It is possible for core leaky mode to couple with cladding defect leaky mode when the cladding defect is close to fiber core. Dispersion properties and propagation loss of core mode will be affected in some extent once the coupling occurs. But a complete coupling between two leaky modes not always happens even the phase matching condition is satisfied. Leaky mode coupling in photonic crystal fiber with a hybrid cladding which includes low-index and high-index inclusions at the same time is numerically investigated based on a full vector finite element method. It is found that not only phase matching but also loss matching plays an important role in leaky mode coupling. The originally intersecting dispersion curves for the two leaky modes will split and become another two new curves due to the anti-crossing effect when both the real and imaginary parts of their mode effective refractive indices are equal. There is not splitting but some perturbation in dispersion curves for the two phase matching leaky modes when their losses are not equal. A theoretic explanation is also given to these phenomena.
© 2008 Optical Society of AmericaFull Article | PDF Article