Abstract

In this paper, we discuss the multicast efficiency issue in the optical layer multicast. A 1-to-8 phase-preserved different phase-shifted keying (DPSK) wavelength multicast is experimentally demonstrated using four-wave mixing (FWM) in a piece of Bismuth highly nonlinear fiber (Bi-HNLF). DPSK signal is successfully delivered from one wavelength to up to eight different wavelengths using only three pumps. Compared with the existing schemes, the multicast efficiency is greatly improved by delivering the phase information to more destination wavelengths.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. Zhang, J. Wei, and C. Qiao, "On fundamental issues in IP over WDM multicasting," in Int. Conf. Computer, Communications and Networks (IC3N) (1999), pp. 84-90.
  2. C. Y. Li, P. K. A. Wai, X. C. Yuan, and V. O. K. Li, "Multicasting in deflection-routed all-optical packet-switched networks," in Proceeding of Globecom (2002), Taipei, pp.17-21.
  3. G. Contestabile, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, "Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1775-1777 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Ito, I. Ogawa, Y. Suzaki, K. Magari, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzuki, N. Ishihara," Eight-channel simultaneous wavelength conversion from equal to unequal channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1106-1108 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Miyazaki, T. Kato, Y. Nagao, S. Yamamoto, "Multicast demonstration in the optical cross-connect node using the wavelength converter by a semiconductor optical amplifier," The OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series 30, 212-215 (1999).
  6. L. Xu, N. Chi, K. Yvind, L. Christiansen, L. Oxenløwe, J. Mørk, P. Jeppesen, and J. Hanberg, "7× 40 Gb/s base-rate RZ all-optical broadcasting utilizing an electroabsorption modulator," Opt. Express 12, 416-420 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Q. Lin, R. Jiang, C. F. Marki, C. J. McKinstrie, R. Jopson, J. Ford, G. P. Agrawal, S. Radic, "40-gb/s optical switching and wavelength multicasting in a two-pump parametric device," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2376-2378 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Wang, C. Yu, T. Luo, L. Yan, Z. Pan and A. E. Willner, "Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting using orthogonally polarized fiber FWM," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3331-3338 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. P. Fok and C. Shu, "Multipump four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber for 6x10Gb/s wavelength multicasting of DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1166-1168 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G.-W. Lu, K. S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, "Wavelength Multicasting of DPSK Signals Using Dual-Pump FWM in a Bismuth-Oxide Highly Nonlinear Fiber," in Proc. OFC (2008), paper OMP4.
  11. G.-W. Lu, K. S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, "DPSK Wavelength Multicasting using FWM with Three Unequally Spaced Pumps in a Bismuth-Oxide Highly Nonlinear Fiber," in Proc. CLEO/QELS (2008), paper JWA100.
  12. P. V. Mieghem, G. Hooghiemstra, and R. Hofstad, "On the efficiency of multicast," IEEE/ACM Transaction on networking 9, 719-732 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, T. Tanemura and K. Kikuchi, "Wavelength conversion of 40-Gb/s NRZ signal using four-wave mixing in 40-cm-long Bismuth oxide based highly-nonlinear optical fiber," in Proc. OFC (2005), paper PDP23.
  14. G.-W. Lu, K. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, "All-optical Broadband Tunable Wavelength Multicasting using a Pump-Modulated Wide-Band Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier with High and Flat Gain," in Proc. ECOC (2007), paper P027.
  15. C. Bres, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, "1-to-40 Multicasting and Amplification of 40Gbps Channels in Wideband Parametric Amplifier," in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP16.
  16. K. Lau, L. Xu, S. H. Wang, L. F. K. Lui, P. K. W. Wai, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, "Selectable multicast using Raman-assisted four-wave mixing in dispersion shifted fiber," in Proc. OECC/IOCC (2007), paper 12P-14.
  17. K. K. Chow, K. Kikuchi, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, and N. Sugimoto, "Widely tunable wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in 1-m dispersion-shifted Bismuth-Oxide photonic crystal fiber," in Proc. OFC (2007), paper OTuI2.

2007 (1)

M. P. Fok and C. Shu, "Multipump four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber for 6x10Gb/s wavelength multicasting of DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1166-1168 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Q. Lin, R. Jiang, C. F. Marki, C. J. McKinstrie, R. Jopson, J. Ford, G. P. Agrawal, S. Radic, "40-gb/s optical switching and wavelength multicasting in a two-pump parametric device," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2376-2378 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Yu, T. Luo, L. Yan, Z. Pan and A. E. Willner, "Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting using orthogonally polarized fiber FWM," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3331-3338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, "Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1775-1777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, N. Chi, K. Yvind, L. Christiansen, L. Oxenløwe, J. Mørk, P. Jeppesen, and J. Hanberg, "7× 40 Gb/s base-rate RZ all-optical broadcasting utilizing an electroabsorption modulator," Opt. Express 12, 416-420 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. Ito, I. Ogawa, Y. Suzaki, K. Magari, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzuki, N. Ishihara," Eight-channel simultaneous wavelength conversion from equal to unequal channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1106-1108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Miyazaki, T. Kato, Y. Nagao, S. Yamamoto, "Multicast demonstration in the optical cross-connect node using the wavelength converter by a semiconductor optical amplifier," The OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series 30, 212-215 (1999).

Agrawal, G. P.

Q. Lin, R. Jiang, C. F. Marki, C. J. McKinstrie, R. Jopson, J. Ford, G. P. Agrawal, S. Radic, "40-gb/s optical switching and wavelength multicasting in a two-pump parametric device," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2376-2378 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chi, N.

Christiansen, L.

Ciaramella, E.

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, "Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1775-1777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Contestabile, G.

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, "Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1775-1777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fok, M. P.

M. P. Fok and C. Shu, "Multipump four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber for 6x10Gb/s wavelength multicasting of DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1166-1168 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ford, J.

Q. Lin, R. Jiang, C. F. Marki, C. J. McKinstrie, R. Jopson, J. Ford, G. P. Agrawal, S. Radic, "40-gb/s optical switching and wavelength multicasting in a two-pump parametric device," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2376-2378 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hanberg, J.

Ishihara, N.

T. Ito, I. Ogawa, Y. Suzaki, K. Magari, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzuki, N. Ishihara," Eight-channel simultaneous wavelength conversion from equal to unequal channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1106-1108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

T. Ito, I. Ogawa, Y. Suzaki, K. Magari, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzuki, N. Ishihara," Eight-channel simultaneous wavelength conversion from equal to unequal channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1106-1108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, P.

Jiang, R.

Q. Lin, R. Jiang, C. F. Marki, C. J. McKinstrie, R. Jopson, J. Ford, G. P. Agrawal, S. Radic, "40-gb/s optical switching and wavelength multicasting in a two-pump parametric device," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2376-2378 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jopson, R.

Q. Lin, R. Jiang, C. F. Marki, C. J. McKinstrie, R. Jopson, J. Ford, G. P. Agrawal, S. Radic, "40-gb/s optical switching and wavelength multicasting in a two-pump parametric device," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2376-2378 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

T. Miyazaki, T. Kato, Y. Nagao, S. Yamamoto, "Multicast demonstration in the optical cross-connect node using the wavelength converter by a semiconductor optical amplifier," The OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series 30, 212-215 (1999).

Kawaguchi, Y.

T. Ito, I. Ogawa, Y. Suzaki, K. Magari, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzuki, N. Ishihara," Eight-channel simultaneous wavelength conversion from equal to unequal channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1106-1108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Q. Lin, R. Jiang, C. F. Marki, C. J. McKinstrie, R. Jopson, J. Ford, G. P. Agrawal, S. Radic, "40-gb/s optical switching and wavelength multicasting in a two-pump parametric device," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2376-2378 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, T.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, T. Luo, L. Yan, Z. Pan and A. E. Willner, "Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting using orthogonally polarized fiber FWM," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3331-3338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Magari, K.

T. Ito, I. Ogawa, Y. Suzaki, K. Magari, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzuki, N. Ishihara," Eight-channel simultaneous wavelength conversion from equal to unequal channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1106-1108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marki, C. F.

Q. Lin, R. Jiang, C. F. Marki, C. J. McKinstrie, R. Jopson, J. Ford, G. P. Agrawal, S. Radic, "40-gb/s optical switching and wavelength multicasting in a two-pump parametric device," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2376-2378 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McKinstrie, C. J.

Q. Lin, R. Jiang, C. F. Marki, C. J. McKinstrie, R. Jopson, J. Ford, G. P. Agrawal, S. Radic, "40-gb/s optical switching and wavelength multicasting in a two-pump parametric device," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2376-2378 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, T.

T. Miyazaki, T. Kato, Y. Nagao, S. Yamamoto, "Multicast demonstration in the optical cross-connect node using the wavelength converter by a semiconductor optical amplifier," The OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series 30, 212-215 (1999).

Mørk, J.

Nagao, Y.

T. Miyazaki, T. Kato, Y. Nagao, S. Yamamoto, "Multicast demonstration in the optical cross-connect node using the wavelength converter by a semiconductor optical amplifier," The OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series 30, 212-215 (1999).

Ogawa, I.

T. Ito, I. Ogawa, Y. Suzaki, K. Magari, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzuki, N. Ishihara," Eight-channel simultaneous wavelength conversion from equal to unequal channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1106-1108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oxenløwe, L.

Pan, Z.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, T. Luo, L. Yan, Z. Pan and A. E. Willner, "Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting using orthogonally polarized fiber FWM," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3331-3338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Presi, M.

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, "Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1775-1777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

Q. Lin, R. Jiang, C. F. Marki, C. J. McKinstrie, R. Jopson, J. Ford, G. P. Agrawal, S. Radic, "40-gb/s optical switching and wavelength multicasting in a two-pump parametric device," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2376-2378 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shu, C.

M. P. Fok and C. Shu, "Multipump four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber for 6x10Gb/s wavelength multicasting of DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1166-1168 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suzaki, Y.

T. Ito, I. Ogawa, Y. Suzaki, K. Magari, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzuki, N. Ishihara," Eight-channel simultaneous wavelength conversion from equal to unequal channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1106-1108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

T. Ito, I. Ogawa, Y. Suzaki, K. Magari, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzuki, N. Ishihara," Eight-channel simultaneous wavelength conversion from equal to unequal channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1106-1108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, T. Luo, L. Yan, Z. Pan and A. E. Willner, "Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting using orthogonally polarized fiber FWM," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3331-3338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, T. Luo, L. Yan, Z. Pan and A. E. Willner, "Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting using orthogonally polarized fiber FWM," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3331-3338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Yamamoto, S.

T. Miyazaki, T. Kato, Y. Nagao, S. Yamamoto, "Multicast demonstration in the optical cross-connect node using the wavelength converter by a semiconductor optical amplifier," The OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series 30, 212-215 (1999).

Yan, L.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, T. Luo, L. Yan, Z. Pan and A. E. Willner, "Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting using orthogonally polarized fiber FWM," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3331-3338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, T. Luo, L. Yan, Z. Pan and A. E. Willner, "Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting using orthogonally polarized fiber FWM," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3331-3338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yvind, K.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

M. P. Fok and C. Shu, "Multipump four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber for 6x10Gb/s wavelength multicasting of DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1166-1168 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, "Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1775-1777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ito, I. Ogawa, Y. Suzaki, K. Magari, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Suzuki, N. Ishihara," Eight-channel simultaneous wavelength conversion from equal to unequal channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1106-1108 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, R. Jiang, C. F. Marki, C. J. McKinstrie, R. Jopson, J. Ford, G. P. Agrawal, S. Radic, "40-gb/s optical switching and wavelength multicasting in a two-pump parametric device," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2376-2378 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Y. Wang, C. Yu, T. Luo, L. Yan, Z. Pan and A. E. Willner, "Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting using orthogonally polarized fiber FWM," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3331-3338 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

The OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (1)

T. Miyazaki, T. Kato, Y. Nagao, S. Yamamoto, "Multicast demonstration in the optical cross-connect node using the wavelength converter by a semiconductor optical amplifier," The OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series 30, 212-215 (1999).

Other (10)

X. Zhang, J. Wei, and C. Qiao, "On fundamental issues in IP over WDM multicasting," in Int. Conf. Computer, Communications and Networks (IC3N) (1999), pp. 84-90.

C. Y. Li, P. K. A. Wai, X. C. Yuan, and V. O. K. Li, "Multicasting in deflection-routed all-optical packet-switched networks," in Proceeding of Globecom (2002), Taipei, pp.17-21.

G.-W. Lu, K. S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, "Wavelength Multicasting of DPSK Signals Using Dual-Pump FWM in a Bismuth-Oxide Highly Nonlinear Fiber," in Proc. OFC (2008), paper OMP4.

G.-W. Lu, K. S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, "DPSK Wavelength Multicasting using FWM with Three Unequally Spaced Pumps in a Bismuth-Oxide Highly Nonlinear Fiber," in Proc. CLEO/QELS (2008), paper JWA100.

P. V. Mieghem, G. Hooghiemstra, and R. Hofstad, "On the efficiency of multicast," IEEE/ACM Transaction on networking 9, 719-732 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, T. Tanemura and K. Kikuchi, "Wavelength conversion of 40-Gb/s NRZ signal using four-wave mixing in 40-cm-long Bismuth oxide based highly-nonlinear optical fiber," in Proc. OFC (2005), paper PDP23.

G.-W. Lu, K. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, "All-optical Broadband Tunable Wavelength Multicasting using a Pump-Modulated Wide-Band Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier with High and Flat Gain," in Proc. ECOC (2007), paper P027.

C. Bres, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, "1-to-40 Multicasting and Amplification of 40Gbps Channels in Wideband Parametric Amplifier," in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper PDP16.

K. Lau, L. Xu, S. H. Wang, L. F. K. Lui, P. K. W. Wai, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, "Selectable multicast using Raman-assisted four-wave mixing in dispersion shifted fiber," in Proc. OECC/IOCC (2007), paper 12P-14.

K. K. Chow, K. Kikuchi, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, and N. Sugimoto, "Widely tunable wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in 1-m dispersion-shifted Bismuth-Oxide photonic crystal fiber," in Proc. OFC (2007), paper OTuI2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Operation principle of the proposed DPSK multicast based on FWM.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experiment setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured Optical spectra after Bi-HNLF with (a) two or (b) three pumps, the converted DPSK signals after multicast were indicated by triangle symbols.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured BER curves for input and converted DPSK signals.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Eye diagrams of (a) input, and converted DPSK signals at (b)1543.1nm, (c)1545nm, (d)1546.4nm, (e)1548.3nm, (f)1551.7nm, (g)1554.6nm, (h)1539.8nm, (i)1551.7nm, (j)1557.9nm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I. Performance of converted DPSK signals in 1-to-9 DPSK multicast

Tables Icon

Table 2. Multicast efficiency comparison of referred works in this letter

Metrics