Abstract

The description of ultrashort laser pulse filamentation in condensed media as a spontaneous formation of X waves is shown to apply also to filaments generated in air. Within this framework, a simple explanation is brought for several features of the filament such as the subdiffractive propagation and the energy flux from the weakly localized tails of the X-waves to the intense core.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Selfcompression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Tzortzakis, M.A. Franco, Y.B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B.S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3505–3508 (1999)
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, M. Kolesik, J.V. Moloney, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Spatio-temporal reshaping and X Wave dynamics in optical filaments,” Opt. Express 15, 13079–13095 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, “Postionization regimes of femtosecond laser pulses self-channeling in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 046604 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejèan, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213–215 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Kolesik and J.V. Moloney, “Self-healing femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett. 29, 590–592 (2004)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V.T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98235002 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Eisenmann, A. Pukhov, and A. Zigler, “Fine Structure of a Laser-Plasma Filament in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 155002 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, M. Kolesik, J.V. Moloney, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Spatio-temporal reshaping and X Wave dynamics in optical filaments,” Opt. Express 15, 13079–13095 (2007)
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M.A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical Emission, Pulse Splitting, and X-Wave Parametric Amplification in Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. lett. 97, 023904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Selfcompression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaižauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 72037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 862–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Interpretation of the spectrally resolved far field of femtosecond pulses propagating in bulk nonlinear dispersive media,” Opt. Express 13, 10729–10741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, “Postionization regimes of femtosecond laser pulses self-channeling in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 046604 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. Kolesik and J.V. Moloney, “Self-healing femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett. 29, 590–592 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic Nonlinear X Waves for Femtosecond Pulse Propagation in Water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejèan, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213–215 (2003)
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J.V. Moloney, and E.M. Wright, “Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, “Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001)
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Tzortzakis, M.A. Franco, Y.B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B.S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3505–3508 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

X.M. Zhao and J.C. Diels, “Femtosecond pulses to divert lightning,” Laser Focus World 29, 113–123 (1993)

1972 (1)

Aközbek, N.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. lett. 97, 023904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

André, Y.B.

S. Tzortzakis, M.A. Franco, Y.B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B.S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3505–3508 (1999)
[CrossRef]

André, Y.-B.

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Averchi, A.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, M. Kolesik, J.V. Moloney, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Spatio-temporal reshaping and X Wave dynamics in optical filaments,” Opt. Express 15, 13079–13095 (2007)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M.A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. lett. 97, 023904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergé, L.

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, “Postionization regimes of femtosecond laser pulses self-channeling in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 046604 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Selfcompression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boutou, V.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejèan, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213–215 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Bragheri, F.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M.A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical Emission, Pulse Splitting, and X-Wave Parametric Amplification in Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 862–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bramati, A.

Braun, A.

Champeaux, S.

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, “Postionization regimes of femtosecond laser pulses self-channeling in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 046604 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Chien, C.-Y.

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. lett. 97, 023904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiron, A.

S. Tzortzakis, M.A. Franco, Y.B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B.S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3505–3508 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Comtois, D.

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V.T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98235002 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, M. Kolesik, J.V. Moloney, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Spatio-temporal reshaping and X Wave dynamics in optical filaments,” Opt. Express 15, 13079–13095 (2007)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M.A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006)
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Selfcompression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical Emission, Pulse Splitting, and X-Wave Parametric Amplification in Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaižauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 72037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004)
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, and P. Di Trapani, Nonlinear X-wave formation by femtosecond filamentation in Kerr media, Phys. Rev. E73, 016608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Courvoisier, F.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejèan, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213–215 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Couture, P.

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

D’Amico, C.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V.T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98235002 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

Desparois, A.

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Di Trapani, P.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, M. Kolesik, J.V. Moloney, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Spatio-temporal reshaping and X Wave dynamics in optical filaments,” Opt. Express 15, 13079–13095 (2007)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M.A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical Emission, Pulse Splitting, and X-Wave Parametric Amplification in Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaižauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 72037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 862–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, and P. Di Trapani, Nonlinear X-wave formation by femtosecond filamentation in Kerr media, Phys. Rev. E73, 016608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diels, J.C.

X.M. Zhao and J.C. Diels, “Femtosecond pulses to divert lightning,” Laser Focus World 29, 113–123 (1993)

Du, D.

Dubietis, A.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, M. Kolesik, J.V. Moloney, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Spatio-temporal reshaping and X Wave dynamics in optical filaments,” Opt. Express 15, 13079–13095 (2007)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M.A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical Emission, Pulse Splitting, and X-Wave Parametric Amplification in Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaižauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 72037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 862–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, and P. Di Trapani, Nonlinear X-wave formation by femtosecond filamentation in Kerr media, Phys. Rev. E73, 016608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eisenmann, S.

S. Eisenmann, A. Pukhov, and A. Zigler, “Fine Structure of a Laser-Plasma Filament in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 155002 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faccio, D.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, M. Kolesik, J.V. Moloney, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Spatio-temporal reshaping and X Wave dynamics in optical filaments,” Opt. Express 15, 13079–13095 (2007)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M.A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical Emission, Pulse Splitting, and X-Wave Parametric Amplification in Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaižauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 72037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 862–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, and P. Di Trapani, Nonlinear X-wave formation by femtosecond filamentation in Kerr media, Phys. Rev. E73, 016608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V.T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98235002 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004)
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, “Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.A.

S. Tzortzakis, M.A. Franco, Y.B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B.S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3505–3508 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Gaižauskas, E.

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaižauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 72037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, and P. Di Trapani, Nonlinear X-wave formation by femtosecond filamentation in Kerr media, Phys. Rev. E73, 016608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Génin, F.

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Hauri, C. P.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Selfcompression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Selfcompression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Houard, A.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V.T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98235002 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hüller, S.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, “Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Jarry, G.

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Johnston, T.

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejèan, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213–215 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Katona, G.

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J.V. Moloney, and E.M. Wright, “Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Selfcompression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.-C.

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Kolesik, M.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, M. Kolesik, J.V. Moloney, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Spatio-temporal reshaping and X Wave dynamics in optical filaments,” Opt. Express 15, 13079–13095 (2007)
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Interpretation of the spectrally resolved far field of femtosecond pulses propagating in bulk nonlinear dispersive media,” Opt. Express 13, 10729–10741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik and J.V. Moloney, “Self-healing femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett. 29, 590–592 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic Nonlinear X Waves for Femtosecond Pulse Propagation in Water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J.V. Moloney, and E.M. Wright, “Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korn, G.

Kornelis, W.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Selfcompression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

La Fontaine, B.

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Lamouroux, B.

S. Tzortzakis, M.A. Franco, Y.B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B.S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3505–3508 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Liberale, C.

Liu, W.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. lett. 97, 023904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Luther, G.G.

Martin, F.

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Matijosius, A.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M.A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaižauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 72037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 862–869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mawassi, R.

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Méchain, G.

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Mejèan, G.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejèan, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213–215 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Mercure, H. P.

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Minardi, S.

Mlejnek, M.

Moloney, J.V.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, M. Kolesik, J.V. Moloney, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Spatio-temporal reshaping and X Wave dynamics in optical filaments,” Opt. Express 15, 13079–13095 (2007)
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Interpretation of the spectrally resolved far field of femtosecond pulses propagating in bulk nonlinear dispersive media,” Opt. Express 13, 10729–10741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik and J.V. Moloney, “Self-healing femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett. 29, 590–592 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic Nonlinear X Waves for Femtosecond Pulse Propagation in Water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J.V. Moloney, and E.M. Wright, “Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mlejnek, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23, 382–384 (1998)
[CrossRef]

G.G. Luther, A.C. Newell, J.V. Moloney, and E.M. Wright, “Short-pulse conical emission and spectral broadening in normally dispersive media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 789–791 (1994)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mora, P.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, “Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V.T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98235002 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Selfcompression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004)
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, “Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001)
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, M.A. Franco, Y.B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B.S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3505–3508 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Newell, A.C.

Peck, E. R.

Pépin, H.

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Piskarkas, A.

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaižauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 72037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Piskarkas, R.

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaižauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 72037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, A.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, M. Kolesik, J.V. Moloney, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Spatio-temporal reshaping and X Wave dynamics in optical filaments,” Opt. Express 15, 13079–13095 (2007)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M.A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, R.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M.A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Polesana, P.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, M. Kolesik, J.V. Moloney, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Spatio-temporal reshaping and X Wave dynamics in optical filaments,” Opt. Express 15, 13079–13095 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Porras, M. A.

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical Emission, Pulse Splitting, and X-Wave Parametric Amplification in Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porras, M.A.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M.A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Potvin, C.

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V.T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98235002 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004)
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, “Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.S.

S. Tzortzakis, M.A. Franco, Y.B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B.S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3505–3508 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Pukhov, A.

S. Eisenmann, A. Pukhov, and A. Zigler, “Fine Structure of a Laser-Plasma Filament in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 155002 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reeder, K.

Rizk, F. A. M.

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004)
[CrossRef]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejèan, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213–215 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Tamosauskas, G.

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, M. Kolesik, J.V. Moloney, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Spatio-temporal reshaping and X Wave dynamics in optical filaments,” Opt. Express 15, 13079–13095 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Théberge, F.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. lett. 97, 023904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tikhonchuk, V.T.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V.T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98235002 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tzortzakis, S.

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004)
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, “Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001)
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, M.A. Franco, Y.B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B.S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3505–3508 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Varanavicius, A.

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaižauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 72037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Vidal, F.

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.P.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejèan, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213–215 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Wright, E.M.

Yu, J.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejèan, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213–215 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.M.

X.M. Zhao and J.C. Diels, “Femtosecond pulses to divert lightning,” Laser Focus World 29, 113–123 (1993)

Zigler, A.

S. Eisenmann, A. Pukhov, and A. Zigler, “Fine Structure of a Laser-Plasma Filament in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 155002 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Méchain, C. D’Amico, Y.-B. André, S. Tzortzakis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, E. Salmon, and R. Sauerbrey, “Long-range self-channeling of infrared laser pulses in air: a new propagation regime without ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 379–382 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejèan, J. Yu, and J.P. Wolf, “Light filaments transmitted through clouds,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213–215 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C.-Y. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Génin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pépin, F. A. M. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. P. Mercure, “Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610–615 (2000)
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Selfcompression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Focus World (1)

X.M. Zhao and J.C. Diels, “Femtosecond pulses to divert lightning,” Laser Focus World 29, 113–123 (1993)

Opt. Express (2)

M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Interpretation of the spectrally resolved far field of femtosecond pulses propagating in bulk nonlinear dispersive media,” Opt. Express 13, 10729–10741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, M. Kolesik, J.V. Moloney, A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, P. Polesana, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Spatio-temporal reshaping and X Wave dynamics in optical filaments,” Opt. Express 15, 13079–13095 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (5)

S. Tzortzakis, M.A. Franco, Y.B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B.S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 3505–3508 (1999)
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Hüller, and P. Mora, “Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Averchi, A. Couairon, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Matijosius, F. Bragheri, M.A. Porras, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, “Competition between phase-matching and stationarity in Kerr-driven optical pulse filamentation,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 047603 (2006)
[CrossRef]

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, “Postionization regimes of femtosecond laser pulses self-channeling in air,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 046604 (2005)
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, A. Matijosius, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarkas, A. Varanavicius, E. Gaižauskas, A. Piskarkas, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Near and Far-Field evolution of laser pulse filaments in Kerr media,” Phys. Rev. E 72037601 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V.T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98235002 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J.V. Moloney, and E.M. Wright, “Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Eisenmann, A. Pukhov, and A. Zigler, “Fine Structure of a Laser-Plasma Filament in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 155002 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, E.M. Wright, and J.V. Moloney, “Dynamic Nonlinear X Waves for Femtosecond Pulse Propagation in Water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical Emission, Pulse Splitting, and X-Wave Parametric Amplification in Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Light Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Tunable Ultrashort Laser Pulses Generated through Filamentation in Gases,” Phys. Rev. lett. 97, 023904 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Couairon, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, A. Dubietis, and P. Di Trapani, Nonlinear X-wave formation by femtosecond filamentation in Kerr media, Phys. Rev. E73, 016608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (604 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measured (θ,λ) spectra of filaments in air generated using a 2 m lens (a) and of a 10 m lens (b). (c) shows the numerically calculated spectrum for the experimental settings of (b). The white lines in all graphs show the best fits obtained with the X Wave relation Eq. (1). The filament appears as a white spot surrounded by colored rings when viewed on piece of paper a few meters after the end of the self-induced plasma string (d).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The solid lines shows the calculated FWHM of the filament generated with a 10 m focal length lens. The circles show the same quantity as measured experimentally while the contour plot represents the calculated plasma density in 1/cm3 within the filament. (b) shows the calculated FWHM evolution of the filament when, at a distance of z=7 m, all nonlinear effects are switched off. The blue-dashed line indicates the expected FWHM of a linearly diffracting beam. Sub-diffractive propagation is observed in this linear regime over a 4 m distance (red solid line). The spatial far-field spectrum shows two peaks, a distinct feature of conical propagation (c).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated transverse energy flux (in arbitrary units) for the same filament in Fig. 2(a) at a distance z=7 m. The leading intensity peak clearly shows and X shaped profile the reflects the profile of the optical pulse. The leading X tail has an inward flux while the trailing tails has an outward flux. The diagram exemplifies this situation: plane waves propagating at an angle (i.e. along a cone) will give an X shaped energy flux in the region in which they overlap followed by an outgoing flux at the end of this region.[Media 1]

Equations (1)

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k = k 2 k z 2   with k z = k 0 + Ω ν g ,

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