Abstract

We demonstrate a highly sensitive imaging method combined a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and an interference effect for label-free protein detection on a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane. The method is based on terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and uses an interference effect. Biotin is linked to the membrane using poly ethylene glycol or poly ethylene glycol methyl ether to prevent it from being washed off. Binding of the biotin with streptavidin is then observed by measuring the terahertz signal change due to the variation of the membrane refractive index. We demonstrate the detection of the binding streptavidin protein in gradually decreasing concentrations, down to 27 ng mm-2, using the image recorded at 1.5 THz.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, "Quantitative Monitoring of Gene Expression Patterns with a Complementary DNA Microarray," Science 270, 467-470 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Zhu and M. Snyder, "Protein chip technology," Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7, 55-63 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Kanoh, S. Kumashiro, S. Simizu, Y. Kondoh, S. Hatakeyama, H. Tashiro, and H. Osada, "Immobilization of Natural Products on Glass Slides by Using a Photoaffinity Reaction and the Detection of Protein-Small-Molecule Interactions," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5584-5587 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Fukui, T. Feizi, C. Galustian, A. M. Lawson, and W. Chai, "Oligosaccharide microarrays for high-throughput detection and specificity assignments of carbohydrate-protein interactions," Nature Biotechnology 20, 1011-1017 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. M. McDonnell, "Surface plasmon resonance: towards an understanding of the mechanisms of biological molecular recognition," Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 5, 572-577 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. A. J. Besselink, R. P. H. Kooyman, P. J. H. J. van Os, G. H. M. Engbers, and R. B. M. Schasfoort, "Signal amplification on planar and gel-type sensor surfaces in surface plasmon resonance-based detection of prostate-specific antigen," Anal. Biochem,  333, 165-173 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Hatanaka, M. Hashimoto, and Y. Kanaoka, "A Rapid and Efficient Method for Identifying Photoaffinity Biotinylated Sites within Proteins," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 453-454 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, "Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints," Opt. Express 11, 2549-2554 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nature Materials 1, 26-33 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Biopolymers 67, 310-313 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, T. K.-Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA," Opt. Express 13, 5205-5215 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Matsudaira, "Sequence from Picomole Quantities of Proteins Electroblotted onto Polyvinylidene Difluoride Membranes," J. Biochem. 262, 10035-10038 (1987).
  16. M. Oikawa, M. Ikoma, and M. Sasak, "Alkoxyacetyl (AAc) group as a useful linker for organic synthesis on poly (ethylene glycol) support," Tetrahedron Lett. 45, 2371-2375 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. P Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu1, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, "Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology," Phys. Med. Biol. 47,3789-3795 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, T. K.-Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA," Opt. Express 13, 5205-5215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. Oikawa, M. Ikoma, and M. Sasak, "Alkoxyacetyl (AAc) group as a useful linker for organic synthesis on poly (ethylene glycol) support," Tetrahedron Lett. 45, 2371-2375 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. J. Besselink, R. P. H. Kooyman, P. J. H. J. van Os, G. H. M. Engbers, and R. B. M. Schasfoort, "Signal amplification on planar and gel-type sensor surfaces in surface plasmon resonance-based detection of prostate-specific antigen," Anal. Biochem,  333, 165-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

H. Zhu and M. Snyder, "Protein chip technology," Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7, 55-63 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kanoh, S. Kumashiro, S. Simizu, Y. Kondoh, S. Hatakeyama, H. Tashiro, and H. Osada, "Immobilization of Natural Products on Glass Slides by Using a Photoaffinity Reaction and the Detection of Protein-Small-Molecule Interactions," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5584-5587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, "Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints," Opt. Express 11, 2549-2554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

S. P Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu1, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, "Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology," Phys. Med. Biol. 47,3789-3795 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nature Materials 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Biopolymers 67, 310-313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fukui, T. Feizi, C. Galustian, A. M. Lawson, and W. Chai, "Oligosaccharide microarrays for high-throughput detection and specificity assignments of carbohydrate-protein interactions," Nature Biotechnology 20, 1011-1017 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. M. McDonnell, "Surface plasmon resonance: towards an understanding of the mechanisms of biological molecular recognition," Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 5, 572-577 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Hatanaka, M. Hashimoto, and Y. Kanaoka, "A Rapid and Efficient Method for Identifying Photoaffinity Biotinylated Sites within Proteins," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 453-454 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, "Quantitative Monitoring of Gene Expression Patterns with a Complementary DNA Microarray," Science 270, 467-470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

P. Matsudaira, "Sequence from Picomole Quantities of Proteins Electroblotted onto Polyvinylidene Difluoride Membranes," J. Biochem. 262, 10035-10038 (1987).

Besselink, G. A. J.

G. A. J. Besselink, R. P. H. Kooyman, P. J. H. J. van Os, G. H. M. Engbers, and R. B. M. Schasfoort, "Signal amplification on planar and gel-type sensor surfaces in surface plasmon resonance-based detection of prostate-specific antigen," Anal. Biochem,  333, 165-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bosserhoff, A.

M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, P. O.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, "Quantitative Monitoring of Gene Expression Patterns with a Complementary DNA Microarray," Science 270, 467-470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brucherseifer, M.

M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Büttner, R.

M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chai, W.

S. Fukui, T. Feizi, C. Galustian, A. M. Lawson, and W. Chai, "Oligosaccharide microarrays for high-throughput detection and specificity assignments of carbohydrate-protein interactions," Nature Biotechnology 20, 1011-1017 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. W.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, "Quantitative Monitoring of Gene Expression Patterns with a Complementary DNA Microarray," Science 270, 467-470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engbers, G. H. M.

G. A. J. Besselink, R. P. H. Kooyman, P. J. H. J. van Os, G. H. M. Engbers, and R. B. M. Schasfoort, "Signal amplification on planar and gel-type sensor surfaces in surface plasmon resonance-based detection of prostate-specific antigen," Anal. Biochem,  333, 165-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feizi, T.

S. Fukui, T. Feizi, C. Galustian, A. M. Lawson, and W. Chai, "Oligosaccharide microarrays for high-throughput detection and specificity assignments of carbohydrate-protein interactions," Nature Biotechnology 20, 1011-1017 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nature Materials 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, T. K.-Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA," Opt. Express 13, 5205-5215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Biopolymers 67, 310-313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukui, S.

S. Fukui, T. Feizi, C. Galustian, A. M. Lawson, and W. Chai, "Oligosaccharide microarrays for high-throughput detection and specificity assignments of carbohydrate-protein interactions," Nature Biotechnology 20, 1011-1017 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galustian, C.

S. Fukui, T. Feizi, C. Galustian, A. M. Lawson, and W. Chai, "Oligosaccharide microarrays for high-throughput detection and specificity assignments of carbohydrate-protein interactions," Nature Biotechnology 20, 1011-1017 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haring Bolivar, P.

M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, M.

Y. Hatanaka, M. Hashimoto, and Y. Kanaoka, "A Rapid and Efficient Method for Identifying Photoaffinity Biotinylated Sites within Proteins," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 453-454 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hatakeyama, S.

N. Kanoh, S. Kumashiro, S. Simizu, Y. Kondoh, S. Hatakeyama, H. Tashiro, and H. Osada, "Immobilization of Natural Products on Glass Slides by Using a Photoaffinity Reaction and the Detection of Protein-Small-Molecule Interactions," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5584-5587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hatanaka, Y.

Y. Hatanaka, M. Hashimoto, and Y. Kanaoka, "A Rapid and Efficient Method for Identifying Photoaffinity Biotinylated Sites within Proteins," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 453-454 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, T. K.-Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA," Opt. Express 13, 5205-5215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Biopolymers 67, 310-313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, M.

Ikoma, M.

M. Oikawa, M. Ikoma, and M. Sasak, "Alkoxyacetyl (AAc) group as a useful linker for organic synthesis on poly (ethylene glycol) support," Tetrahedron Lett. 45, 2371-2375 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

Jepsen, P. U.

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Biopolymers 67, 310-313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanaoka, Y.

Y. Hatanaka, M. Hashimoto, and Y. Kanaoka, "A Rapid and Efficient Method for Identifying Photoaffinity Biotinylated Sites within Proteins," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 453-454 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kanoh, N.

N. Kanoh, S. Kumashiro, S. Simizu, Y. Kondoh, S. Hatakeyama, H. Tashiro, and H. Osada, "Immobilization of Natural Products on Glass Slides by Using a Photoaffinity Reaction and the Detection of Protein-Small-Molecule Interactions," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5584-5587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

Kemp, M. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kondoh, Y.

N. Kanoh, S. Kumashiro, S. Simizu, Y. Kondoh, S. Hatakeyama, H. Tashiro, and H. Osada, "Immobilization of Natural Products on Glass Slides by Using a Photoaffinity Reaction and the Detection of Protein-Small-Molecule Interactions," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5584-5587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kooyman, R. P. H.

G. A. J. Besselink, R. P. H. Kooyman, P. J. H. J. van Os, G. H. M. Engbers, and R. B. M. Schasfoort, "Signal amplification on planar and gel-type sensor surfaces in surface plasmon resonance-based detection of prostate-specific antigen," Anal. Biochem,  333, 165-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumashiro, S.

N. Kanoh, S. Kumashiro, S. Simizu, Y. Kondoh, S. Hatakeyama, H. Tashiro, and H. Osada, "Immobilization of Natural Products on Glass Slides by Using a Photoaffinity Reaction and the Detection of Protein-Small-Molecule Interactions," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5584-5587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, A. M.

S. Fukui, T. Feizi, C. Galustian, A. M. Lawson, and W. Chai, "Oligosaccharide microarrays for high-throughput detection and specificity assignments of carbohydrate-protein interactions," Nature Biotechnology 20, 1011-1017 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

S. P Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu1, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, "Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology," Phys. Med. Biol. 47,3789-3795 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, T.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsudaira, P.

P. Matsudaira, "Sequence from Picomole Quantities of Proteins Electroblotted onto Polyvinylidene Difluoride Membranes," J. Biochem. 262, 10035-10038 (1987).

McDonnell, J. M.

J. M. McDonnell, "Surface plasmon resonance: towards an understanding of the mechanisms of biological molecular recognition," Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 5, 572-577 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menikh, A.

S. P Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu1, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, "Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology," Phys. Med. Biol. 47,3789-3795 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mickan, S. P

S. P Mickan, A. Menikh, H. Liu1, C. A. Mannella, R. MacColl, D. Abbott, J. Munch, and X.-C. Zhang, "Label-free bioaffinity detection using terahertz technology," Phys. Med. Biol. 47,3789-3795 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagel, M.

M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 154 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, "Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4049 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, Y.

Oikawa, M.

M. Oikawa, M. Ikoma, and M. Sasak, "Alkoxyacetyl (AAc) group as a useful linker for organic synthesis on poly (ethylene glycol) support," Tetrahedron Lett. 45, 2371-2375 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Osada, H.

N. Kanoh, S. Kumashiro, S. Simizu, Y. Kondoh, S. Hatakeyama, H. Tashiro, and H. Osada, "Immobilization of Natural Products on Glass Slides by Using a Photoaffinity Reaction and the Detection of Protein-Small-Molecule Interactions," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5584-5587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Plochocka, P.

M. Walther, P. Plochocka, B. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Collective vibrational modes in biological molecules investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Biopolymers 67, 310-313 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rutz, F.

Sasak, M.

M. Oikawa, M. Ikoma, and M. Sasak, "Alkoxyacetyl (AAc) group as a useful linker for organic synthesis on poly (ethylene glycol) support," Tetrahedron Lett. 45, 2371-2375 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schasfoort, R. B. M.

G. A. J. Besselink, R. P. H. Kooyman, P. J. H. J. van Os, G. H. M. Engbers, and R. B. M. Schasfoort, "Signal amplification on planar and gel-type sensor surfaces in surface plasmon resonance-based detection of prostate-specific antigen," Anal. Biochem,  333, 165-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schena, M.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, "Quantitative Monitoring of Gene Expression Patterns with a Complementary DNA Microarray," Science 270, 467-470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalon, D.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, R. W. Davis, and P. O. Brown, "Quantitative Monitoring of Gene Expression Patterns with a Complementary DNA Microarray," Science 270, 467-470 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Simizu, S.

N. Kanoh, S. Kumashiro, S. Simizu, Y. Kondoh, S. Hatakeyama, H. Tashiro, and H. Osada, "Immobilization of Natural Products on Glass Slides by Using a Photoaffinity Reaction and the Detection of Protein-Small-Molecule Interactions," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5584-5587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, M.

H. Zhu and M. Snyder, "Protein chip technology," Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7, 55-63 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taday, P. F.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tashiro, H.

N. Kanoh, S. Kumashiro, S. Simizu, Y. Kondoh, S. Hatakeyama, H. Tashiro, and H. Osada, "Immobilization of Natural Products on Glass Slides by Using a Photoaffinity Reaction and the Detection of Protein-Small-Molecule Interactions," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 5584-5587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tribe, W. R.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Os, P. J. H. J.

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G. A. J. Besselink, R. P. H. Kooyman, P. J. H. J. van Os, G. H. M. Engbers, and R. B. M. Schasfoort, "Signal amplification on planar and gel-type sensor surfaces in surface plasmon resonance-based detection of prostate-specific antigen," Anal. Biochem,  333, 165-173 (2004).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the terahertz imaging system based on a THz-TDS. The inset shows a cross-section of the sample stage.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Time-domain THz pulses obtained by measuring the difference signal between (a) no sample, 400 µm and 500 µm thickness of polyethylene; (b) frequency spectrum of the THz power. The inset on the upper figure (a) shows the schematic diagram of the reflected THz pulses.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic of the membrane with the array of samples and (b) scanner image (35×35 mm) of fluorescently-labeled streptavidin on membrane.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

THz image of the membrane at 1.5 THz. The image size is 171×171 pixel and the spatial resolution is 200 µm/pixel. The dark spots show the binding of biotin with the non-labeled streptavidin.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured spectra of a membrane are without streptavidin (dashed curve) and with streptavidin (solid curve). The measurement points correspond to areas marked (a) and (b) in Fig. 4.

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