Abstract

We report the first experimental demonstration of wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution over optical fiber. Forty-four channels of polarization-entangled photon-pairs were produced from a single pulse-pumped, short periodically-poled lithium niobate waveguide and distributed over 10 km of dispersion-shifted optical fiber. Entanglement fidelities of the distributed photon-pairs exceeded 0.86 for all selected channels.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (5)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

H. Takesue, "Long-distance distribution of time-bin entanglement generated in a cooled fiber," Opt. Express 14, 3453-3460 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, "Quantum secret sharing based on modulated high-dimensional time-bin entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 74, 012315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, M. Legre, and N. Gisin, "Distribution of time-bin entangled qubits over 50 km of optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180502 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue and K. Shimizu, "Generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs in optical fiber: Influence of spontaneous Raman scattering," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 8048-8052 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yoshizawa and H. Tsuchida, "Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs in 1550 nm band by a fiber-optic two-photon interferometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2457-2459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, "Measurement of qubits," Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. Hillery, V. Buzek, and A. Berthiaume, "Quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829-1834 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Karlsson, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Quantum entanglement for secret sharing and secret splitting," Phys. Rev. A 59, 162-168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Cirac, A. K. Ekert, S. F. Huelga, and C. Macchiavello, "Distributed quantum computation over noisy channels," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4249-4254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. K. Ekert, "Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661-663 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asobe, M.

Baek, B.

Berthiaume, A.

M. Hillery, V. Buzek, and A. Berthiaume, "Quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829-1834 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brendel, J.

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buzek, V.

M. Hillery, V. Buzek, and A. Berthiaume, "Quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829-1834 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, G. Wu, Y. Li, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, "Active polarization stabilization in optical fibers suitable for quantum key distribution," Opt. Express 15, 17928-17936 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, "Distribution of fiber-generated polarization entangled photon-pairs over 100 km of standard fiber in OC-192 WDM environment," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), postdeadline paper PDP35 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chulkova, G.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cirac, J. I.

J. I. Cirac, A. K. Ekert, S. F. Huelga, and C. Macchiavello, "Distributed quantum computation over noisy channels," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4249-4254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Riedmatten, H.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, M. Legre, and N. Gisin, "Distribution of time-bin entangled qubits over 50 km of optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180502 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ekert, A. K.

J. I. Cirac, A. K. Ekert, S. F. Huelga, and C. Macchiavello, "Distributed quantum computation over noisy channels," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4249-4254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ekert, "Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661-663 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

Gautier, J.-D.

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, M. Legre, and N. Gisin, "Distribution of time-bin entangled qubits over 50 km of optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180502 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gol'tsman, G. N.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillery, M.

M. Hillery, V. Buzek, and A. Berthiaume, "Quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829-1834 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Honjo, T.

Huelga, S. F.

J. I. Cirac, A. K. Ekert, S. F. Huelga, and C. Macchiavello, "Distributed quantum computation over noisy channels," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4249-4254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Imoto, N.

A. Karlsson, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Quantum entanglement for secret sharing and secret splitting," Phys. Rev. A 59, 162-168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, "Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors," Opt. Express 15, 13957-13964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, "Quantum secret sharing based on modulated high-dimensional time-bin entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 74, 012315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue and K. Shimizu, "Generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs in optical fiber: Influence of spontaneous Raman scattering," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 8048-8052 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, "Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell’s inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber loop," Phys. Rev. A 70, 031802(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

James, D. F. V.

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, "Measurement of qubits," Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamada, H.

Karlsson, A.

A. Karlsson, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Quantum entanglement for secret sharing and secret splitting," Phys. Rev. A 59, 162-168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

Koashi, M.

A. Karlsson, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Quantum entanglement for secret sharing and secret splitting," Phys. Rev. A 59, 162-168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Korneev, A.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, P.

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, "Distribution of fiber-generated polarization entangled photon-pairs over 100 km of standard fiber in OC-192 WDM environment," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), postdeadline paper PDP35 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwiat, P. G.

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, "Measurement of qubits," Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langrock, C.

Lee, K. F.

C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, "Distribution of fiber-generated polarization entangled photon-pairs over 100 km of standard fiber in OC-192 WDM environment," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), postdeadline paper PDP35 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legre, M.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, M. Legre, and N. Gisin, "Distribution of time-bin entangled qubits over 50 km of optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180502 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Liang, C.

C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, "Distribution of fiber-generated polarization entangled photon-pairs over 100 km of standard fiber in OC-192 WDM environment," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), postdeadline paper PDP35 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, H. C.

Lipatov, A.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macchiavello, C.

J. I. Cirac, A. K. Ekert, S. F. Huelga, and C. Macchiavello, "Distributed quantum computation over noisy channels," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4249-4254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marcikic, I.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, M. Legre, and N. Gisin, "Distribution of time-bin entangled qubits over 50 km of optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180502 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munro, W. J.

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, "Measurement of qubits," Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, S. W.

Nishida, Y.

Okunev, O.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharping, J. E.

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, K.

K. Inoue and K. Shimizu, "Generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs in optical fiber: Influence of spontaneous Raman scattering," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 8048-8052 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirnov, K.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sobolewski, R.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tadanaga, O.

Takesue, H.

Temporao, G. P.

Tittel, W.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, M. Legre, and N. Gisin, "Distribution of time-bin entangled qubits over 50 km of optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180502 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, H.

Verevkin, A.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vilela de Faria, G.

von der Weid, J. P.

Voss, P. L.

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, A. G.

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, "Measurement of qubits," Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, E.

Wu, G.

Xavier, G. B.

Xie, X.

Yamamoto, Y.

Yoshizawa, A.

Zbinden, H.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, M. Legre, and N. Gisin, "Distribution of time-bin entangled qubits over 50 km of optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180502 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

Zhang, J.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Yoshizawa and H. Tsuchida, "Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs in 1550 nm band by a fiber-optic two-photon interferometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2457-2459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Inoue and K. Shimizu, "Generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs in optical fiber: Influence of spontaneous Raman scattering," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 8048-8052 (2004).
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Opt. Express (8)

H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, "Broadband source of telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs for wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution," Opt. Express,  16, 16052-16057 (2008).
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J. Chen, G. Wu, Y. Li, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, "Active polarization stabilization in optical fibers suitable for quantum key distribution," Opt. Express 15, 17928-17936 (2007).
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G. B. Xavier, G. Vilela de Faria, G. P. Temporao, and J. P. von der Weid, "Full polarization control for fiber optical quantum communication systems using polarization encoding," Opt. Express 16, 1867-1873 (2008).

H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, "Stable source of high quality telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs based on a single, pulse-pumped, short PPLN waveguide," Opt. Express 16, 12460-12468 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, "Long-distance distribution of time-bin entanglement generated in a cooled fiber," Opt. Express 14, 3453-3460 (2006).
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T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, "Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors," Opt. Express 15, 13957-13964 (2007).
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H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, "Distribution of polarization-entangled photon-pairs produced via spontaneous parametric down-conversion within a local-area fiber network: Theoretical model and experiment," Opt. Express,  16, 14512-14523 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
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N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
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H. Takesue and K. Inoue, "Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell’s inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber loop," Phys. Rev. A 70, 031802(R) (2004).
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C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, "Distribution of fiber-generated polarization entangled photon-pairs over 100 km of standard fiber in OC-192 WDM environment," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), postdeadline paper PDP35 (2006).
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A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communication, 6th ed., (Oxford, 2007).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(color online) Schematic of the experiment. Red arrows show input pump laser. Black arrows show telecom-band photon-pairs created in the PPLN waveguide. BPF: band-pass filter, DM: dichroic mirror, DSF: dispersion-shifted fiber, HWP: half-wave plate, PBS: polarization beam-splitter, PC: polarization controller, PMF: polarization-maintaining fiber, POL: polarizer, PPLN: periodically-poled lithium niobate waveguide, QWP: quarter-wave plate, SMF: single-mode fiber, SPCM: single-photon counter module

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Each channel consists of a signal channel and a corresponding idler channel that are entangled in polarization. The channel spacing is 60 GHz. Signal and idler wavelengths are determined for a pump wavelength at 776 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(color online) Experimental result showing fidelity of distributed entangled photon-pairs for selected channels. The lines are included to aid visualization.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(color online) Density matrices showing wavelength-dependent relative phase.

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