Abstract

Multiphoton excitation by temporally focused pulses can be combined with spatial Fourier-transform pulse shaping techniques to enhance spatial control of the excitation volume. Here we propose and demonstrate an optical system for the generation of such spatiotemporally engineered light pulses using a combination of spatial control by a two-dimensional reconfigurable light modulator, with a dispersive optical setup for temporal focusing. We show that although the properties of a holographic beam significantly differ from those of plane-wave illumination used in previous temporal focusing realizations, this leads only to a slightly reduced axial resolution. We show that the system can provide scanningless, arbitrarily shaped, depth resolved excitation patterns that offer new perspectives for multiphoton photoactivation and optical lithography applications.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Gorostiza and E. Y. Isacoff, "Optical switches for remote and noninvasive control of cell signaling," Science 322, 395-399 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  4. S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. A. Bagal, J. P. Kao, C. M. Tang, and S. M. Thompson, "Long-term potentiation of exogenous glutamate responses at single dendritic spines," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 14434-14439 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. A. DiGregorio, J. S. Rothman, T. A. Nielsen, and R. A. Silver, "Desensitization properties of AMPA receptors at the cerebellar mossy fiber granule cell synapse," J. Neurosci. 27, 8344-8357 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. M. E. Durst, G. Zhu, and C. Xu, "Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing in nonlinear microscopy," Opt. Commun. 281, 1796-1805 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. E. Tal and Y. Silberberg, "Transformation from an ultrashort pulse to a spatiotemporal speckle by a thin scattering surface," Opt. Lett. 31, 3529-3531 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (6)

P. Gorostiza and E. Y. Isacoff, "Optical switches for remote and noninvasive control of cell signaling," Science 322, 395-399 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lutz, T. S. Otis, V. DeSars, S. Charpak, D. A. DiGregorio, and V. Emiliani, "Holographic photolysis of caged neurotransmitters," Nat Meth 5, 821-827 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Harvey, R. Yasuda, H. Zhong, and K. Svoboda, "The spread of Ras activity triggered by activation of a single dendritic spine," Science 321, 136-140 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Mohanty, R. K. Reinscheid, X. Liu, N. Okamura, T. B. Krasieva, and M. W. Berns, "In-depth activation of ChR2 sensitized excitable cells with high spatial resolution using two-photon excitation with near-IR laser microbeam," Biophys. J. 95, 3916-3926 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Matsuzaki, G. C. Ellis-Davies, and H. Kasai, "Three-dimensional mapping of unitary synaptic connections by two-photon macro photolysis of caged glutamate," J Neurophysiol. 99, 1535-1544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Durst, G. Zhu, and C. Xu, "Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing in nonlinear microscopy," Opt. Commun. 281, 1796-1805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

S. Wang, S. Szobota, Y. Wang, M. Volgraf, Z. Liu, C. Sun, D. Trauner, E. Y. Isacoff, and X. Zhang, "All optical interface for parallel, remote, and spatiotemporal control of neuronal activity," Nano Lett. 7, 3859-3863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. DiGregorio, J. S. Rothman, T. A. Nielsen, and R. A. Silver, "Desensitization properties of AMPA receptors at the cerebellar mossy fiber granule cell synapse," J. Neurosci. 27, 8344-8357 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, E. S. Boyden, and K. Deisseroth, "Channelrhodopsin-2 and optical control of excitable cells," Nat. Meth. 3, 785-792 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Judkewitz, A. Roth, and M. Hausser, "Dendritic enlightenment: using patterned two-photon uncaging to reveal the secrets of the brain's smallest dendrites," Neuron 50, 180-183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gasparini and J. C. Magee, "State-dependent dendritic computation in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons," J. Neurosci. 26, 2088-2100 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Tal and Y. Silberberg, "Transformation from an ultrashort pulse to a spatiotemporal speckle by a thin scattering surface," Opt. Lett. 31, 3529-3531 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

D. Oron, E. Tal, and Y. Silberberg, "Scanningless depth-resolved microscopy," Opt. Express 13, 1468-1476 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Tal, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Improved depth resolution in video-rate line-scanning multiphoton microscopy using temporal focusing," Opt. Lett. 30, 1686-1688 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Oron and Y. Silberberg, "Harmonic generation with temporally focused ultrashort pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2660-2663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Shoham, D. H. O'Connor, D. V. Sarkisov, and S. S. Wang, "Rapid neurotransmitter uncaging in spatially defined patterns," Nat. Meth. 2, 837-843 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bagal, J. P. Kao, C. M. Tang, and S. M. Thompson, "Long-term potentiation of exogenous glutamate responses at single dendritic spines," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 14434-14439 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Shepherd and K. Svoboda, "Laminar and columnar organization of ascending excitatory projections to layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in rat barrel cortex," J. Neurosci. 25, 5670-5679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. G. Carter and B. L. Sabatini, "State-dependent calcium signaling in dendritic spines of striatal medium spiny neurons," Neuron 44, 483-493 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

M. Canepari, G. Papageorgiou, J. E. Corrie, C. Watkins, and D. Ogden, "The conductance underlying the parallel fibre slow EPSP in rat cerebellar Purkinje neurones studied with photolytic release of L-glutamate," J. Physiol. 533, 765-772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, "Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth," J. Neurosci. Methods 111, 29-37 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Matsuzaki, G. C. Ellis-Davies, T. Nemoto, Y. Miyashita, M. Iino, and H. Kasai, "Dendritic spine geometry is critical for AMPA receptor expression in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons," Nat. Neurosci. 4, 1086-1092 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

E. B. Brown, J. B. Shear, S. R. Adams, R. Y. Tsien, and W. W. Webb, "Photolysis of caged calcium in femtoliter volumes using two-photon excitation," Biophys J 76, 489-499 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

D. L. Pettit, S. S. Wang, K. R. Gee, and G. J. Augustine, "Chemical two-photon uncaging: a novel approach to mapping glutamate receptors," Neuron 19, 465-471 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1983 (1)

L. J. Horneck, "128 X 128 Deformable Mirror Device," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 30, 539 (1983).

1972 (1)

Q1. R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A pratical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction pictures," Optik 35, 237-246 (1972).

Aaron, H. L.

S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, S. R.

E. B. Brown, J. B. Shear, S. R. Adams, R. Y. Tsien, and W. W. Webb, "Photolysis of caged calcium in femtoliter volumes using two-photon excitation," Biophys J 76, 489-499 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augustine, G. J.

D. L. Pettit, S. S. Wang, K. R. Gee, and G. J. Augustine, "Chemical two-photon uncaging: a novel approach to mapping glutamate receptors," Neuron 19, 465-471 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagal, A. A.

A. A. Bagal, J. P. Kao, C. M. Tang, and S. M. Thompson, "Long-term potentiation of exogenous glutamate responses at single dendritic spines," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 14434-14439 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baier, H.

S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaurepaire, E.

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, "Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth," J. Neurosci. Methods 111, 29-37 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berns, M. W.

S. K. Mohanty, R. K. Reinscheid, X. Liu, N. Okamura, T. B. Krasieva, and M. W. Berns, "In-depth activation of ChR2 sensitized excitable cells with high spatial resolution using two-photon excitation with near-IR laser microbeam," Biophys. J. 95, 3916-3926 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyden, E. S.

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, E. S. Boyden, and K. Deisseroth, "Channelrhodopsin-2 and optical control of excitable cells," Nat. Meth. 3, 785-792 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E. B.

E. B. Brown, J. B. Shear, S. R. Adams, R. Y. Tsien, and W. W. Webb, "Photolysis of caged calcium in femtoliter volumes using two-photon excitation," Biophys J 76, 489-499 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryngdahl, O.

Canepari, M.

M. Canepari, G. Papageorgiou, J. E. Corrie, C. Watkins, and D. Ogden, "The conductance underlying the parallel fibre slow EPSP in rat cerebellar Purkinje neurones studied with photolytic release of L-glutamate," J. Physiol. 533, 765-772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, A. G.

A. G. Carter and B. L. Sabatini, "State-dependent calcium signaling in dendritic spines of striatal medium spiny neurons," Neuron 44, 483-493 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaigneau, E.

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, "Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth," J. Neurosci. Methods 111, 29-37 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charpak, S.

C. Lutz, T. S. Otis, V. DeSars, S. Charpak, D. A. DiGregorio, and V. Emiliani, "Holographic photolysis of caged neurotransmitters," Nat Meth 5, 821-827 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, "Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth," J. Neurosci. Methods 111, 29-37 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corrie, J. E.

M. Canepari, G. Papageorgiou, J. E. Corrie, C. Watkins, and D. Ogden, "The conductance underlying the parallel fibre slow EPSP in rat cerebellar Purkinje neurones studied with photolytic release of L-glutamate," J. Physiol. 533, 765-772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deisseroth, K.

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, E. S. Boyden, and K. Deisseroth, "Channelrhodopsin-2 and optical control of excitable cells," Nat. Meth. 3, 785-792 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Del Bene, F.

S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeSars, V.

C. Lutz, T. S. Otis, V. DeSars, S. Charpak, D. A. DiGregorio, and V. Emiliani, "Holographic photolysis of caged neurotransmitters," Nat Meth 5, 821-827 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DiGregorio, D. A.

C. Lutz, T. S. Otis, V. DeSars, S. Charpak, D. A. DiGregorio, and V. Emiliani, "Holographic photolysis of caged neurotransmitters," Nat Meth 5, 821-827 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. A. DiGregorio, J. S. Rothman, T. A. Nielsen, and R. A. Silver, "Desensitization properties of AMPA receptors at the cerebellar mossy fiber granule cell synapse," J. Neurosci. 27, 8344-8357 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durst, M. E.

M. E. Durst, G. Zhu, and C. Xu, "Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing in nonlinear microscopy," Opt. Commun. 281, 1796-1805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellis-Davies, G. C.

M. Matsuzaki, G. C. Ellis-Davies, and H. Kasai, "Three-dimensional mapping of unitary synaptic connections by two-photon macro photolysis of caged glutamate," J Neurophysiol. 99, 1535-1544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Matsuzaki, G. C. Ellis-Davies, T. Nemoto, Y. Miyashita, M. Iino, and H. Kasai, "Dendritic spine geometry is critical for AMPA receptor expression in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons," Nat. Neurosci. 4, 1086-1092 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emiliani, V.

C. Lutz, T. S. Otis, V. DeSars, S. Charpak, D. A. DiGregorio, and V. Emiliani, "Holographic photolysis of caged neurotransmitters," Nat Meth 5, 821-827 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, J.

S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortin, D. L.

S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gasparini, S.

S. Gasparini and J. C. Magee, "State-dependent dendritic computation in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons," J. Neurosci. 26, 2088-2100 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gee, K. R.

D. L. Pettit, S. S. Wang, K. R. Gee, and G. J. Augustine, "Chemical two-photon uncaging: a novel approach to mapping glutamate receptors," Neuron 19, 465-471 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerchberg, R. W.

Q1. R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A pratical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction pictures," Optik 35, 237-246 (1972).

Gorostiza, P.

P. Gorostiza and E. Y. Isacoff, "Optical switches for remote and noninvasive control of cell signaling," Science 322, 395-399 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harvey, C. D.

C. D. Harvey, R. Yasuda, H. Zhong, and K. Svoboda, "The spread of Ras activity triggered by activation of a single dendritic spine," Science 321, 136-140 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hausser, M.

B. Judkewitz, A. Roth, and M. Hausser, "Dendritic enlightenment: using patterned two-photon uncaging to reveal the secrets of the brain's smallest dendrites," Neuron 50, 180-183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horneck, L. J.

L. J. Horneck, "128 X 128 Deformable Mirror Device," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 30, 539 (1983).

Iino, M.

M. Matsuzaki, G. C. Ellis-Davies, T. Nemoto, Y. Miyashita, M. Iino, and H. Kasai, "Dendritic spine geometry is critical for AMPA receptor expression in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons," Nat. Neurosci. 4, 1086-1092 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isacoff, E. Y.

P. Gorostiza and E. Y. Isacoff, "Optical switches for remote and noninvasive control of cell signaling," Science 322, 395-399 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, S. Szobota, Y. Wang, M. Volgraf, Z. Liu, C. Sun, D. Trauner, E. Y. Isacoff, and X. Zhang, "All optical interface for parallel, remote, and spatiotemporal control of neuronal activity," Nano Lett. 7, 3859-3863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Judkewitz, B.

B. Judkewitz, A. Roth, and M. Hausser, "Dendritic enlightenment: using patterned two-photon uncaging to reveal the secrets of the brain's smallest dendrites," Neuron 50, 180-183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kao, J. P.

A. A. Bagal, J. P. Kao, C. M. Tang, and S. M. Thompson, "Long-term potentiation of exogenous glutamate responses at single dendritic spines," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 14434-14439 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasai, H.

M. Matsuzaki, G. C. Ellis-Davies, and H. Kasai, "Three-dimensional mapping of unitary synaptic connections by two-photon macro photolysis of caged glutamate," J Neurophysiol. 99, 1535-1544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Matsuzaki, G. C. Ellis-Davies, T. Nemoto, Y. Miyashita, M. Iino, and H. Kasai, "Dendritic spine geometry is critical for AMPA receptor expression in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons," Nat. Neurosci. 4, 1086-1092 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolstad, K. D.

S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kramer, R. H.

S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krasieva, T. B.

S. K. Mohanty, R. K. Reinscheid, X. Liu, N. Okamura, T. B. Krasieva, and M. W. Berns, "In-depth activation of ChR2 sensitized excitable cells with high spatial resolution using two-photon excitation with near-IR laser microbeam," Biophys. J. 95, 3916-3926 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

S. K. Mohanty, R. K. Reinscheid, X. Liu, N. Okamura, T. B. Krasieva, and M. W. Berns, "In-depth activation of ChR2 sensitized excitable cells with high spatial resolution using two-photon excitation with near-IR laser microbeam," Biophys. J. 95, 3916-3926 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

S. Wang, S. Szobota, Y. Wang, M. Volgraf, Z. Liu, C. Sun, D. Trauner, E. Y. Isacoff, and X. Zhang, "All optical interface for parallel, remote, and spatiotemporal control of neuronal activity," Nano Lett. 7, 3859-3863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lutz, C.

C. Lutz, T. S. Otis, V. DeSars, S. Charpak, D. A. DiGregorio, and V. Emiliani, "Holographic photolysis of caged neurotransmitters," Nat Meth 5, 821-827 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Magee, J. C.

S. Gasparini and J. C. Magee, "State-dependent dendritic computation in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons," J. Neurosci. 26, 2088-2100 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuzaki, M.

M. Matsuzaki, G. C. Ellis-Davies, and H. Kasai, "Three-dimensional mapping of unitary synaptic connections by two-photon macro photolysis of caged glutamate," J Neurophysiol. 99, 1535-1544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Matsuzaki, G. C. Ellis-Davies, T. Nemoto, Y. Miyashita, M. Iino, and H. Kasai, "Dendritic spine geometry is critical for AMPA receptor expression in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons," Nat. Neurosci. 4, 1086-1092 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mertz, J.

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, "Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth," J. Neurosci. Methods 111, 29-37 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyashita, Y.

M. Matsuzaki, G. C. Ellis-Davies, T. Nemoto, Y. Miyashita, M. Iino, and H. Kasai, "Dendritic spine geometry is critical for AMPA receptor expression in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons," Nat. Neurosci. 4, 1086-1092 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohanty, S. K.

S. K. Mohanty, R. K. Reinscheid, X. Liu, N. Okamura, T. B. Krasieva, and M. W. Berns, "In-depth activation of ChR2 sensitized excitable cells with high spatial resolution using two-photon excitation with near-IR laser microbeam," Biophys. J. 95, 3916-3926 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemoto, T.

M. Matsuzaki, G. C. Ellis-Davies, T. Nemoto, Y. Miyashita, M. Iino, and H. Kasai, "Dendritic spine geometry is critical for AMPA receptor expression in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons," Nat. Neurosci. 4, 1086-1092 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, T. A.

D. A. DiGregorio, J. S. Rothman, T. A. Nielsen, and R. A. Silver, "Desensitization properties of AMPA receptors at the cerebellar mossy fiber granule cell synapse," J. Neurosci. 27, 8344-8357 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Numano, R.

S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Connor, D. H.

S. Shoham, D. H. O'Connor, D. V. Sarkisov, and S. S. Wang, "Rapid neurotransmitter uncaging in spatially defined patterns," Nat. Meth. 2, 837-843 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ogden, D.

M. Canepari, G. Papageorgiou, J. E. Corrie, C. Watkins, and D. Ogden, "The conductance underlying the parallel fibre slow EPSP in rat cerebellar Purkinje neurones studied with photolytic release of L-glutamate," J. Physiol. 533, 765-772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oheim, M.

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, "Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth," J. Neurosci. Methods 111, 29-37 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamura, N.

S. K. Mohanty, R. K. Reinscheid, X. Liu, N. Okamura, T. B. Krasieva, and M. W. Berns, "In-depth activation of ChR2 sensitized excitable cells with high spatial resolution using two-photon excitation with near-IR laser microbeam," Biophys. J. 95, 3916-3926 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oron, D.

Otis, T. S.

C. Lutz, T. S. Otis, V. DeSars, S. Charpak, D. A. DiGregorio, and V. Emiliani, "Holographic photolysis of caged neurotransmitters," Nat Meth 5, 821-827 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Papageorgiou, G.

M. Canepari, G. Papageorgiou, J. E. Corrie, C. Watkins, and D. Ogden, "The conductance underlying the parallel fibre slow EPSP in rat cerebellar Purkinje neurones studied with photolytic release of L-glutamate," J. Physiol. 533, 765-772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pettit, D. L.

D. L. Pettit, S. S. Wang, K. R. Gee, and G. J. Augustine, "Chemical two-photon uncaging: a novel approach to mapping glutamate receptors," Neuron 19, 465-471 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinscheid, R. K.

S. K. Mohanty, R. K. Reinscheid, X. Liu, N. Okamura, T. B. Krasieva, and M. W. Berns, "In-depth activation of ChR2 sensitized excitable cells with high spatial resolution using two-photon excitation with near-IR laser microbeam," Biophys. J. 95, 3916-3926 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, A.

B. Judkewitz, A. Roth, and M. Hausser, "Dendritic enlightenment: using patterned two-photon uncaging to reveal the secrets of the brain's smallest dendrites," Neuron 50, 180-183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothman, J. S.

D. A. DiGregorio, J. S. Rothman, T. A. Nielsen, and R. A. Silver, "Desensitization properties of AMPA receptors at the cerebellar mossy fiber granule cell synapse," J. Neurosci. 27, 8344-8357 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabatini, B. L.

A. G. Carter and B. L. Sabatini, "State-dependent calcium signaling in dendritic spines of striatal medium spiny neurons," Neuron 44, 483-493 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarkisov, D. V.

S. Shoham, D. H. O'Connor, D. V. Sarkisov, and S. S. Wang, "Rapid neurotransmitter uncaging in spatially defined patterns," Nat. Meth. 2, 837-843 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saxton, W. O.

Q1. R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A pratical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction pictures," Optik 35, 237-246 (1972).

Scott, E. K.

S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shear, J. B.

E. B. Brown, J. B. Shear, S. R. Adams, R. Y. Tsien, and W. W. Webb, "Photolysis of caged calcium in femtoliter volumes using two-photon excitation," Biophys J 76, 489-499 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shepherd, G. M.

G. M. Shepherd and K. Svoboda, "Laminar and columnar organization of ascending excitatory projections to layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in rat barrel cortex," J. Neurosci. 25, 5670-5679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoham, S.

S. Shoham, D. H. O'Connor, D. V. Sarkisov, and S. S. Wang, "Rapid neurotransmitter uncaging in spatially defined patterns," Nat. Meth. 2, 837-843 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Silver, R. A.

D. A. DiGregorio, J. S. Rothman, T. A. Nielsen, and R. A. Silver, "Desensitization properties of AMPA receptors at the cerebellar mossy fiber granule cell synapse," J. Neurosci. 27, 8344-8357 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

S. Wang, S. Szobota, Y. Wang, M. Volgraf, Z. Liu, C. Sun, D. Trauner, E. Y. Isacoff, and X. Zhang, "All optical interface for parallel, remote, and spatiotemporal control of neuronal activity," Nano Lett. 7, 3859-3863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svoboda, K.

C. D. Harvey, R. Yasuda, H. Zhong, and K. Svoboda, "The spread of Ras activity triggered by activation of a single dendritic spine," Science 321, 136-140 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Shepherd and K. Svoboda, "Laminar and columnar organization of ascending excitatory projections to layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in rat barrel cortex," J. Neurosci. 25, 5670-5679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szobota, S.

S. Wang, S. Szobota, Y. Wang, M. Volgraf, Z. Liu, C. Sun, D. Trauner, E. Y. Isacoff, and X. Zhang, "All optical interface for parallel, remote, and spatiotemporal control of neuronal activity," Nano Lett. 7, 3859-3863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tal, E.

Tang, C. M.

A. A. Bagal, J. P. Kao, C. M. Tang, and S. M. Thompson, "Long-term potentiation of exogenous glutamate responses at single dendritic spines," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 14434-14439 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, S. M.

A. A. Bagal, J. P. Kao, C. M. Tang, and S. M. Thompson, "Long-term potentiation of exogenous glutamate responses at single dendritic spines," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 14434-14439 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trauner, D.

S. Wang, S. Szobota, Y. Wang, M. Volgraf, Z. Liu, C. Sun, D. Trauner, E. Y. Isacoff, and X. Zhang, "All optical interface for parallel, remote, and spatiotemporal control of neuronal activity," Nano Lett. 7, 3859-3863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsien, R. Y.

E. B. Brown, J. B. Shear, S. R. Adams, R. Y. Tsien, and W. W. Webb, "Photolysis of caged calcium in femtoliter volumes using two-photon excitation," Biophys J 76, 489-499 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tulyathan, O.

S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volgraf, M.

S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wang, S. Szobota, Y. Wang, M. Volgraf, Z. Liu, C. Sun, D. Trauner, E. Y. Isacoff, and X. Zhang, "All optical interface for parallel, remote, and spatiotemporal control of neuronal activity," Nano Lett. 7, 3859-3863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. P.

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, E. S. Boyden, and K. Deisseroth, "Channelrhodopsin-2 and optical control of excitable cells," Nat. Meth. 3, 785-792 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, S. Szobota, Y. Wang, M. Volgraf, Z. Liu, C. Sun, D. Trauner, E. Y. Isacoff, and X. Zhang, "All optical interface for parallel, remote, and spatiotemporal control of neuronal activity," Nano Lett. 7, 3859-3863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S. S.

S. Shoham, D. H. O'Connor, D. V. Sarkisov, and S. S. Wang, "Rapid neurotransmitter uncaging in spatially defined patterns," Nat. Meth. 2, 837-843 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Pettit, S. S. Wang, K. R. Gee, and G. J. Augustine, "Chemical two-photon uncaging: a novel approach to mapping glutamate receptors," Neuron 19, 465-471 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

S. Wang, S. Szobota, Y. Wang, M. Volgraf, Z. Liu, C. Sun, D. Trauner, E. Y. Isacoff, and X. Zhang, "All optical interface for parallel, remote, and spatiotemporal control of neuronal activity," Nano Lett. 7, 3859-3863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watkins, C.

M. Canepari, G. Papageorgiou, J. E. Corrie, C. Watkins, and D. Ogden, "The conductance underlying the parallel fibre slow EPSP in rat cerebellar Purkinje neurones studied with photolytic release of L-glutamate," J. Physiol. 533, 765-772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

E. B. Brown, J. B. Shear, S. R. Adams, R. Y. Tsien, and W. W. Webb, "Photolysis of caged calcium in femtoliter volumes using two-photon excitation," Biophys J 76, 489-499 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyart, C.

S. Szobota, P. Gorostiza, F. Del Bene, C. Wyart, D. L. Fortin, K. D. Kolstad, O. Tulyathan, M. Volgraf, R. Numano, H. L. Aaron, E. K. Scott, R. H. Kramer, J. Flannery, H. Baier, D. Trauner, and E. Y. Isacoff, "Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor," Neuron 54, 535-545 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyrowski, F.

Xu, C.

M. E. Durst, G. Zhu, and C. Xu, "Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing in nonlinear microscopy," Opt. Commun. 281, 1796-1805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasuda, R.

C. D. Harvey, R. Yasuda, H. Zhong, and K. Svoboda, "The spread of Ras activity triggered by activation of a single dendritic spine," Science 321, 136-140 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, E. S. Boyden, and K. Deisseroth, "Channelrhodopsin-2 and optical control of excitable cells," Nat. Meth. 3, 785-792 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

S. Wang, S. Szobota, Y. Wang, M. Volgraf, Z. Liu, C. Sun, D. Trauner, E. Y. Isacoff, and X. Zhang, "All optical interface for parallel, remote, and spatiotemporal control of neuronal activity," Nano Lett. 7, 3859-3863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, H.

C. D. Harvey, R. Yasuda, H. Zhong, and K. Svoboda, "The spread of Ras activity triggered by activation of a single dendritic spine," Science 321, 136-140 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

M. E. Durst, G. Zhu, and C. Xu, "Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing in nonlinear microscopy," Opt. Commun. 281, 1796-1805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys J (1)

E. B. Brown, J. B. Shear, S. R. Adams, R. Y. Tsien, and W. W. Webb, "Photolysis of caged calcium in femtoliter volumes using two-photon excitation," Biophys J 76, 489-499 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

S. K. Mohanty, R. K. Reinscheid, X. Liu, N. Okamura, T. B. Krasieva, and M. W. Berns, "In-depth activation of ChR2 sensitized excitable cells with high spatial resolution using two-photon excitation with near-IR laser microbeam," Biophys. J. 95, 3916-3926 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

L. J. Horneck, "128 X 128 Deformable Mirror Device," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 30, 539 (1983).

J Neurophysiol. (1)

M. Matsuzaki, G. C. Ellis-Davies, and H. Kasai, "Three-dimensional mapping of unitary synaptic connections by two-photon macro photolysis of caged glutamate," J Neurophysiol. 99, 1535-1544 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (3)

S. Gasparini and J. C. Magee, "State-dependent dendritic computation in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons," J. Neurosci. 26, 2088-2100 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. DiGregorio, J. S. Rothman, T. A. Nielsen, and R. A. Silver, "Desensitization properties of AMPA receptors at the cerebellar mossy fiber granule cell synapse," J. Neurosci. 27, 8344-8357 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Shepherd and K. Svoboda, "Laminar and columnar organization of ascending excitatory projections to layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in rat barrel cortex," J. Neurosci. 25, 5670-5679 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, "Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth," J. Neurosci. Methods 111, 29-37 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Physiol. (1)

M. Canepari, G. Papageorgiou, J. E. Corrie, C. Watkins, and D. Ogden, "The conductance underlying the parallel fibre slow EPSP in rat cerebellar Purkinje neurones studied with photolytic release of L-glutamate," J. Physiol. 533, 765-772 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

S. Wang, S. Szobota, Y. Wang, M. Volgraf, Z. Liu, C. Sun, D. Trauner, E. Y. Isacoff, and X. Zhang, "All optical interface for parallel, remote, and spatiotemporal control of neuronal activity," Nano Lett. 7, 3859-3863 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Meth (1)

C. Lutz, T. S. Otis, V. DeSars, S. Charpak, D. A. DiGregorio, and V. Emiliani, "Holographic photolysis of caged neurotransmitters," Nat Meth 5, 821-827 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Meth. (2)

S. Shoham, D. H. O'Connor, D. V. Sarkisov, and S. S. Wang, "Rapid neurotransmitter uncaging in spatially defined patterns," Nat. Meth. 2, 837-843 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, E. S. Boyden, and K. Deisseroth, "Channelrhodopsin-2 and optical control of excitable cells," Nat. Meth. 3, 785-792 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Neurosci. (1)

M. Matsuzaki, G. C. Ellis-Davies, T. Nemoto, Y. Miyashita, M. Iino, and H. Kasai, "Dendritic spine geometry is critical for AMPA receptor expression in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons," Nat. Neurosci. 4, 1086-1092 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuron (4)

A. G. Carter and B. L. Sabatini, "State-dependent calcium signaling in dendritic spines of striatal medium spiny neurons," Neuron 44, 483-493 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Judkewitz, A. Roth, and M. Hausser, "Dendritic enlightenment: using patterned two-photon uncaging to reveal the secrets of the brain's smallest dendrites," Neuron 50, 180-183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Pettit, S. S. Wang, K. R. Gee, and G. J. Augustine, "Chemical two-photon uncaging: a novel approach to mapping glutamate receptors," Neuron 19, 465-471 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Layout of the experimental setup. (b) Images of 10, 20 and 30µm diameter spots, obtained by two-photon excitation of a ~0.9µm thick spin-coated fluorescent layer. (c) A confocal image is recorded from a Purkinje cell loaded by Alexa 535. A selected region of interest (dashed box) is extracted and sent as the input for the calculation algorithm. (d) Phase-hologram generated by the algorithm (e) Illumination spot generated at the objective focal plane, with the phase-hologram of (d), visualized by exciting the thin fluorescent layer. (f) Overlay of (c) and (e).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured axial profiles of the intensity distribution for the 30, 20, 10µm diameter spot and the dendritic shape of Fig. 1; (a) without temporal focusing; the grating was replaced by a reflecting mirror. (b) with temporal focusing. (c) Calculated axial intensity distribution for a 1, 2, 5 and 10µm diameter spot compared to the two limiting cases of Gaussian circular illumination and line illumination, with temporal focusing. Inset: dependence of the calculated depth resolution on the lateral spot size. (d) Experimental (black squares) and theoretical (red solid line) axial intensity distribution profile for a temporally focused Gaussian beam (flat phase).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Images (100ms integration time) of a holographic shape visualized by exciting a thin fluorescent layer without (left) and with (right) a rotating diffuser positioned after the dispersion grating. 40 different locations of the diffuser were averaged in the 100 ms of the exposure time. (b) Lateral intensity profile of the excited shape along the yellow lines of Fig. 3(a) right (black line) and left (red line). The intensity variation around a mean value A is ~50% for the black line and is reduced to 10% with the rotating diffuser.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Summary of depth resolutions achieved with temporal focusing of the excitation beam

Equations (1)

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I po int [ 1 + ( Δ z z R ) 2 ] 1 ; I line [ 1 + ( Δ z z R ) 2 ] 0.5

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