Abstract
Temporal analysis of the irradiance at the detector plane is intended as the first step in the study of the mean fade time in a free optical communication system. In the present work this analysis has been performed for a Gaussian laser beam propagating in the atmospheric turbulence by means of computer simulation. To this end, we have adapted a previously known numerical method to the generation of long phase screens. The screens are displaced in a transverse direction as the wave is propagated, in order to simulate the wind effect. The amplitude of the temporal covariance and its power spectrum have been obtained at the optical axis, at the beam centroid and at a certain distance from these two points. Results have been worked out for weak, moderate and strong turbulence regimes and when possible they have been compared with theoretical models. These results show a significant contribution of beam wander to the temporal behaviour of the irradiance, even in the case of weak turbulence. We have also found that the spectral bandwidth of the covariance is hardly dependent on the Rytov variance.
© 2008 Optical Society of America
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References
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 Year
 
 Author
 
 Publication
 V.I. Tatarskii, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium, (McGrawHill, New York, 1961)
 R.S. Lawrence and J.W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clearair propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523–1545 (1970)
[Crossref] 
S.F. Clifford, “Temporalfrequency spectra for a spherical wave propagating through atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1285–1292 (1971)
[Crossref]  A. Ishimaru, “Fluctuations of a focused beam wave for atmospheric turbulence probing,” Proc. IEEE 57, 407–414 (1969)
[Crossref] 
J.D. Shelton, “Turbulenceinduced scintillation on Gaussianbeam waves: theoretical predictions and observations from a laserilluminated satellite,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2172–2181 (1995)
[Crossref]  L.C. Andrews and R.L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE Press, Washington, 2005)
[Crossref]  H.R. Anderson, Fixed Broadband Wireless. System Design, (Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, England, 2003)
[Crossref]  X. Zhu and J.M. Kahn, “Markov chain model in maximumlikelihood sequence detection for freespace optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 509–516 (2003)
[Crossref]  X. Zhu, J.M. Kahn, and J. Wang, “Mitigation of turbulenceinduced scintillation noise in freespace optical links using temporaldomain detection techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 623–625 (2003)
[Crossref]  B. Hamzeh and M. Kavehrad, “OCDMAcoded freespace optical links for wireless opticalmesh networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 2165–2174 (2004)
[Crossref] 
F. Dios, J.A. Rubio, A. Rodriguez, and A. Comeron, “Scintillation and beamwander analysis in an optical ground stationsatellite uplink,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3866–3873 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]  G.J. Baker and R.S. Benson, “Gaussian beam scintillation on ground to space paths: the importance of beam wander,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 225–235 (2004)
[Crossref]  G.J. Baker and R.S. Benson, “Gaussianbeam weak scintillation on groundtospace paths: compact descriptions and Rytovmethod applicability,” Opt. Eng. 44, 106002 1–10 (2005)
[Crossref]  L.C. Andrews, R.L. Phillips, R.J. Sasiela, and R.R. Parenti, “Strehl ratio and scintillation theory for uplink Gaussianbeam waves: beam wander effects,” Opt. Eng. 45, 076001 1–12 (2006)
[Crossref]  C. Macaskill and T.E. Ewart, “Computer simulation of twodimensional random wave propagation”, IMA J. Appl. Math. 33, 1–15 (1984)
[Crossref]  R.G. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J.C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992)
[Crossref] 
R. Frehlich, “Simulation of laser propagation in a turbulent atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 39, 393–397 (2000)
[Crossref] 
C.M. Harding, R.A. Johnston, and R.G. Lane, “Fast simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2161–2170 (1999)
[Crossref] 
F. Assémat, R.W. Wilson, and E. Gendron, “Method for simulating infinitely long and non stationary phase screens with optimized memory storage,” Opt. Express 14, 988–999 (2006)
[Crossref] [PubMed]  A. Comeron, F. Dios, A. Rodriguez, and J.A. Rubio, Artemis Laser Link for Atmospheric Turbulence Statistics, WP 1300 report, ESA AO/13930/01/NL/CK (European Space Agency, 2002)

H.T. Yura and W.G. McKinley, “Optical scintillation statistics for IR groundtospace laser communication systems,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3353–3358 (1983)
[Crossref] [PubMed]  L.C. Andrews, M.A. AlHabash, C.Y. Hopen, and R.L. Phillips, “Theory of optical scintillation: Gaussianbeam wave model,” Waves Random Media 11, 271–291 (2001)
[Crossref]  V. P Lukin, “Investigation of the anisotropy of the atmospheric turbulence spectrum in the lowfrequency range,” Proc. SPIE 2471, 347–355, 1995.
[Crossref] 
A. Ziad, M. Schöck, G.A. Chanan, M. Troy, R. Dekany, B.F. Lane, J. Borgnino, and F. Martin, “Comparison of measurements of the outer scale of turbulence by three different techniques,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2316–2324 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]  J. Recolons and F. Dios, “Accurate calculation of phase screens for the modelling of laser beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 51–62 (2005).
2006 (2)
L.C. Andrews, R.L. Phillips, R.J. Sasiela, and R.R. Parenti, “Strehl ratio and scintillation theory for uplink Gaussianbeam waves: beam wander effects,” Opt. Eng. 45, 076001 1–12 (2006)
[Crossref]
F. Assémat, R.W. Wilson, and E. Gendron, “Method for simulating infinitely long and non stationary phase screens with optimized memory storage,” Opt. Express 14, 988–999 (2006)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
2005 (2)
G.J. Baker and R.S. Benson, “Gaussianbeam weak scintillation on groundtospace paths: compact descriptions and Rytovmethod applicability,” Opt. Eng. 44, 106002 1–10 (2005)
[Crossref]
J. Recolons and F. Dios, “Accurate calculation of phase screens for the modelling of laser beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 51–62 (2005).
2004 (4)
A. Ziad, M. Schöck, G.A. Chanan, M. Troy, R. Dekany, B.F. Lane, J. Borgnino, and F. Martin, “Comparison of measurements of the outer scale of turbulence by three different techniques,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2316–2324 (2004)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
B. Hamzeh and M. Kavehrad, “OCDMAcoded freespace optical links for wireless opticalmesh networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 2165–2174 (2004)
[Crossref]
F. Dios, J.A. Rubio, A. Rodriguez, and A. Comeron, “Scintillation and beamwander analysis in an optical ground stationsatellite uplink,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3866–3873 (2004)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
G.J. Baker and R.S. Benson, “Gaussian beam scintillation on ground to space paths: the importance of beam wander,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 225–235 (2004)
[Crossref]
2003 (2)
X. Zhu and J.M. Kahn, “Markov chain model in maximumlikelihood sequence detection for freespace optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 509–516 (2003)
[Crossref]
X. Zhu, J.M. Kahn, and J. Wang, “Mitigation of turbulenceinduced scintillation noise in freespace optical links using temporaldomain detection techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 623–625 (2003)
[Crossref]
2001 (1)
L.C. Andrews, M.A. AlHabash, C.Y. Hopen, and R.L. Phillips, “Theory of optical scintillation: Gaussianbeam wave model,” Waves Random Media 11, 271–291 (2001)
[Crossref]
2000 (1)
R. Frehlich, “Simulation of laser propagation in a turbulent atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 39, 393–397 (2000)
[Crossref]
1999 (1)
C.M. Harding, R.A. Johnston, and R.G. Lane, “Fast simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2161–2170 (1999)
[Crossref]
1995 (2)
J.D. Shelton, “Turbulenceinduced scintillation on Gaussianbeam waves: theoretical predictions and observations from a laserilluminated satellite,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2172–2181 (1995)
[Crossref]
V. P Lukin, “Investigation of the anisotropy of the atmospheric turbulence spectrum in the lowfrequency range,” Proc. SPIE 2471, 347–355, 1995.
[Crossref]
1992 (1)
R.G. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J.C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992)
[Crossref]
1984 (1)
C. Macaskill and T.E. Ewart, “Computer simulation of twodimensional random wave propagation”, IMA J. Appl. Math. 33, 1–15 (1984)
[Crossref]
1983 (1)
H.T. Yura and W.G. McKinley, “Optical scintillation statistics for IR groundtospace laser communication systems,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3353–3358 (1983)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
1971 (1)
S.F. Clifford, “Temporalfrequency spectra for a spherical wave propagating through atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1285–1292 (1971)
[Crossref]
1970 (1)
R.S. Lawrence and J.W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clearair propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523–1545 (1970)
[Crossref]
1969 (1)
A. Ishimaru, “Fluctuations of a focused beam wave for atmospheric turbulence probing,” Proc. IEEE 57, 407–414 (1969)
[Crossref]
AlHabash, M.A.
L.C. Andrews, M.A. AlHabash, C.Y. Hopen, and R.L. Phillips, “Theory of optical scintillation: Gaussianbeam wave model,” Waves Random Media 11, 271–291 (2001)
[Crossref]
Anderson, H.R.
H.R. Anderson, Fixed Broadband Wireless. System Design, (Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, England, 2003)
[Crossref]
Andrews, L.C.
L.C. Andrews, R.L. Phillips, R.J. Sasiela, and R.R. Parenti, “Strehl ratio and scintillation theory for uplink Gaussianbeam waves: beam wander effects,” Opt. Eng. 45, 076001 1–12 (2006)
[Crossref]
L.C. Andrews, M.A. AlHabash, C.Y. Hopen, and R.L. Phillips, “Theory of optical scintillation: Gaussianbeam wave model,” Waves Random Media 11, 271–291 (2001)
[Crossref]
L.C. Andrews and R.L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE Press, Washington, 2005)
[Crossref]
Assémat, F.
F. Assémat, R.W. Wilson, and E. Gendron, “Method for simulating infinitely long and non stationary phase screens with optimized memory storage,” Opt. Express 14, 988–999 (2006)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Baker, G.J.
G.J. Baker and R.S. Benson, “Gaussianbeam weak scintillation on groundtospace paths: compact descriptions and Rytovmethod applicability,” Opt. Eng. 44, 106002 1–10 (2005)
[Crossref]
G.J. Baker and R.S. Benson, “Gaussian beam scintillation on ground to space paths: the importance of beam wander,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 225–235 (2004)
[Crossref]
Benson, R.S.
G.J. Baker and R.S. Benson, “Gaussianbeam weak scintillation on groundtospace paths: compact descriptions and Rytovmethod applicability,” Opt. Eng. 44, 106002 1–10 (2005)
[Crossref]
G.J. Baker and R.S. Benson, “Gaussian beam scintillation on ground to space paths: the importance of beam wander,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 225–235 (2004)
[Crossref]
Borgnino, J.
A. Ziad, M. Schöck, G.A. Chanan, M. Troy, R. Dekany, B.F. Lane, J. Borgnino, and F. Martin, “Comparison of measurements of the outer scale of turbulence by three different techniques,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2316–2324 (2004)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Chanan, G.A.
A. Ziad, M. Schöck, G.A. Chanan, M. Troy, R. Dekany, B.F. Lane, J. Borgnino, and F. Martin, “Comparison of measurements of the outer scale of turbulence by three different techniques,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2316–2324 (2004)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Clifford, S.F.
S.F. Clifford, “Temporalfrequency spectra for a spherical wave propagating through atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1285–1292 (1971)
[Crossref]
Comeron, A.
F. Dios, J.A. Rubio, A. Rodriguez, and A. Comeron, “Scintillation and beamwander analysis in an optical ground stationsatellite uplink,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3866–3873 (2004)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
A. Comeron, F. Dios, A. Rodriguez, and J.A. Rubio, Artemis Laser Link for Atmospheric Turbulence Statistics, WP 1300 report, ESA AO/13930/01/NL/CK (European Space Agency, 2002)
Dainty, J.C.
R.G. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J.C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992)
[Crossref]
Dekany, R.
A. Ziad, M. Schöck, G.A. Chanan, M. Troy, R. Dekany, B.F. Lane, J. Borgnino, and F. Martin, “Comparison of measurements of the outer scale of turbulence by three different techniques,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2316–2324 (2004)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Dios, F.
J. Recolons and F. Dios, “Accurate calculation of phase screens for the modelling of laser beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 51–62 (2005).
F. Dios, J.A. Rubio, A. Rodriguez, and A. Comeron, “Scintillation and beamwander analysis in an optical ground stationsatellite uplink,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3866–3873 (2004)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
A. Comeron, F. Dios, A. Rodriguez, and J.A. Rubio, Artemis Laser Link for Atmospheric Turbulence Statistics, WP 1300 report, ESA AO/13930/01/NL/CK (European Space Agency, 2002)
Ewart, T.E.
C. Macaskill and T.E. Ewart, “Computer simulation of twodimensional random wave propagation”, IMA J. Appl. Math. 33, 1–15 (1984)
[Crossref]
Frehlich, R.
R. Frehlich, “Simulation of laser propagation in a turbulent atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 39, 393–397 (2000)
[Crossref]
Gendron, E.
F. Assémat, R.W. Wilson, and E. Gendron, “Method for simulating infinitely long and non stationary phase screens with optimized memory storage,” Opt. Express 14, 988–999 (2006)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Glindemann, A.
R.G. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J.C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992)
[Crossref]
Hamzeh, B.
B. Hamzeh and M. Kavehrad, “OCDMAcoded freespace optical links for wireless opticalmesh networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 2165–2174 (2004)
[Crossref]
Harding, C.M.
C.M. Harding, R.A. Johnston, and R.G. Lane, “Fast simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2161–2170 (1999)
[Crossref]
Hopen, C.Y.
L.C. Andrews, M.A. AlHabash, C.Y. Hopen, and R.L. Phillips, “Theory of optical scintillation: Gaussianbeam wave model,” Waves Random Media 11, 271–291 (2001)
[Crossref]
Ishimaru, A.
A. Ishimaru, “Fluctuations of a focused beam wave for atmospheric turbulence probing,” Proc. IEEE 57, 407–414 (1969)
[Crossref]
Johnston, R.A.
C.M. Harding, R.A. Johnston, and R.G. Lane, “Fast simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2161–2170 (1999)
[Crossref]
Kahn, J.M.
X. Zhu and J.M. Kahn, “Markov chain model in maximumlikelihood sequence detection for freespace optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 509–516 (2003)
[Crossref]
X. Zhu, J.M. Kahn, and J. Wang, “Mitigation of turbulenceinduced scintillation noise in freespace optical links using temporaldomain detection techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 623–625 (2003)
[Crossref]
Kavehrad, M.
B. Hamzeh and M. Kavehrad, “OCDMAcoded freespace optical links for wireless opticalmesh networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 2165–2174 (2004)
[Crossref]
Lane, B.F.
A. Ziad, M. Schöck, G.A. Chanan, M. Troy, R. Dekany, B.F. Lane, J. Borgnino, and F. Martin, “Comparison of measurements of the outer scale of turbulence by three different techniques,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2316–2324 (2004)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Lane, R.G.
C.M. Harding, R.A. Johnston, and R.G. Lane, “Fast simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2161–2170 (1999)
[Crossref]
R.G. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J.C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992)
[Crossref]
Lawrence, R.S.
R.S. Lawrence and J.W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clearair propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523–1545 (1970)
[Crossref]
Lukin, V. P
V. P Lukin, “Investigation of the anisotropy of the atmospheric turbulence spectrum in the lowfrequency range,” Proc. SPIE 2471, 347–355, 1995.
[Crossref]
Macaskill, C.
C. Macaskill and T.E. Ewart, “Computer simulation of twodimensional random wave propagation”, IMA J. Appl. Math. 33, 1–15 (1984)
[Crossref]
Martin, F.
A. Ziad, M. Schöck, G.A. Chanan, M. Troy, R. Dekany, B.F. Lane, J. Borgnino, and F. Martin, “Comparison of measurements of the outer scale of turbulence by three different techniques,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2316–2324 (2004)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
McKinley, W.G.
H.T. Yura and W.G. McKinley, “Optical scintillation statistics for IR groundtospace laser communication systems,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3353–3358 (1983)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Parenti, R.R.
L.C. Andrews, R.L. Phillips, R.J. Sasiela, and R.R. Parenti, “Strehl ratio and scintillation theory for uplink Gaussianbeam waves: beam wander effects,” Opt. Eng. 45, 076001 1–12 (2006)
[Crossref]
Phillips, R.L.
L.C. Andrews, R.L. Phillips, R.J. Sasiela, and R.R. Parenti, “Strehl ratio and scintillation theory for uplink Gaussianbeam waves: beam wander effects,” Opt. Eng. 45, 076001 1–12 (2006)
[Crossref]
L.C. Andrews, M.A. AlHabash, C.Y. Hopen, and R.L. Phillips, “Theory of optical scintillation: Gaussianbeam wave model,” Waves Random Media 11, 271–291 (2001)
[Crossref]
L.C. Andrews and R.L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE Press, Washington, 2005)
[Crossref]
Recolons, J.
J. Recolons and F. Dios, “Accurate calculation of phase screens for the modelling of laser beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 51–62 (2005).
Rodriguez, A.
F. Dios, J.A. Rubio, A. Rodriguez, and A. Comeron, “Scintillation and beamwander analysis in an optical ground stationsatellite uplink,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3866–3873 (2004)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
A. Comeron, F. Dios, A. Rodriguez, and J.A. Rubio, Artemis Laser Link for Atmospheric Turbulence Statistics, WP 1300 report, ESA AO/13930/01/NL/CK (European Space Agency, 2002)
Rubio, J.A.
F. Dios, J.A. Rubio, A. Rodriguez, and A. Comeron, “Scintillation and beamwander analysis in an optical ground stationsatellite uplink,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3866–3873 (2004)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
A. Comeron, F. Dios, A. Rodriguez, and J.A. Rubio, Artemis Laser Link for Atmospheric Turbulence Statistics, WP 1300 report, ESA AO/13930/01/NL/CK (European Space Agency, 2002)
Sasiela, R.J.
L.C. Andrews, R.L. Phillips, R.J. Sasiela, and R.R. Parenti, “Strehl ratio and scintillation theory for uplink Gaussianbeam waves: beam wander effects,” Opt. Eng. 45, 076001 1–12 (2006)
[Crossref]
Schöck, M.
A. Ziad, M. Schöck, G.A. Chanan, M. Troy, R. Dekany, B.F. Lane, J. Borgnino, and F. Martin, “Comparison of measurements of the outer scale of turbulence by three different techniques,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2316–2324 (2004)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Shelton, J.D.
J.D. Shelton, “Turbulenceinduced scintillation on Gaussianbeam waves: theoretical predictions and observations from a laserilluminated satellite,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2172–2181 (1995)
[Crossref]
Strohbehn, J.W.
R.S. Lawrence and J.W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clearair propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523–1545 (1970)
[Crossref]
Tatarskii, V.I.
V.I. Tatarskii, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium, (McGrawHill, New York, 1961)
Troy, M.
A. Ziad, M. Schöck, G.A. Chanan, M. Troy, R. Dekany, B.F. Lane, J. Borgnino, and F. Martin, “Comparison of measurements of the outer scale of turbulence by three different techniques,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2316–2324 (2004)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Wang, J.
X. Zhu, J.M. Kahn, and J. Wang, “Mitigation of turbulenceinduced scintillation noise in freespace optical links using temporaldomain detection techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 623–625 (2003)
[Crossref]
Wilson, R.W.
F. Assémat, R.W. Wilson, and E. Gendron, “Method for simulating infinitely long and non stationary phase screens with optimized memory storage,” Opt. Express 14, 988–999 (2006)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Yura, H.T.
H.T. Yura and W.G. McKinley, “Optical scintillation statistics for IR groundtospace laser communication systems,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3353–3358 (1983)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Zhu, X.
X. Zhu, J.M. Kahn, and J. Wang, “Mitigation of turbulenceinduced scintillation noise in freespace optical links using temporaldomain detection techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 623–625 (2003)
[Crossref]
X. Zhu and J.M. Kahn, “Markov chain model in maximumlikelihood sequence detection for freespace optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 509–516 (2003)
[Crossref]
Ziad, A.
Appl. Opt. (5)
F. Dios, J.A. Rubio, A. Rodriguez, and A. Comeron, “Scintillation and beamwander analysis in an optical ground stationsatellite uplink,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3866–3873 (2004)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
R. Frehlich, “Simulation of laser propagation in a turbulent atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 39, 393–397 (2000)
[Crossref]
C.M. Harding, R.A. Johnston, and R.G. Lane, “Fast simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2161–2170 (1999)
[Crossref]
H.T. Yura and W.G. McKinley, “Optical scintillation statistics for IR groundtospace laser communication systems,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3353–3358 (1983)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
A. Ziad, M. Schöck, G.A. Chanan, M. Troy, R. Dekany, B.F. Lane, J. Borgnino, and F. Martin, “Comparison of measurements of the outer scale of turbulence by three different techniques,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2316–2324 (2004)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)
X. Zhu, J.M. Kahn, and J. Wang, “Mitigation of turbulenceinduced scintillation noise in freespace optical links using temporaldomain detection techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 623–625 (2003)
[Crossref]
IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)
B. Hamzeh and M. Kavehrad, “OCDMAcoded freespace optical links for wireless opticalmesh networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 2165–2174 (2004)
[Crossref]
X. Zhu and J.M. Kahn, “Markov chain model in maximumlikelihood sequence detection for freespace optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 509–516 (2003)
[Crossref]
IMA J. Appl. Math. (1)
C. Macaskill and T.E. Ewart, “Computer simulation of twodimensional random wave propagation”, IMA J. Appl. Math. 33, 1–15 (1984)
[Crossref]
J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)
S.F. Clifford, “Temporalfrequency spectra for a spherical wave propagating through atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1285–1292 (1971)
[Crossref]
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)
J.D. Shelton, “Turbulenceinduced scintillation on Gaussianbeam waves: theoretical predictions and observations from a laserilluminated satellite,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2172–2181 (1995)
[Crossref]
Opt. Eng. (2)
G.J. Baker and R.S. Benson, “Gaussianbeam weak scintillation on groundtospace paths: compact descriptions and Rytovmethod applicability,” Opt. Eng. 44, 106002 1–10 (2005)
[Crossref]
L.C. Andrews, R.L. Phillips, R.J. Sasiela, and R.R. Parenti, “Strehl ratio and scintillation theory for uplink Gaussianbeam waves: beam wander effects,” Opt. Eng. 45, 076001 1–12 (2006)
[Crossref]
Opt. Express (1)
F. Assémat, R.W. Wilson, and E. Gendron, “Method for simulating infinitely long and non stationary phase screens with optimized memory storage,” Opt. Express 14, 988–999 (2006)
[Crossref]
[PubMed]
Proc. IEEE (2)
A. Ishimaru, “Fluctuations of a focused beam wave for atmospheric turbulence probing,” Proc. IEEE 57, 407–414 (1969)
[Crossref]
R.S. Lawrence and J.W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clearair propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523–1545 (1970)
[Crossref]
Proc. SPIE (3)
G.J. Baker and R.S. Benson, “Gaussian beam scintillation on ground to space paths: the importance of beam wander,” Proc. SPIE 5550, 225–235 (2004)
[Crossref]
V. P Lukin, “Investigation of the anisotropy of the atmospheric turbulence spectrum in the lowfrequency range,” Proc. SPIE 2471, 347–355, 1995.
[Crossref]
J. Recolons and F. Dios, “Accurate calculation of phase screens for the modelling of laser beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 5891, 51–62 (2005).
Waves Random Media (2)
R.G. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J.C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992)
[Crossref]
L.C. Andrews, M.A. AlHabash, C.Y. Hopen, and R.L. Phillips, “Theory of optical scintillation: Gaussianbeam wave model,” Waves Random Media 11, 271–291 (2001)
[Crossref]
Other (4)
A. Comeron, F. Dios, A. Rodriguez, and J.A. Rubio, Artemis Laser Link for Atmospheric Turbulence Statistics, WP 1300 report, ESA AO/13930/01/NL/CK (European Space Agency, 2002)
V.I. Tatarskii, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium, (McGrawHill, New York, 1961)
L.C. Andrews and R.L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE Press, Washington, 2005)
[Crossref]
H.R. Anderson, Fixed Broadband Wireless. System Design, (Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, England, 2003)
[Crossref]
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Figures (12)
Progressive loss of the Gaussian shape in the long term analysis of a laser beam propagating in the atmosphere. This effect is negligible under weak turbulence conditions (C^{2}
_{n}=10^{16} m^{2/3}). The deviation of the field profile from the Gaussian shape increases with the accumulated turbulence along the beam path. Dashed black lines have been obtained by using Eq. (6), dotdashed blue lines have been obtained by using Eq. (7), and red solid lines have been obtained by using Eq. (8). The grid parameters correspond to an effective inner scale value
Simulated average field profile (blue lines) obtained at a distance of 5000 m from the transmitter, for the same values of the turbulence strength as in the previous figure. Red and magenta lines represent the theoretical Gaussian shape for each case. The numerical results again match well with the theoretical Gaussian profile for a structure constant
From the exact lowresolution phasescreen (above in the figure) a certain number of columns is taken to create a smaller highresolution screen (below).
Generation of the highresolution screen by interpolating the lowresolution positions (black stars). The red points on the right cannot be properly calculated. The blue ones are correct and they will have to be taken into account when interpolating the next block to ensure continuity (below).
Example of two different phase screens interpolated from the same lowresolution grid. The leftmost section is identical in both screens. The figure shows two possible continuations in the middle and right sections, which have been generated independently.
Structure function
(a) Temporal irradiance covariance and (b) spectral power density of the irradiance at the reception plane obtained at a propagation distance
(a) Temporal covariance and (b) spectral power density of the irradiance in the same case as Fig. 7 but for points situated at a distance
(a) Temporal covariance and (b) power spectrum of the irradiance at the reception plane, after a propagation distance
Irradiance spectral power density curves obtained for the case of moderate turbulence, at points located at a WLT/2 distance, both from the optical axis and from the beam centroid.
(a) Irradiance spectral power density obtained at the theoretical center of the beam and at the centroid in the case of strong turbulence. Gray and green curves correspond to the moderate turbulence case. (b)
(a) Temporal covariance and (b) power spectrum of the irradiance for a plane wave, simulated by a superGaussian beam, in regime of strong turbulence. The difference between the behaviour at the center (
Tables (1)
Table 1: Several radius definitions for a Gaussian beam as a function of the power fraction encompassed by circle centered at the peak of irradiance
Equations (12)
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