Bilek, "Percolation threshold in ultrathin titanium films determined by in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry," Phys. Rev. B 70,195406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

E. Byon, T. W. H. Oates, and A. Anders, "Coalescence of nanometer silver islands on oxides grown by filtered cathodic arc deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,1634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. W. H. Oates, J. Pigott, D. R. McKenzie, and M. M. M. Bilek, "A high-current pulsed cathodic vacuum arc," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74,4750-4754 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Renaud, R. Lazzari, C. Revenant, A. Barbier, M. Noblet, O. Ulrich, F. Leroy, J. Jupille, Y. Borensztein, C. R. Henry, J. Deville, F. Scheurer, J. Mane-Mane, and O. Fruchart, "Real-time monitoring of growing nanoparticles," Science 300,1416-1419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A.  Maier, P. G.  Kik, H. A.  Atwater, S.  Meltzer, E.  Harel, B. E.  Koel, and A. A. G.  Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater.  2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

A. Anders, "Atomic scale heating in cathodic arc plasma deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,1100-1102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Soennichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, and J. Feldmann, "Plasmon resonances in large noble-metal clusters," New J. Phys. 4,93.1-93.8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. W. H. Oates and M. M. M. Bilek, "Insulator surface charging and dissipation during plasma immersion ion implantation using a thin conductive surface film," J. App. Phys. 92,2980-2983 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. Doremus "Optical absorption of island films of noble metals: wave length of the plasma absorption band," Thin Solid Films 326,205-210 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Brune, "Microscopic view of epitaxial metal growth - nucleation and aggregation," Surface Science Reports 31, 121-229 (1998).

1996 (1)

I. An and H. Oh, "Optical properties of thin silver films: Three-parameter spectroscopic ellipsometry studies," J. Korean Phys. Soc 29,370 (1996).

1993 (1)

H. V. Nguyen, I. An, and R. W. Collins "Evolution of the optical functions of thin-film aluminum: A real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry study," Phys. Rev. B 47,3947 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. Arwin and D. E. Aspnes, "Unambiguous determination of thickness and dielectric function of thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 113101 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

T. Hollstein, U. Kreibig, and F. Leis, "Optical properties of Cu and Ag in the intermediate region between Pure Drude and Interband Absorption," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 82(2)545 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy "Optical properties of the noble metals,"Phys. Rev. B 6,4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

S. Yamaguchi, "The resonance type absorption of very thin silver and gold films," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 15,1577-1585 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, "Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen. I. Dielektrizitätskonstanten und Leitfähigkeiten der Mischkörper aus isotropen Substanzen," Ann. Phys. 24,636 (1935).
[CrossRef]

1904 (1)

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, "Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 203,385-420 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Amassian, A.

A. Amassian, P. Desjardins, and L. Martinu, "Study of TiO2 film growth mechanisms in low-pressure plasma by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 447-44840-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

An, I.

I. An and H. Oh, "Optical properties of thin silver films: Three-parameter spectroscopic ellipsometry studies," J. Korean Phys. Soc 29,370 (1996).

H. V. Nguyen, I. An, and R. W. Collins "Evolution of the optical functions of thin-film aluminum: A real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry study," Phys. Rev. B 47,3947 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Anders, A.

E. Byon, T. W. H. Oates, and A. Anders, "Coalescence of nanometer silver islands on oxides grown by filtered cathodic arc deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,1634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Anders, "Atomic scale heating in cathodic arc plasma deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,1100-1102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arwin, H.

H. Arwin and D. E. Aspnes, "Unambiguous determination of thickness and dielectric function of thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 113101 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

H. Arwin and D. E. Aspnes, "Unambiguous determination of thickness and dielectric function of thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 113101 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A.  Maier, P. G.  Kik, H. A.  Atwater, S.  Meltzer, E.  Harel, B. E.  Koel, and A. A. G.  Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater.  2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbier, A.

G. Renaud, R. Lazzari, C. Revenant, A. Barbier, M. Noblet, O. Ulrich, F. Leroy, J. Jupille, Y. Borensztein, C. R. Henry, J. Deville, F. Scheurer, J. Mane-Mane, and O. Fruchart, "Real-time monitoring of growing nanoparticles," Science 300,1416-1419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

W. J. Padilla, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, "Spectroscopy of metamaterials from infrared to optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 404-414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilek, M. M. M.

T. W. H. Oates, L. Ryves, and M. M. M. Bilek, "Dynamic spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of nanostructural changes in plasmonic silver films,"  15, Opt. Express15987-15998 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ryves, M. M. M. Bilek, T. W. H. Oates, R. N. Tarrant, D. R. McKenzie, F. A. Burgmann, and D. G. McCulloch, "Synthesis and in-situ ellipsometric monitoring of Ti/C nanostructured multilayers using a high-current, dual source pulsed cathodic arc," Thin Solid Films 482,133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. W. H. Oates, D. R. McKenzie, and M. M. M. Bilek, "Percolation threshold in ultrathin titanium films determined by in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry," Phys. Rev. B 70,195406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. W. H. Oates, J. Pigott, D. R. McKenzie, and M. M. M. Bilek, "A high-current pulsed cathodic vacuum arc," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74,4750-4754 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. W. H. Oates and M. M. M. Bilek, "Insulator surface charging and dissipation during plasma immersion ion implantation using a thin conductive surface film," J. App. Phys. 92,2980-2983 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borensztein, Y.

G. Renaud, R. Lazzari, C. Revenant, A. Barbier, M. Noblet, O. Ulrich, F. Leroy, J. Jupille, Y. Borensztein, C. R. Henry, J. Deville, F. Scheurer, J. Mane-Mane, and O. Fruchart, "Real-time monitoring of growing nanoparticles," Science 300,1416-1419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, A. S.

P. C. Wu, T. Kim, A. S. Brown, M. Losurdo, G. Bruno, and H. O. Everitt, "Real-time plasmon resonance tuning of liquid Ga nanoparticles by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,103119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bruggeman, D. A. G.

D. A. G. Bruggeman, "Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen. I. Dielektrizitätskonstanten und Leitfähigkeiten der Mischkörper aus isotropen Substanzen," Ann. Phys. 24,636 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Brune, H.

H. Brune, "Microscopic view of epitaxial metal growth - nucleation and aggregation," Surface Science Reports 31, 121-229 (1998).

Bruno, G.

P. C. Wu, T. Kim, A. S. Brown, M. Losurdo, G. Bruno, and H. O. Everitt, "Real-time plasmon resonance tuning of liquid Ga nanoparticles by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,103119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burgmann, F. A.

L. Ryves, M. M. M. Bilek, T. W. H. Oates, R. N. Tarrant, D. R. McKenzie, F. A. Burgmann, and D. G. McCulloch, "Synthesis and in-situ ellipsometric monitoring of Ti/C nanostructured multilayers using a high-current, dual source pulsed cathodic arc," Thin Solid Films 482,133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Byon, E.

E. Byon, T. W. H. Oates, and A. Anders, "Coalescence of nanometer silver islands on oxides grown by filtered cathodic arc deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,1634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy "Optical properties of the noble metals,"Phys. Rev. B 6,4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Collins, R. W.

H. V. Nguyen, I. An, and R. W. Collins "Evolution of the optical functions of thin-film aluminum: A real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry study," Phys. Rev. B 47,3947 (1993).
[CrossRef]

de Vries, A. J.

A. J. de Vries, E. S. Kooij, H. Wormeester, A. A. Mewe, and B. Poelsema, "Ellipsometric study of percolation in electroless deposited silver films," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Desjardins, P.

A. Amassian, P. Desjardins, and L. Martinu, "Study of TiO2 film growth mechanisms in low-pressure plasma by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 447-44840-45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deville, J.

G. Renaud, R. Lazzari, C. Revenant, A. Barbier, M. Noblet, O. Ulrich, F. Leroy, J. Jupille, Y. Borensztein, C. R. Henry, J. Deville, F. Scheurer, J. Mane-Mane, and O. Fruchart, "Real-time monitoring of growing nanoparticles," Science 300,1416-1419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doremus, R.

R. Doremus "Optical absorption of island films of noble metals: wave length of the plasma absorption band," Thin Solid Films 326,205-210 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Everitt, H. O.

P. C. Wu, T. Kim, A. S. Brown, M. Losurdo, G. Bruno, and H. O. Everitt, "Real-time plasmon resonance tuning of liquid Ga nanoparticles by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,103119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldmann, J.

C. Soennichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, and J. Feldmann, "Plasmon resonances in large noble-metal clusters," New J. Phys. 4,93.1-93.8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, "Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 74,205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Franzl, T.

C. Soennichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, and J. Feldmann, "Plasmon resonances in large noble-metal clusters," New J. Phys. 4,93.1-93.8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fruchart, O.

G. Renaud, R. Lazzari, C. Revenant, A. Barbier, M. Noblet, O. Ulrich, F. Leroy, J. Jupille, Y. Borensztein, C. R. Henry, J. Deville, F. Scheurer, J. Mane-Mane, and O. Fruchart, "Real-time monitoring of growing nanoparticles," Science 300,1416-1419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haglund, R. F.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, "Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 74,205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harel, E.

S. A.  Maier, P. G.  Kik, H. A.  Atwater, S.  Meltzer, E.  Harel, B. E.  Koel, and A. A. G.  Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater.  2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heil, S. B. S.

E. Langereis, S. B. S. Heil, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, "In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study on the growth of ultrathin TiN films by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 100,023534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, "Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 74,205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. R.

G. Renaud, R. Lazzari, C. Revenant, A. Barbier, M. Noblet, O. Ulrich, F. Leroy, J. Jupille, Y. Borensztein, C. R. Henry, J. Deville, F. Scheurer, J. Mane-Mane, and O. Fruchart, "Real-time monitoring of growing nanoparticles," Science 300,1416-1419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollstein, T.

T. Hollstein, U. Kreibig, and F. Leis, "Optical properties of Cu and Ag in the intermediate region between Pure Drude and Interband Absorption," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 82(2)545 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ianno, N. J.

G. K. Pribil, B. Johs, and N. J. Ianno, "Dielectric function of thin metal films by combined in situ transmission ellipsometry and intensity measurements," Thin Solid Films 455 -456,443-449 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, "Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 74,205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy "Optical properties of the noble metals,"Phys. Rev. B 6,4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Johs, B.

G. K. Pribil, B. Johs, and N. J. Ianno, "Dielectric function of thin metal films by combined in situ transmission ellipsometry and intensity measurements," Thin Solid Films 455 -456,443-449 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jupille, J.

G. Renaud, R. Lazzari, C. Revenant, A. Barbier, M. Noblet, O. Ulrich, F. Leroy, J. Jupille, Y. Borensztein, C. R. Henry, J. Deville, F. Scheurer, J. Mane-Mane, and O. Fruchart, "Real-time monitoring of growing nanoparticles," Science 300,1416-1419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kessels, W. M. M.

E. Langereis, S. B. S. Heil, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, "In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study on the growth of ultrathin TiN films by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 100,023534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

S. A.  Maier, P. G.  Kik, H. A.  Atwater, S.  Meltzer, E.  Harel, B. E.  Koel, and A. A. G.  Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater.  2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kim, T.

P. C. Wu, T. Kim, A. S. Brown, M. Losurdo, G. Bruno, and H. O. Everitt, "Real-time plasmon resonance tuning of liquid Ga nanoparticles by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,103119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klar, T. A.

Koel, B. E.

S. A.  Maier, P. G.  Kik, H. A.  Atwater, S.  Meltzer, E.  Harel, B. E.  Koel, and A. A. G.  Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater.  2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kooij, E. S.

A. J. de Vries, E. S. Kooij, H. Wormeester, A. A. Mewe, and B. Poelsema, "Ellipsometric study of percolation in electroless deposited silver films," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Woormeester, E. S. Kooij, and B. Poelsema, "Effective dielectric response of nanostructured layers," Phys. Stat. Sol. (in press).

Kreibig, U.

T. Hollstein, U. Kreibig, and F. Leis, "Optical properties of Cu and Ag in the intermediate region between Pure Drude and Interband Absorption," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 82(2)545 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Langereis, E.

E. Langereis, S. B. S. Heil, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, "In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study on the growth of ultrathin TiN films by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 100,023534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lazzari, R.

G. Renaud, R. Lazzari, C. Revenant, A. Barbier, M. Noblet, O. Ulrich, F. Leroy, J. Jupille, Y. Borensztein, C. R. Henry, J. Deville, F. Scheurer, J. Mane-Mane, and O. Fruchart, "Real-time monitoring of growing nanoparticles," Science 300,1416-1419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leis, F.

T. Hollstein, U. Kreibig, and F. Leis, "Optical properties of Cu and Ag in the intermediate region between Pure Drude and Interband Absorption," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 82(2)545 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Leroy, F.

G. Renaud, R. Lazzari, C. Revenant, A. Barbier, M. Noblet, O. Ulrich, F. Leroy, J. Jupille, Y. Borensztein, C. R. Henry, J. Deville, F. Scheurer, J. Mane-Mane, and O. Fruchart, "Real-time monitoring of growing nanoparticles," Science 300,1416-1419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez, R.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, "Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 74,205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Losurdo, M.

P. C. Wu, T. Kim, A. S. Brown, M. Losurdo, G. Bruno, and H. O. Everitt, "Real-time plasmon resonance tuning of liquid Ga nanoparticles by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,103119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A.  Maier, P. G.  Kik, H. A.  Atwater, S.  Meltzer, E.  Harel, B. E.  Koel, and A. A. G.  Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater.  2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mane-Mane, J.

G. Renaud, R. Lazzari, C. Revenant, A. Barbier, M. Noblet, O. Ulrich, F. Leroy, J. Jupille, Y. Borensztein, C. R. Henry, J. Deville, F. Scheurer, J. Mane-Mane, and O. Fruchart, "Real-time monitoring of growing nanoparticles," Science 300,1416-1419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinu, L.

A. Amassian, P. Desjardins, and L. Martinu, "Study of TiO2 film growth mechanisms in low-pressure plasma by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 447-44840-45 (2004).
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Maxwell-Garnett, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, "Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London 203,385-420 (1904).
[CrossRef]

McCulloch, D. G.

L. Ryves, M. M. M. Bilek, T. W. H. Oates, R. N. Tarrant, D. R. McKenzie, F. A. Burgmann, and D. G. McCulloch, "Synthesis and in-situ ellipsometric monitoring of Ti/C nanostructured multilayers using a high-current, dual source pulsed cathodic arc," Thin Solid Films 482,133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, D. R.

L. Ryves, M. M. M. Bilek, T. W. H. Oates, R. N. Tarrant, D. R. McKenzie, F. A. Burgmann, and D. G. McCulloch, "Synthesis and in-situ ellipsometric monitoring of Ti/C nanostructured multilayers using a high-current, dual source pulsed cathodic arc," Thin Solid Films 482,133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. W. H. Oates, D. R. McKenzie, and M. M. M. Bilek, "Percolation threshold in ultrathin titanium films determined by in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry," Phys. Rev. B 70,195406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. W. H. Oates, J. Pigott, D. R. McKenzie, and M. M. M. Bilek, "A high-current pulsed cathodic vacuum arc," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74,4750-4754 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meltzer, S.

S. A.  Maier, P. G.  Kik, H. A.  Atwater, S.  Meltzer, E.  Harel, B. E.  Koel, and A. A. G.  Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater.  2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mewe, A. A.

A. J. de Vries, E. S. Kooij, H. Wormeester, A. A. Mewe, and B. Poelsema, "Ellipsometric study of percolation in electroless deposited silver films," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moskovits, M.

M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: a brief retrospective," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36,485-496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mücklich, A.

T. W. H. Oates and A. Mücklich, "Evolution of plasmon resonances during plasma deposition of silver nanoparticles," Nanotechnology 16, 2606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. V.

H. V. Nguyen, I. An, and R. W. Collins "Evolution of the optical functions of thin-film aluminum: A real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry study," Phys. Rev. B 47,3947 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Noblet, M.

G. Renaud, R. Lazzari, C. Revenant, A. Barbier, M. Noblet, O. Ulrich, F. Leroy, J. Jupille, Y. Borensztein, C. R. Henry, J. Deville, F. Scheurer, J. Mane-Mane, and O. Fruchart, "Real-time monitoring of growing nanoparticles," Science 300,1416-1419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oates, T. W. H.

T. W. H. Oates, L. Ryves, and M. M. M. Bilek, "Dynamic spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of nanostructural changes in plasmonic silver films,"  15, Opt. Express15987-15998 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ryves, M. M. M. Bilek, T. W. H. Oates, R. N. Tarrant, D. R. McKenzie, F. A. Burgmann, and D. G. McCulloch, "Synthesis and in-situ ellipsometric monitoring of Ti/C nanostructured multilayers using a high-current, dual source pulsed cathodic arc," Thin Solid Films 482,133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. W. H. Oates and A. Mücklich, "Evolution of plasmon resonances during plasma deposition of silver nanoparticles," Nanotechnology 16, 2606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. W. H. Oates, D. R. McKenzie, and M. M. M. Bilek, "Percolation threshold in ultrathin titanium films determined by in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry," Phys. Rev. B 70,195406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Byon, T. W. H. Oates, and A. Anders, "Coalescence of nanometer silver islands on oxides grown by filtered cathodic arc deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,1634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. W. H. Oates, J. Pigott, D. R. McKenzie, and M. M. M. Bilek, "A high-current pulsed cathodic vacuum arc," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74,4750-4754 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. W. H. Oates and M. M. M. Bilek, "Insulator surface charging and dissipation during plasma immersion ion implantation using a thin conductive surface film," J. App. Phys. 92,2980-2983 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oh, H.

I. An and H. Oh, "Optical properties of thin silver films: Three-parameter spectroscopic ellipsometry studies," J. Korean Phys. Soc 29,370 (1996).

Padilla, W. J.

W. J. Padilla, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, "Spectroscopy of metamaterials from infrared to optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 404-414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pigott, J.

T. W. H. Oates, J. Pigott, D. R. McKenzie, and M. M. M. Bilek, "A high-current pulsed cathodic vacuum arc," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74,4750-4754 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poelsema, B.

A. J. de Vries, E. S. Kooij, H. Wormeester, A. A. Mewe, and B. Poelsema, "Ellipsometric study of percolation in electroless deposited silver films," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Woormeester, E. S. Kooij, and B. Poelsema, "Effective dielectric response of nanostructured layers," Phys. Stat. Sol. (in press).

Pribil, G. K.

G. K. Pribil, B. Johs, and N. J. Ianno, "Dielectric function of thin metal films by combined in situ transmission ellipsometry and intensity measurements," Thin Solid Films 455 -456,443-449 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Renaud, G.

G. Renaud, R. Lazzari, C. Revenant, A. Barbier, M. Noblet, O. Ulrich, F. Leroy, J. Jupille, Y. Borensztein, C. R. Henry, J. Deville, F. Scheurer, J. Mane-Mane, and O. Fruchart, "Real-time monitoring of growing nanoparticles," Science 300,1416-1419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Requicha, A. A. G.

S. A.  Maier, P. G.  Kik, H. A.  Atwater, S.  Meltzer, E.  Harel, B. E.  Koel, and A. A. G.  Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater.  2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Revenant, C.

G. Renaud, R. Lazzari, C. Revenant, A. Barbier, M. Noblet, O. Ulrich, F. Leroy, J. Jupille, Y. Borensztein, C. R. Henry, J. Deville, F. Scheurer, J. Mane-Mane, and O. Fruchart, "Real-time monitoring of growing nanoparticles," Science 300,1416-1419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryves, L.

T. W. H. Oates, L. Ryves, and M. M. M. Bilek, "Dynamic spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of nanostructural changes in plasmonic silver films,"  15, Opt. Express15987-15998 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ryves, M. M. M. Bilek, T. W. H. Oates, R. N. Tarrant, D. R. McKenzie, F. A. Burgmann, and D. G. McCulloch, "Synthesis and in-situ ellipsometric monitoring of Ti/C nanostructured multilayers using a high-current, dual source pulsed cathodic arc," Thin Solid Films 482,133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scheurer, F.

G. Renaud, R. Lazzari, C. Revenant, A. Barbier, M. Noblet, O. Ulrich, F. Leroy, J. Jupille, Y. Borensztein, C. R. Henry, J. Deville, F. Scheurer, J. Mane-Mane, and O. Fruchart, "Real-time monitoring of growing nanoparticles," Science 300,1416-1419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Smith, D. R.

W. J. Padilla, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, "Spectroscopy of metamaterials from infrared to optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 404-414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soennichsen, C.

C. Soennichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, and J. Feldmann, "Plasmon resonances in large noble-metal clusters," New J. Phys. 4,93.1-93.8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suh, J. Y.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, "Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 74,205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tarrant, R. N.

L. Ryves, M. M. M. Bilek, T. W. H. Oates, R. N. Tarrant, D. R. McKenzie, F. A. Burgmann, and D. G. McCulloch, "Synthesis and in-situ ellipsometric monitoring of Ti/C nanostructured multilayers using a high-current, dual source pulsed cathodic arc," Thin Solid Films 482,133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thoman, A.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, "Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 74,205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, O.

G. Renaud, R. Lazzari, C. Revenant, A. Barbier, M. Noblet, O. Ulrich, F. Leroy, J. Jupille, Y. Borensztein, C. R. Henry, J. Deville, F. Scheurer, J. Mane-Mane, and O. Fruchart, "Real-time monitoring of growing nanoparticles," Science 300,1416-1419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van de Sanden, M. C. M.

E. Langereis, S. B. S. Heil, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, "In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study on the growth of ultrathin TiN films by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 100,023534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Plessen, G.

C. Soennichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, and J. Feldmann, "Plasmon resonances in large noble-metal clusters," New J. Phys. 4,93.1-93.8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilk, T.

C. Soennichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, and J. Feldmann, "Plasmon resonances in large noble-metal clusters," New J. Phys. 4,93.1-93.8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Woormeester, H.

H. Woormeester, E. S. Kooij, and B. Poelsema, "Effective dielectric response of nanostructured layers," Phys. Stat. Sol. (in press).

Wormeester, H.

A. J. de Vries, E. S. Kooij, H. Wormeester, A. A. Mewe, and B. Poelsema, "Ellipsometric study of percolation in electroless deposited silver films," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, P. C.

P. C. Wu, T. Kim, A. S. Brown, M. Losurdo, G. Bruno, and H. O. Everitt, "Real-time plasmon resonance tuning of liquid Ga nanoparticles by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,103119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, S.

S. Yamaguchi, "The resonance type absorption of very thin silver and gold films," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 15,1577-1585 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Phys. (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, "Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen. I. Dielektrizitätskonstanten und Leitfähigkeiten der Mischkörper aus isotropen Substanzen," Ann. Phys. 24,636 (1935).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Anders, "Atomic scale heating in cathodic arc plasma deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,1100-1102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Byon, T. W. H. Oates, and A. Anders, "Coalescence of nanometer silver islands on oxides grown by filtered cathodic arc deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,1634 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Wu, T. Kim, A. S. Brown, M. Losurdo, G. Bruno, and H. O. Everitt, "Real-time plasmon resonance tuning of liquid Ga nanoparticles by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,103119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. App. Phys. (1)

T. W. H. Oates and M. M. M. Bilek, "Insulator surface charging and dissipation during plasma immersion ion implantation using a thin conductive surface film," J. App. Phys. 92,2980-2983 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

E. Langereis, S. B. S. Heil, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, "In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study on the growth of ultrathin TiN films by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 100,023534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. de Vries, E. S. Kooij, H. Wormeester, A. A. Mewe, and B. Poelsema, "Ellipsometric study of percolation in electroless deposited silver films," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc (1)

I. An and H. Oh, "Optical properties of thin silver films: Three-parameter spectroscopic ellipsometry studies," J. Korean Phys. Soc 29,370 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

S. Yamaguchi, "The resonance type absorption of very thin silver and gold films," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 15,1577-1585 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: a brief retrospective," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36,485-496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

T. W. H. Oates and A. Mücklich, "Evolution of plasmon resonances during plasma deposition of silver nanoparticles," Nanotechnology 16, 2606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. A.  Maier, P. G.  Kik, H. A.  Atwater, S.  Meltzer, E.  Harel, B. E.  Koel, and A. A. G.  Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater.  2, 229-232 (2003).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

ψ and Δ data as a function of time at 3 representative wavelengths. 399 wavelengths were collected in all.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Resistance as a function of the number of arc pulses for the deposition at room temperature (black squares) and 150°C (red circles).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Real (a,b) and imaginary (c,d) parts of the dielectric functions of the growing silver film for the room temperature deposition determined using (a,c) the inversion method and (b,d) the Lorentz oscillator method. e1 = 0 is shown as a black line.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Real (a,b) and imaginary (c,d) parts of the dielectric functions for the 150°C deposition determined using (a,c) the inversion method and (b,d) the Lorentz oscillator method. ε1=0 is shown as a black line.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Film thickness as a function of the number of plasma pulses determined from the ellipsometric data using the inversion method (black squares) and the Lorentzian fit (red circles). The upper curves correspond to the film deposited at 150°C and the lower curves at room temperature. Blue line.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Parameters from the Lorentz oscillator method fits to the room temperature (black squares) and 150°C (red circles) data. (a) MSE, (b) surface area coverage, Q.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Resistivity as a function of thickness for the room temperature deposition.

Equations (6)

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ε ~ ( ω ) = ε ω P 2 ω 2 + i Γ ω
ε eff ( ω ) = ε , MG + ω p , MG ω 0 , MG ω 2 i Γ ω
ε , MG = 1 + 3 Q ε ε ( 1 + Q ) + Q + 2
ω p , MG = 9 Q ω p 2 [ ε ( 1 + Q ) + Q + 2 ] 2
ω 0 , MG = ( 1 Q ) ω p 2 ε ( 1 + Q ) + Q + 2
M S E = 1 2 N M χ 2

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