Abstract

We report the kinetics of below band-gap light induced photodarkening in (80-x)GeS2-20Ga2S3-xAgI (x=0 and 20 mol %) bulk chalcogenide glasses by measuring the time evolution of transmission spectra at every 10 milliseconds. The results prove clearly the enhancement of photosensivity upon doping of AgI compound in glasses. It is interesting to find that PD observed in AgI-doped glass totally disappears two hours later after the laser exposing even at room temperature. In significant contrast to 80GeS2-20Ga2S3 glass that the metastable part of PD remains for a long time. We expect such a fast auto-recovery property in AgI-doped glass can be utilized for optical signal processing.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, T. Wagner and P. Nemec, "Photo-Induced phenomena in Amorphous and Glassy chalcogenides" in Photo-Induced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors A.V. Kolobov ed (Wiley, Weinheim, 2003) chap 2 p 23.
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Tanaka, "Sub-Gap Photo-Induced Phenomena in Chalcogenide Glasses" in Photo-Induced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors A.V. Kolobov ed (Wiley, Weinheim, 2003) chap 5 p 69
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Krecmer, A. M. Moulin, R. J. Stephenson, T. Rayment, M. E. Welland and S. R. Elliott, "Reversible Nanocontraction and Dilatation in a Solid Induced by Polarized Light," Science,  277, 1799-1802 (1997)
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. C. van Popta, R. G. DeCorby, C. J. Haugen, T. Robinson, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev and S. O. Kasap, "Photoinduced refractive index change in As2Se3 by 633 nm illumination," Opt. Express. 10, 639-644 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  5. K. Tanaka, T. Gotoh and H. Hayakawa, "Anisotropic patterns formed in Ag-As-S ion-conducting amorphous semiconductor films by polarized light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2256-2258 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Frumar and T. Wagner, "Ag doped chalcogenide glasses and their applications," Curr. Opin. Solid. St. M. 7, 117-126 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Ren, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Vlcek, B. Frumarova and M. Frumar, "Reversible photoinduced change of refractive index in ion-conducting chalcohalide glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) (to be published)
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Ganjoo and H. Jain, "Millisecond kinetics of photoinduced changes in the optical parameters of a-As2S3 films," Phys. Rev. B. 74,024201: 1-6 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
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  10. K. Shimakawa and Y. Ikeda, "Transient response of photodarkening and photoinduced volume change in amorphous chalcogenide films," J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mat. 8, 2097-2100 (2006)
  11. J. Heo and J. D. Mackenzie, "CHALCOHALIDE GLASSES III. Vibrational spectra of Ge-S-I glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 113, 246-252 (1989)
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Julien, S. Barnier, M. Massot, N. Chbani, X. Cai, A. M. Loireau-Lozac’h and M. Guittard, "Raman and infrared spectroscopic studies of Ge-Ga-Ag sulphide glasses," Mat. Sci. Eng.B-Solid. 22, 191-200 (1994)
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Mitkova, Y. Wang and P. Boolchand, "Dual Chemical Role of Ag as an Additive in Chalcogenide Glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3848-3851 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, J. Jedelsky, C. Duverger, J. Leperson, J. L. Adam and M. Frumar, "Dysprosium doped amorphous chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition," Opt. Mater. 29, 273-278 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. Richardson, A. Humeau, S. Cherukulappurath and G. Boudebs, "Nonlinear optical properties of glasses in the system Ge/Ga-Sb-S/Se," Opt. Lett. 31, 1495-1497 (2006)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Tanaka, "Optical nonlinearity in photonic glasses," J. Mater. Sci. 16, 633-643 (2005)
  17. S. H. Messaddeq, V. K. Tikhomirov, Y. Messaddeq, D. Lezal and M. Siu Li, "Light-induced relief grating and a mechanism of matastable light-induced expansion in chalcogenide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 63, 224203: 1-5 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Yang, H. Jain, A. Ganjoo, D. Zhao, Y. Xu, H. Zeng and G. Chen, "A photo-stable chalcogenide glass," (submitted toOptics Letters)
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    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Krbal, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, M. Vlcek and B. Frumarova, "Kinetics of optically-and thermally-induced diffusion and dissolution of silver in evaporated As33S33.5Se33.5 amorphous films: their properties and structure," Phys. Chem. Glasses. 47, 193-197 (2006)
  21. A. Laref, W. Sekkal, A. Zaoui, M. Certier and H. Aourag, "Tight-binding calculations of electronic properties of AgI," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4435-4439 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Kastner, "Bonding Bands, Lone-Pair Bands, and Impurity States in Chalcogenide Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 355-357 (1972)
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Singh and H. E. Ruda, "Concept of Excitons" in Optical Properties of Condensed Matter and Applications J. Singh ed (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006) chap 4 p 63
    [CrossRef]

2008

J. Ren, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Vlcek, B. Frumarova and M. Frumar, "Reversible photoinduced change of refractive index in ion-conducting chalcohalide glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) (to be published)
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Schwarz, H. Ticha and L. Tichy, "Temperature shift of the optical gap in some PbO-ZnO-P2O5 glasses," Mater. Lett. 61, 520-522 (2007)
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Krbal, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, M. Vlcek and B. Frumarova, "Kinetics of optically-and thermally-induced diffusion and dissolution of silver in evaporated As33S33.5Se33.5 amorphous films: their properties and structure," Phys. Chem. Glasses. 47, 193-197 (2006)

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, J. Jedelsky, C. Duverger, J. Leperson, J. L. Adam and M. Frumar, "Dysprosium doped amorphous chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition," Opt. Mater. 29, 273-278 (2006)
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. Richardson, A. Humeau, S. Cherukulappurath and G. Boudebs, "Nonlinear optical properties of glasses in the system Ge/Ga-Sb-S/Se," Opt. Lett. 31, 1495-1497 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ganjoo and H. Jain, "Millisecond kinetics of photoinduced changes in the optical parameters of a-As2S3 films," Phys. Rev. B. 74,024201: 1-6 (2006)
[CrossRef]

K. Shimakawa and Y. Ikeda, "Transient response of photodarkening and photoinduced volume change in amorphous chalcogenide films," J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mat. 8, 2097-2100 (2006)

2005

K. Tanaka, "Optical nonlinearity in photonic glasses," J. Mater. Sci. 16, 633-643 (2005)

2003

M. Frumar and T. Wagner, "Ag doped chalcogenide glasses and their applications," Curr. Opin. Solid. St. M. 7, 117-126 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2002

A. C. van Popta, R. G. DeCorby, C. J. Haugen, T. Robinson, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev and S. O. Kasap, "Photoinduced refractive index change in As2Se3 by 633 nm illumination," Opt. Express. 10, 639-644 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001

S. H. Messaddeq, V. K. Tikhomirov, Y. Messaddeq, D. Lezal and M. Siu Li, "Light-induced relief grating and a mechanism of matastable light-induced expansion in chalcogenide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 63, 224203: 1-5 (2001)
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Laref, W. Sekkal, A. Zaoui, M. Certier and H. Aourag, "Tight-binding calculations of electronic properties of AgI," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4435-4439 (1999)
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, T. Gotoh and H. Hayakawa, "Anisotropic patterns formed in Ag-As-S ion-conducting amorphous semiconductor films by polarized light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2256-2258 (1999)
[CrossRef]

M. Mitkova, Y. Wang and P. Boolchand, "Dual Chemical Role of Ag as an Additive in Chalcogenide Glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3848-3851 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Krecmer, A. M. Moulin, R. J. Stephenson, T. Rayment, M. E. Welland and S. R. Elliott, "Reversible Nanocontraction and Dilatation in a Solid Induced by Polarized Light," Science,  277, 1799-1802 (1997)
[CrossRef]

1994

C. Julien, S. Barnier, M. Massot, N. Chbani, X. Cai, A. M. Loireau-Lozac’h and M. Guittard, "Raman and infrared spectroscopic studies of Ge-Ga-Ag sulphide glasses," Mat. Sci. Eng.B-Solid. 22, 191-200 (1994)
[CrossRef]

1993

1989

J. Heo and J. D. Mackenzie, "CHALCOHALIDE GLASSES III. Vibrational spectra of Ge-S-I glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 113, 246-252 (1989)
[CrossRef]

1972

M. Kastner, "Bonding Bands, Lone-Pair Bands, and Impurity States in Chalcogenide Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 355-357 (1972)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Tanaka, T. Gotoh and H. Hayakawa, "Anisotropic patterns formed in Ag-As-S ion-conducting amorphous semiconductor films by polarized light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2256-2258 (1999)
[CrossRef]

J. Ren, T. Wagner, J. Orava, M. Vlcek, B. Frumarova and M. Frumar, "Reversible photoinduced change of refractive index in ion-conducting chalcohalide glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) (to be published)
[CrossRef]

B-Solid.

C. Julien, S. Barnier, M. Massot, N. Chbani, X. Cai, A. M. Loireau-Lozac’h and M. Guittard, "Raman and infrared spectroscopic studies of Ge-Ga-Ag sulphide glasses," Mat. Sci. Eng.B-Solid. 22, 191-200 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Solid. St. M.

M. Frumar and T. Wagner, "Ag doped chalcogenide glasses and their applications," Curr. Opin. Solid. St. M. 7, 117-126 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Laref, W. Sekkal, A. Zaoui, M. Certier and H. Aourag, "Tight-binding calculations of electronic properties of AgI," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4435-4439 (1999)
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci.

K. Tanaka, "Optical nonlinearity in photonic glasses," J. Mater. Sci. 16, 633-643 (2005)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids.

J. Heo and J. D. Mackenzie, "CHALCOHALIDE GLASSES III. Vibrational spectra of Ge-S-I glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 113, 246-252 (1989)
[CrossRef]

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mat.

K. Shimakawa and Y. Ikeda, "Transient response of photodarkening and photoinduced volume change in amorphous chalcogenide films," J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mat. 8, 2097-2100 (2006)

Mater. Lett.

J. Schwarz, H. Ticha and L. Tichy, "Temperature shift of the optical gap in some PbO-ZnO-P2O5 glasses," Mater. Lett. 61, 520-522 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express.

A. C. van Popta, R. G. DeCorby, C. J. Haugen, T. Robinson, J. N. McMullin, D. Tonchev and S. O. Kasap, "Photoinduced refractive index change in As2Se3 by 633 nm illumination," Opt. Express. 10, 639-644 (2002).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

V. Nazabal, P. Nemec, J. Jedelsky, C. Duverger, J. Leperson, J. L. Adam and M. Frumar, "Dysprosium doped amorphous chalcogenide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition," Opt. Mater. 29, 273-278 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Optics Letters

G. Yang, H. Jain, A. Ganjoo, D. Zhao, Y. Xu, H. Zeng and G. Chen, "A photo-stable chalcogenide glass," (submitted toOptics Letters)

Phys. Chem. Glasses.

M. Krbal, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, M. Vlcek and B. Frumarova, "Kinetics of optically-and thermally-induced diffusion and dissolution of silver in evaporated As33S33.5Se33.5 amorphous films: their properties and structure," Phys. Chem. Glasses. 47, 193-197 (2006)

Phys. Rev. B

S. H. Messaddeq, V. K. Tikhomirov, Y. Messaddeq, D. Lezal and M. Siu Li, "Light-induced relief grating and a mechanism of matastable light-induced expansion in chalcogenide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 63, 224203: 1-5 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B.

A. Ganjoo and H. Jain, "Millisecond kinetics of photoinduced changes in the optical parameters of a-As2S3 films," Phys. Rev. B. 74,024201: 1-6 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Mitkova, Y. Wang and P. Boolchand, "Dual Chemical Role of Ag as an Additive in Chalcogenide Glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3848-3851 (1999)
[CrossRef]

M. Kastner, "Bonding Bands, Lone-Pair Bands, and Impurity States in Chalcogenide Semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 355-357 (1972)
[CrossRef]

Science

P. Krecmer, A. M. Moulin, R. J. Stephenson, T. Rayment, M. E. Welland and S. R. Elliott, "Reversible Nanocontraction and Dilatation in a Solid Induced by Polarized Light," Science,  277, 1799-1802 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, T. Wagner and P. Nemec, "Photo-Induced phenomena in Amorphous and Glassy chalcogenides" in Photo-Induced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors A.V. Kolobov ed (Wiley, Weinheim, 2003) chap 2 p 23.
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, "Sub-Gap Photo-Induced Phenomena in Chalcogenide Glasses" in Photo-Induced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors A.V. Kolobov ed (Wiley, Weinheim, 2003) chap 5 p 69
[CrossRef]

J. Singh and H. E. Ruda, "Concept of Excitons" in Optical Properties of Condensed Matter and Applications J. Singh ed (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006) chap 4 p 63
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmission spectra of GGS (a) and GGS-AgI (b) obtained before (as indicated by fresh in the insets) and after the laser exposure. 5 min., 2 h. and 24 h. later mean, respectively, the spectra obtained 5 minutes, 2 hours and 24 hours later after the laser exposure. Maximum change means the spectra obtained when sample being illuminated for sufficient time. Both samples are illuminated by 488 nm Ar+ ion laser. The spikes observed at around 488 nm are the signals from the exciting source.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Variation of transmission of GGS (a) and GGS-AgI (b) with time at indicated wavelengths. The laser On and Off states are indicated in the figure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectra of GGS-AgI obtained before (as indicated by fresh in the inset) and when being exposed by different inducing light. The spikes observed at around 488 nm are the signals from the exciting source.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Raman shifts of non-exposing GGS (solid line) and GGS-AgI (dashed line). (b) Assignment of Raman vibrational modes for GGS-AgI. The data are scaled by the height of the GeS4 (343 cm-1) peak of GGS.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Raman spectra of GGS-AgI obtained before (as indicated by fresh) and after the laser exposure at different time. Immediately after exposure means the spectrum obtained immediately after the sample being irradiated by the Ar+ ion laser for sufficient time. After 10 min. and after 2 hours mean the spectra obtained 10 minutes and 2 hours immediately later after the laser exposing, respectively. The data are scaled by the height of the GeS4 (343 cm-1) peak. The spectra are shifted vertically for clarification.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Fittings of Eq. (2) to the rise of changes in absorption coefficients at selected wavelengths for GGS ((a), left part) and GGS-AgI ((b), left part). Also shown are the fall of absorption coefficients at selected wavelength for GGS (a, right part) and GGS-AgI (b, right part) when the laser is switched off.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Schematic illustration of the band structure of GGS-AgI. Also shown are the possible formation of self-trapped exciton (STE) and its bonding energy (red lines).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I. Fitting parameters obtained from Eq. (2) to the calculated rise of the absorption coefficients at different wavelength for GGS and GGS-AgI.

Equations (2)

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α = 1 d ln { ( 1 R ) 2 + [ ( 1 R ) 4 + 4 R 2 T 2 ] 1 2 2 T }
Δ α r = Δ α sr { 1 exp [ ( t τ r ) β ] }

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