Abstract

The limiting effects of varying the thickness of a dielectric overlayer on planar double split-ring resonator (SRR) arrays are studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Uniform dielectric overlayers from 100 nm to 16 µm thick are deposited onto fixed SRR arrays in order to shift the resonance frequency of the electric response. We discuss the bounds of resonance shifting and emphasize the resulting limitations for SRR-based sensing. These results are presented in the context of typical biosensing situations and are compared to previous work and other existing sensing platforms.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, E. Smirnova, and J. F. O’Hara, "Characterization and analysis of terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular split-ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Opt. Lett. 32, 1620-1622 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, Y. Chen, H. Zhao, G. J. Bastiaans, and X.-C. Zhang, "Absorption coefficients of selected explosives and related compounds in the range of 0.1-2.8 THz," Opt. Express 19, 12060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, "Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Debus and P. Haring Bolivar, "Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, "Effects of microstructure variations on macroscopic terahertz metafilm properties," Active and Passive Electronic Components 2007, 49691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Cooper, Drug Discovery Today 11, 1061 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Azad, J. Dai, and W. Zhang, "Transmission properties of terahertz pulses through subwavelength double split-ring resonators," Opt. Lett. 31, 634 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, and H. Helm,  et al., "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA," Opt. Express 13, 5205-5215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kafesaki, Th. Koschny, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Left-handed metamaterials: detailed numerical studies of the transmission properties," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martın, R. Marques Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcıa-Garcıa, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, "Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 1451 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, M. Pepper, and M. Kemp, "Terahertz frequency sensing and imaging: A time of reckoning future applications?," Proc. IEEE 931722-1743 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, "Temperature-dependent farinfrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 3501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, A. W. M. Lee, and M. A. Cells, "Optical attenuation signatures of Bacillus subtillis in the THz region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3438-3440 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, "Waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of nanometer water layers," Opt. Lett. 29, 1617 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

M. Nagel, F. Richter, P. Haring-Bolıvar, and H. Kurz, "A functionalized THz sensor for marker-free DNA analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3625 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baras, T. Kleine-Ostmann, and M. Koch, "On-chip THz detection of biomaterials: a numerical study," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, "Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3807-3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Markelz, S. Whitmire, and J. Hillebrecht,  et al., "THz time domain spectroscopy of biomolecular conformational modes," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3797-3805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nagel, P. Haring-Bolıvar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Buttner, "Integrated planar terahertz resonators for femtomolar sensitivity label-free detection of DNA hybridization," Appl. Opt. 41, 2074 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring-Bolıvar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Buttner, "Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. U. Lee, L. A. Chrisey, E. E. O’Ferrall, D. E. Pilloff, N. H. Turner, and R. J. Colton, Israel J. Chem. 36, 81-87 (1996).

1990 (1)

1978 (1)

J. A. Defeijter, J. Benjamins, and F. A. Veer, "Ellipsometry as a tool to study adsorption behavior of synthetic and biopolymers at air-water-interface," Biopolymers 17, 1759-1772 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Active and Passive Electronic Components (1)

J. F. O’Hara, E. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and A. J. Taylor, "Effects of microstructure variations on macroscopic terahertz metafilm properties," Active and Passive Electronic Components 2007, 49691 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, E. Smirnova, and J. F. O’Hara, "Characterization and analysis of terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular split-ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring-Bolıvar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Buttner, "Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, "Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Debus and P. Haring Bolivar, "Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, A. W. M. Lee, and M. A. Cells, "Optical attenuation signatures of Bacillus subtillis in the THz region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3438-3440 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biopolymers (1)

J. A. Defeijter, J. Benjamins, and F. A. Veer, "Ellipsometry as a tool to study adsorption behavior of synthetic and biopolymers at air-water-interface," Biopolymers 17, 1759-1772 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Drug Discovery Today (1)

M. A. Cooper, Drug Discovery Today 11, 1061 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (3)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martın, R. Marques Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcıa-Garcıa, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, "Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 1451 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Israel J. Chem. (1)

G. U. Lee, L. A. Chrisey, E. E. O’Ferrall, D. E. Pilloff, N. H. Turner, and R. J. Colton, Israel J. Chem. 36, 81-87 (1996).

J. Biol. Phys. (1)

T. Baras, T. Kleine-Ostmann, and M. Koch, "On-chip THz detection of biomaterials: a numerical study," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M. Kafesaki, Th. Koschny, R. S. Penciu, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Left-handed metamaterials: detailed numerical studies of the transmission properties," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, "Temperature-dependent farinfrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 3501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

J. Chen, Y. Chen, H. Zhao, G. J. Bastiaans, and X.-C. Zhang, "Absorption coefficients of selected explosives and related compounds in the range of 0.1-2.8 THz," Opt. Express 19, 12060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, and H. Helm,  et al., "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA," Opt. Express 13, 5205-5215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

A. Markelz, S. Whitmire, and J. Hillebrecht,  et al., "THz time domain spectroscopy of biomolecular conformational modes," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3797-3805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, "Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3807-3814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nagel, F. Richter, P. Haring-Bolıvar, and H. Kurz, "A functionalized THz sensor for marker-free DNA analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3625 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, M. Pepper, and M. Kemp, "Terahertz frequency sensing and imaging: A time of reckoning future applications?," Proc. IEEE 931722-1743 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. K. Tiang, J. Cunningham, C. Wood, I. C. Hunter, and A. G. Davies, "Electromagnetic simulation of terahertz frequency range filters for genetic sensing," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 066105-1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

SRU Biosystems, Inc., www.srubiosystems.com.

Biacore Life Sciences, www.biacore.com.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Frequency-dependent amplitude transmission of a double SRR metamaterial without (solid curves) and with (dotted curves) a 16 µm thick photoresist overlayer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) LC (ωLC ) and (b) electric dipole (ωd ) resonance frequencies as a function of overlayer thickness. Measured and simulated results are represented by open and closed circles respectively, with dotted curves as a guide to the eye. The insets show the measured amplitude transmission around the LC and dipole resonances for various overlayer thicknesses.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured amplitude transmission at (a) LC and (b) dipole resonances of a double SRR metamaterial with a B2O3 nano-overlayer film.

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