Abstract

Ophthalmologic hydrogel polymers are doped with Fluorescein or Coumarin dyes prior to the femtosecond laser micromachining process. We find that the achievable micromachining writing speed can be greatly increased while maintaining large refractive index changes (up to +0.08). Compared with previous results in dye-doped polymers that do not contain water such as PMMA, we obtain much larger index changes and much faster writing speeds.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Marcinkevicius, S. Juodkazis, W. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, "Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica," Opt. Lett. 26, 277-279 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, "Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit," Opt. Lett. 30, 723-725 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 21, 2023-2025 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, "Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359-361 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Ding, R. Blackwell, J. F. Künzler, and W. H. Knox, "Large refractive index change in silicone-based and non-silicone-based hydrogel polymers induced by femtosecond laser micro-machining," Opt. Express 14, 11901-11909 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-24-11901.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, "Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Lett. 29, 1840-1842 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Symmetric waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate) fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 291-297 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-1-291.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. R. Mendonca, L. R. Cerami, T. Shih, R. W. Tilghman, T. Baldacchini, and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser waveguide micromachining of PMMA films with azoaromatic chromophores," Opt. Express 16, 200-206 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-1-200.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Ding, R. I. Blackwell, J. F. Kunzler, and W. H. Knox, "Femtosecond laser micromachining of waveguides in silicone-based hydrogel polymers," Appl. Opt. 47, 3100-3108 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Near-infrared photonic crystals with higher-order bandgaps generated by two-photon photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 27, 1824-1826 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Zhou, M. J. Ventura, M. R. Vanner, and M. Gu, "Use of ultrafast-laser-driven microexplosion for fabricating three-dimensional void-based diamond-lattice photonic crystals in a solid polymer material," Opt. Lett. 29, 2240-2242 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Yao, G. J. Schneider, D. W. Prather, E. D. Wetzel, and D. J. O'Brien, "Fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals with multilayer photolithography," Opt. Express 13, 2370-2376 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-7-2370.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. Tetreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Haske, V. W. Chen, J. M. Hales, W. T. Dong, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "65 nm feature sizes using visible wavelength 3-D multiphoton lithography," Opt. Express 15, 3426-3436 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-6-3426.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. Day, and M. Gu, "Microchannel fabrication in PMMA based on localized heating by nanojoule high repetition rate femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 13, 5939-5946 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-16-5939.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Frohlich, and M. Popall, "Femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for applications in photonics," Opt. Lett. 28, 301-303 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, "Structures induced by irradiation of femto-second laser pulse in polymeric materials," J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 40, 537-544 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, "Structure induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse in dyed polymeric materials," J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 40, 2800-2806 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. A. Higgins, T. A. Everett, A. F. Xie, S. M. Forman, and T. Ito, "High-resolution direct-write multiphoton photolithography in poly(methylmethacrylate) films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 184101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. X. P. Li, J. W. M. Chon, S. H. Wu, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, "Rewritable polarization-encoded multilayer data storage in 2,5-dimethyl-4-(p-nitrophenylazo)anisole doped polymer," Opt. Lett. 32, 277-279 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. Baum, P. J. Scully, M. Basanta, C. L. P. Thomas, P. R. Fielden, N. J. Goddard, W. Perrie, and P. R. Chalker, "Photochemistry of refractive index structures in poly(methyl methacrylate) by femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Lett. 32, 190-192 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. P. Meshalkin, V. A. Svetlichnyi, A. V. Reznichenko, A. Y. Myachin, S. S. Bakhareva, S. M. Dolotov, T. N. Kopylova, and E. P. Ponomarenko, "Two-photon excitation of dyes in a polymer matrix by femtosecond pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser," Quantum Electron. 33, 803-806 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. C. S. Karlgard, D. K. Sarkar, L. W. Jones, C. Moresoli, and K. T. Leung, "Drying methods for XPS analysis of PureVisionTM, Focus® Night and DayTM and conventional hydrogel contact lens," Appl. Surf. Sci. 230, 106-114 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. Xu and W. W. Webb, "Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690 to 1050 nm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 481-491 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. N. S. Makarov, M. Drobizhev, and A. Rebane, "Two-photon absorption standards in the 550-1600 nm excitation wavelength range," Opt. Express 16, 4029-4047 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. L. Ding, L. G. Cancado, L. Novotny, W. H. Knox, N. Anderson, D. Jani, R. I. Blackwell, and J. F. Kunzler, "Micro-Raman spectroscopy of refractive index microstructures in silicone-based hydrogel polymers created by high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser micromachining," Submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, (2008).
  30. D. N. Nikogosyan, "Multi-photon high-excitation-energy approach to fibre grating inscription," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, R1-R29 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (4)

2006 (4)

S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Symmetric waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate) fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 291-297 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-1-291.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ding, R. Blackwell, J. F. Künzler, and W. H. Knox, "Large refractive index change in silicone-based and non-silicone-based hydrogel polymers induced by femtosecond laser micro-machining," Opt. Express 14, 11901-11909 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-24-11901.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tetreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Higgins, T. A. Everett, A. F. Xie, S. M. Forman, and T. Ito, "High-resolution direct-write multiphoton photolithography in poly(methylmethacrylate) films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 184101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

Y. P. Meshalkin, V. A. Svetlichnyi, A. V. Reznichenko, A. Y. Myachin, S. S. Bakhareva, S. M. Dolotov, T. N. Kopylova, and E. P. Ponomarenko, "Two-photon excitation of dyes in a polymer matrix by femtosecond pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser," Quantum Electron. 33, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Frohlich, and M. Popall, "Femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for applications in photonics," Opt. Lett. 28, 301-303 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, "Structures induced by irradiation of femto-second laser pulse in polymeric materials," J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 40, 537-544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, "Structure induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse in dyed polymeric materials," J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 40, 2800-2806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Near-infrared photonic crystals with higher-order bandgaps generated by two-photon photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 27, 1824-1826 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, "Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359-361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

Ananthavel, S. P.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bakhareva, S. S.

Y. P. Meshalkin, V. A. Svetlichnyi, A. V. Reznichenko, A. Y. Myachin, S. S. Bakhareva, S. M. Dolotov, T. N. Kopylova, and E. P. Ponomarenko, "Two-photon excitation of dyes in a polymer matrix by femtosecond pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser," Quantum Electron. 33, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baldacchini, T.

Barlow, S.

W. Haske, V. W. Chen, J. M. Hales, W. T. Dong, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "65 nm feature sizes using visible wavelength 3-D multiphoton lithography," Opt. Express 15, 3426-3436 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-6-3426.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Basanta, M.

Baum, A.

Blackwell, R.

Blackwell, R. I.

Callan, J. P.

Campbell, K.

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cerami, L. R.

Chalker, P. R.

Chen, V. W.

Chichkov, B. N.

Chon, J. W. M.

Cronauer, C.

Cumpston, B. H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Day, D.

Deubel, M.

N. Tetreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

Dolotov, S. M.

Y. P. Meshalkin, V. A. Svetlichnyi, A. V. Reznichenko, A. Y. Myachin, S. S. Bakhareva, S. M. Dolotov, T. N. Kopylova, and E. P. Ponomarenko, "Two-photon excitation of dyes in a polymer matrix by femtosecond pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser," Quantum Electron. 33, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Domann, G.

Dong, W. T.

Drobizhev, M.

Dyer, D. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Egbert, A.

Ehrlich, J. E.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Erskine, L. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. A.

Everett, T. A.

D. A. Higgins, T. A. Everett, A. F. Xie, S. M. Forman, and T. Ito, "High-resolution direct-write multiphoton photolithography in poly(methylmethacrylate) films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 184101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fielden, P. R.

Finlay, R. J.

Forman, S. M.

D. A. Higgins, T. A. Everett, A. F. Xie, S. M. Forman, and T. Ito, "High-resolution direct-write multiphoton photolithography in poly(methylmethacrylate) films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 184101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frohlich, L.

Glezer, E. N.

Goddard, N. J.

Groisman, A.

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

Hales, J. M.

Haske, W.

Heikal, A. A.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Her, T. H.

Hermatschweiler, M.

N. Tetreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

Higgins, D. A.

D. A. Higgins, T. A. Everett, A. F. Xie, S. M. Forman, and T. Ito, "High-resolution direct-write multiphoton photolithography in poly(methylmethacrylate) films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 184101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, "Structure induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse in dyed polymeric materials," J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 40, 2800-2806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, "Structures induced by irradiation of femto-second laser pulse in polymeric materials," J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 40, 537-544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, "Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359-361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horiike, M.

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, "Structures induced by irradiation of femto-second laser pulse in polymeric materials," J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 40, 537-544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, "Structure induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse in dyed polymeric materials," J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 40, 2800-2806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Houbertz, R.

Huang, L.

Ito, T.

D. A. Higgins, T. A. Everett, A. F. Xie, S. M. Forman, and T. Ito, "High-resolution direct-write multiphoton photolithography in poly(methylmethacrylate) films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 184101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

John, S.

N. Tetreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jones, L. W.

C. C. S. Karlgard, D. K. Sarkar, L. W. Jones, C. Moresoli, and K. T. Leung, "Drying methods for XPS analysis of PureVisionTM, Focus® Night and DayTM and conventional hydrogel contact lens," Appl. Surf. Sci. 230, 106-114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

Karlgard, C. C. S.

C. C. S. Karlgard, D. K. Sarkar, L. W. Jones, C. Moresoli, and K. T. Leung, "Drying methods for XPS analysis of PureVisionTM, Focus® Night and DayTM and conventional hydrogel contact lens," Appl. Surf. Sci. 230, 106-114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, S.

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, "Structure induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse in dyed polymeric materials," J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 40, 2800-2806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, "Structures induced by irradiation of femto-second laser pulse in polymeric materials," J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 40, 537-544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. N.

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kleinfeld, D.

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

Kohtoku, M.

Kopylova, T. N.

Y. P. Meshalkin, V. A. Svetlichnyi, A. V. Reznichenko, A. Y. Myachin, S. S. Bakhareva, S. M. Dolotov, T. N. Kopylova, and E. P. Ponomarenko, "Two-photon excitation of dyes in a polymer matrix by femtosecond pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser," Quantum Electron. 33, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuebler, S. M.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kunzler, J. F.

Künzler, J. F.

Lee, I. Y. S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leung, K. T.

C. C. S. Karlgard, D. K. Sarkar, L. W. Jones, C. Moresoli, and K. T. Leung, "Drying methods for XPS analysis of PureVisionTM, Focus® Night and DayTM and conventional hydrogel contact lens," Appl. Surf. Sci. 230, 106-114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. P.

Lopez, C.

Makarov, N. S.

Marcinkevicius, A.

Marder, S. R.

W. Haske, V. W. Chen, J. M. Hales, W. T. Dong, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "65 nm feature sizes using visible wavelength 3-D multiphoton lithography," Opt. Express 15, 3426-3436 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-6-3426.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

Mazur, E.

McCord-Maughon, D.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mendonca, C. R.

Meshalkin, Y. P.

Y. P. Meshalkin, V. A. Svetlichnyi, A. V. Reznichenko, A. Y. Myachin, S. S. Bakhareva, S. M. Dolotov, T. N. Kopylova, and E. P. Ponomarenko, "Two-photon excitation of dyes in a polymer matrix by femtosecond pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser," Quantum Electron. 33, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Milosavljevic, M.

Misawa, H.

Miura, K.

Miwa, M.

Moresoli, C.

C. C. S. Karlgard, D. K. Sarkar, L. W. Jones, C. Moresoli, and K. T. Leung, "Drying methods for XPS analysis of PureVisionTM, Focus® Night and DayTM and conventional hydrogel contact lens," Appl. Surf. Sci. 230, 106-114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Myachin, A. Y.

Y. P. Meshalkin, V. A. Svetlichnyi, A. V. Reznichenko, A. Y. Myachin, S. S. Bakhareva, S. M. Dolotov, T. N. Kopylova, and E. P. Ponomarenko, "Two-photon excitation of dyes in a polymer matrix by femtosecond pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser," Quantum Electron. 33, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nasu, Y.

Nikogosyan, D. N.

D. N. Nikogosyan, "Multi-photon high-excitation-energy approach to fibre grating inscription," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, R1-R29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

O'Brien, D. J.

Ostendorf, A.

Ozin, G. A.

N. Tetreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Willard, F.

N. Tetreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perrie, W.

Perry, J. W.

W. Haske, V. W. Chen, J. M. Hales, W. T. Dong, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "65 nm feature sizes using visible wavelength 3-D multiphoton lithography," Opt. Express 15, 3426-3436 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-6-3426.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ponomarenko, E. P.

Y. P. Meshalkin, V. A. Svetlichnyi, A. V. Reznichenko, A. Y. Myachin, S. S. Bakhareva, S. M. Dolotov, T. N. Kopylova, and E. P. Ponomarenko, "Two-photon excitation of dyes in a polymer matrix by femtosecond pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser," Quantum Electron. 33, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Popall, M.

Prather, D. W.

Qin, J. Q.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J. R.

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, "Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359-361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rebane, A.

Reznichenko, A. V.

Y. P. Meshalkin, V. A. Svetlichnyi, A. V. Reznichenko, A. Y. Myachin, S. S. Bakhareva, S. M. Dolotov, T. N. Kopylova, and E. P. Ponomarenko, "Two-photon excitation of dyes in a polymer matrix by femtosecond pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser," Quantum Electron. 33, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

Richardson, M.

Rockel, H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rumi, M.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sarkar, D. K.

C. C. S. Karlgard, D. K. Sarkar, L. W. Jones, C. Moresoli, and K. T. Leung, "Drying methods for XPS analysis of PureVisionTM, Focus® Night and DayTM and conventional hydrogel contact lens," Appl. Surf. Sci. 230, 106-114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G. J.

Schulz, J.

Scully, P. J.

Serbin, J.

Shen, Y. Q.

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, "Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359-361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shih, T.

Si, J. H.

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, "Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359-361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sowa, S.

Straub, M.

Sugimoto, N.

Svetlichnyi, V. A.

Y. P. Meshalkin, V. A. Svetlichnyi, A. V. Reznichenko, A. Y. Myachin, S. S. Bakhareva, S. M. Dolotov, T. N. Kopylova, and E. P. Ponomarenko, "Two-photon excitation of dyes in a polymer matrix by femtosecond pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser," Quantum Electron. 33, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, T.

Tetreault, N.

N. Tetreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, C. L. P.

Tilghman, R. W.

Tsutsumi, N.

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, "Structure induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse in dyed polymeric materials," J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 40, 2800-2806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, "Structures induced by irradiation of femto-second laser pulse in polymeric materials," J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 40, 537-544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vanner, M. R.

Ventura, M. J.

von Freymann, G.

N. Tetreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Webb, W. W.

Wegener, M.

N. Tetreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, E. D.

Wu, S. H.

Wu, X. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xie, A. F.

D. A. Higgins, T. A. Everett, A. F. Xie, S. M. Forman, and T. Ito, "High-resolution direct-write multiphoton photolithography in poly(methylmethacrylate) films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 184101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Yao, P.

Zhai, J. F.

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, "Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359-361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G.

Zoubir, A.

Adv. Mater. (1)

N. Tetreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, J. F. Zhai, Y. Q. Shen, and K. Hirao, "Photoinduced permanent gratings inside bulk azodye-doped polymers by the coherent field of a femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 359-361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Higgins, T. A. Everett, A. F. Xie, S. M. Forman, and T. Ito, "High-resolution direct-write multiphoton photolithography in poly(methylmethacrylate) films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 184101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

C. C. S. Karlgard, D. K. Sarkar, L. W. Jones, C. Moresoli, and K. T. Leung, "Drying methods for XPS analysis of PureVisionTM, Focus® Night and DayTM and conventional hydrogel contact lens," Appl. Surf. Sci. 230, 106-114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. (2)

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, "Structures induced by irradiation of femto-second laser pulse in polymeric materials," J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 40, 537-544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Katayama, M. Horiike, K. Hirao, and N. Tsutsumi, "Structure induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse in dyed polymeric materials," J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 40, 2800-2806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. N. Nikogosyan, "Multi-photon high-excitation-energy approach to fibre grating inscription," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, R1-R29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

P. Yao, G. J. Schneider, D. W. Prather, E. D. Wetzel, and D. J. O'Brien, "Fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals with multilayer photolithography," Opt. Express 13, 2370-2376 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-7-2370.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Haske, V. W. Chen, J. M. Hales, W. T. Dong, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "65 nm feature sizes using visible wavelength 3-D multiphoton lithography," Opt. Express 15, 3426-3436 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-6-3426.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Day, and M. Gu, "Microchannel fabrication in PMMA based on localized heating by nanojoule high repetition rate femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 13, 5939-5946 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-16-5939.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ding, R. Blackwell, J. F. Künzler, and W. H. Knox, "Large refractive index change in silicone-based and non-silicone-based hydrogel polymers induced by femtosecond laser micro-machining," Opt. Express 14, 11901-11909 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-24-11901.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sowa, W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Symmetric waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate) fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 291-297 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-1-291.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Mendonca, L. R. Cerami, T. Shih, R. W. Tilghman, T. Baldacchini, and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser waveguide micromachining of PMMA films with azoaromatic chromophores," Opt. Express 16, 200-206 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-1-200.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Makarov, M. Drobizhev, and A. Rebane, "Two-photon absorption standards in the 550-1600 nm excitation wavelength range," Opt. Express 16, 4029-4047 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (10)

X. P. Li, J. W. M. Chon, S. H. Wu, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, "Rewritable polarization-encoded multilayer data storage in 2,5-dimethyl-4-(p-nitrophenylazo)anisole doped polymer," Opt. Lett. 32, 277-279 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baum, P. J. Scully, M. Basanta, C. L. P. Thomas, P. R. Fielden, N. J. Goddard, W. Perrie, and P. R. Chalker, "Photochemistry of refractive index structures in poly(methyl methacrylate) by femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Lett. 32, 190-192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, "Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Lett. 29, 1840-1842 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 21, 2023-2025 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marcinkevicius, S. Juodkazis, W. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, "Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica," Opt. Lett. 26, 277-279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, "Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit," Opt. Lett. 30, 723-725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Frohlich, and M. Popall, "Femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for applications in photonics," Opt. Lett. 28, 301-303 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Near-infrared photonic crystals with higher-order bandgaps generated by two-photon photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 27, 1824-1826 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhou, M. J. Ventura, M. R. Vanner, and M. Gu, "Use of ultrafast-laser-driven microexplosion for fabricating three-dimensional void-based diamond-lattice photonic crystals in a solid polymer material," Opt. Lett. 29, 2240-2242 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. P. Meshalkin, V. A. Svetlichnyi, A. V. Reznichenko, A. Y. Myachin, S. S. Bakhareva, S. M. Dolotov, T. N. Kopylova, and E. P. Ponomarenko, "Two-photon excitation of dyes in a polymer matrix by femtosecond pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser," Quantum Electron. 33, 803-806 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. Ding, L. G. Cancado, L. Novotny, W. H. Knox, N. Anderson, D. Jani, R. I. Blackwell, and J. F. Kunzler, "Micro-Raman spectroscopy of refractive index microstructures in silicone-based hydrogel polymers created by high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser micromachining," Submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, (2008).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Molecular structures of major compositions within the hydrogel polymers

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Molecular structures of Fluorescein and Coumarin 1

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectra of pure and doped (a) Akreos and (b) Balafilcon A. After doping with Fluorescein and Coumarin 1, the cutoff wavelengths of the hydrogel polymers shifted to above 400 nm. The laser operates at 800 nm wavelength.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Refractive index change induced by femtosecond laser micromachining as a function of the scanning speed within (a) pure and doped Akreos, and (b) pure and doped Balafilcon A.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Refractive index (RI) changes as a function of Fluorescein doping concentration in Akreos hydrogel when 1mm/s scanning speed and 120mW laser average power is employed.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Refractive index (RI) changes as a function of water concentration in Akreos hydrogel doped with 0.5% Fluorescein with 1mm/s scanning speed.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Phase contrast (PC) images of RI changed grating lines micromachined inside Akreos hydrogel polymers doped with 0.5% Fluorescein dye. 1 mm/s scanning speed was employed. Hydrogel polymer samples containing (a) 29%, (b) 21% and (c) 12% water have been tested. Scattered laser-induced damage along the grating lines is observed within the samples with lower water concentrations as shown in (b) and (c).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Refractive index change as a function of the laser scanning speed

Metrics