Abstract

Endoscopic imaging below tissue surfaces and through turbid media may provide improved diagnostic capabilities and visibility in surgical settings. Spectrally encoded endoscopy (SEE) is a recently developed method that utilizes a single optical fiber, miniature optics and a diffractive grating for high-speed imaging through small diameter, flexible endoscopic probes. SEE has also been shown to provide three-dimensional topological imaging capabilities. In this paper, we have configured SEE to additionally image beneath tissue surfaces, by increasing the system’s sensitivity and acquiring the complex spectral density for each spectrally resolved point on the sample. In order to demonstrate the capability of SEE to obtain subsurface information, we have utilized the system to image a resolution target through intralipid solution, and conduct volumetric imaging of a mouse embryo and excised human middle-ear ossicles. Our results demonstrate that real-time subsurface imaging is possible with this miniature endoscopy technique.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2006 (3)

J. T. Oh, and B. M. Kim, "Artifact removal in complex frequency domain optical coherence tomography with an iterative least-squares phase-shifting algorithm," Appl. Opt. 45, 4157-4164 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).

Q2. D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy," Nature 443, 765-765 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

M. A. D'Hallewin, S. El Khatib, A. Leroux, L. Bezdetnaya, and F. Guillemin, "Endoscopic confocal fluorescence microscopy of normal and tumor bearing rat bladder," J. Urol. 174, 736-740 (2005).

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Yelin, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional imaging using spectral encoding heterodyne interferometry," Opt. Lett. 30, 1794-1796 (2005).

2003 (2)

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

E. Montgomery, M. P. Bronner, J. R. Goldblum, J. K. Greenson, M. M. Haber, J. Hart, L. W. Lamps, G. Y. Lauwers, A. J. Lazenby, D. N. Lewin, M. E. Robert, A. Y. Toledano, Y. Shyr, and K. Washington, "Reproducibility of the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett esophagus: A reaffirmation," Hum. Pathol. 32, 368-378 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. Klug, B. Fabinyi, and M. Tschabitscher, "Endoscopy of the middle ear through the Eustachian tube: Anatomic possibilities and limitations," Am. J. Otol. 20, 299-303 (1999).

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Otol. (1)

C. Klug, B. Fabinyi, and M. Tschabitscher, "Endoscopy of the middle ear through the Eustachian tube: Anatomic possibilities and limitations," Am. J. Otol. 20, 299-303 (1999).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract," Gastrointest. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Human Pathology (1)

E. Montgomery, M. P. Bronner, J. R. Goldblum, J. K. Greenson, M. M. Haber, J. Hart, L. W. Lamps, G. Y. Lauwers, A. J. Lazenby, D. N. Lewin, M. E. Robert, A. Y. Toledano, Y. Shyr, and K. Washington, "Reproducibility of the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett esophagus: A reaffirmation," Hum. Pathol. 32, 368-378 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Urol. (1)

M. A. D'Hallewin, S. El Khatib, A. Leroux, L. Bezdetnaya, and F. Guillemin, "Endoscopic confocal fluorescence microscopy of normal and tumor bearing rat bladder," J. Urol. 174, 736-740 (2005).

Nat. Med. (1)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).

Nature (1)

Q2. D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy," Nature 443, 765-765 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

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