Abstract

Research seeks to alter the optical characteristics of microalgae in order to improve solar-to-biofuels energy conversion efficiency in mass culture under bright sunlight conditions. This objective is achieved by genetically truncating the size of the light-harvesting chlorophyll arrays that serve to absorb sunlight in the photosynthetic apparatus.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. C. Ley and D. Mauzerall, "Absolute absorption cross section of photosystem-II and the minimum quantum requirement for photosynthesis in Chlorella vulgaris," Biochim Biophys Acta 680, 95-106(1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Melis, J. Neidhardt, and J. R. Benemann, "Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta) with small chlorophyll antenna sizes exhibit higher photosynthetic productivities and photon use efficiencies than normally pigmented cells," J. Appl. Phycol. 10, 515-52 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. K. Lee, "Commercial production of microalgae in the Asia-Pacific rim," J Appl. Phycol. 9, 403-411 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Ben-Amotz and M. Avron, "The biotechnology of cultivating the halotolerant alga Dunalilella," TIBTECH 8,121-126 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Melis, "Excitation energy transfer: functional and dynamic aspects of Lhc (cab) proteins," in Oxygenic Photosynthesis: The Light Reactions, D.R. Ort, C.F. Yocum, eds (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1996), 523-538
  6. S. Powles, "Photoinhibition of photosynthesis induced by visible light," Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 35, 15-44 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Melis, "Photosystem-II damage and repair cycle in chloroplasts: what modulates the rate of photodamage in vivo?," Trends Plant Sci. 4, 130-135 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Naus and A. Melis, "Changes of photosystem stoichiometry during cell growth in Dunaliella salina cultures," Plant Cell Physiol. 32, 569-575 (1991).
  9. J. Neidhardt, J. R. Benemann, L. Zhang, and A. Melis, "Photosystem-II repair and chloroplast recovery from irradiance stress: relationship between chronic photoinhibition, light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size and photosynthetic productivity in Dunaliella salina (green algae)," Photosynth. Res. 56, 175-184 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. R. E. Glick and A. Melis, "Minimum photosynthetic unit size in system-I and system-II of barley chloroplasts," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 934, 151-155 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. N. M. Duysens, J. Amsez J, and B. M. Kamp, "Two photochemical systems in photosynthesis," Nature 190, 510-511 (1961).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Emerson and W. Arnold, "A separation of the reactions in photosynthesis by means of intermittent light," J Gen. Physiol. 15, 391-420 (1932a).
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  17. H. Gaffron and K. Wohl, "Zur theorie der assimilation," Naturwissenschaften 24, 81-90 (1936).
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  18. D. J. Simpson and J. Knoetzel, "Light-harvesting complexes of plants and algae: introduction, survey and nomenclature," in Oxygenic Photosynthesis: The Light Reactions, D.R. Ort and C.F.Yocum eds. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), 493-506.
  19. E. Pichersky and S. Jansson, "The light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding polypeptides and their genes in angiosperm and gymnosperm species" In Oxygenic Photosynthesis: The Light Reactions, D.R. Ort and C.F.Yocum eds.(Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), 507-521.
  20. A. Melis, "Dynamics of photosynthetic membrane composition and function," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1058, 87-106 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Jansson, E. Pichersky, R. Bassi, B. R. Green, M. Ikeuchi, A. Melis, D. J. Simpson, M. Spangfort, L. A. Staehelin, and J. P. Thornber, "A nomenclature for the genes encoding the chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of higher plants," Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 10, 242-253 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Elrad, and A. R. Grossman, "A genome's-eye view of the light-harvesting polypeptides of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii," Curr. Genetics 45, 61-75 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. P. Maxwell, S. Falk S, and N. P. A. Huner, "Photosystem II excitation pressure and development of resistance to photoinhibition (1. Light harvesting complex II abundance and zeaxanthin content in Chlorella vulgaris)," Plant Physiol. 107, 687-694 (1995).
    [PubMed]
  24. M. R. Webb and A. Melis, "Chloroplast response in Dunaliella salina to irradiance stress. Effect on thylakoid membrane assembly and function," Plant Physiol. 107, 885-893 (1995).
    [PubMed]
  25. A. Tanaka and A. Melis, "Irradiance-dependent changes in the size and composition of the chlorophyll a-b light-harvesting complex in the green alga Dunaliella salina," Plant Cell Physiol. 38, 17-24 (1997).
  26. J. M. Anderson, "Photoregulation of the composition, function and structure of thylakoid membranes," Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 37, 93-136 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. Nakada, Y. Asada, T. Arai, and J. Miyake, "Light penetration into cell suspensions of photosynthetic bacteria and relation to hydrogen production," J Ferment.Bioengin. 80, 53-57 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. G. Yakovlev, A. S. Taisova, and Z. G. Fetisova, "Light control over the size of an antenna unit building block as an efficient strategy for light harvesting in photosynthesis," FEBS Lett. 512, 129-132 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. T. Masuda, A. Tanaka, and A. Melis, "Chlorophyll antenna size adjustments by irradiance in Dunaliella salina involve coordinate regulation of chlorophyll a oxygenase (CAO) and Lhcb gene expression," Plant Mol. Biol. 51, 757-771 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. T. O. Kirk, Light and photosynthesis in aquatic ecosystems (2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Y. Nakajima and R. Ueda, "Improvement of photosynthesis in dense microalgal suspension by reduction of light harvesting pigments," J Appl. Phycol. 9, 503-510 (1997).
  32. Y. Nakajima and R. Ueda, "Improvement of microalgal photosynthetic productivity by reducing the content of light harvesting pigment," J Appl. Phycol. 11, 195-201 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. E. W. Polle, S. Kanakagiri, and A. Melis, "tla1, a DNA insertional transformant of the antenna size," Planta 217, 49-59 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  34. K. L. Kindl, "High-frequency nuclear transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 1228-1232 (1990).N. J. Gumpel and S. Purton, "Playing tag with Chlamydomonas," Trends Cell Biol. 4, 299-301 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. Vazquezduhal, "Light-effect on neutral lipids accumulation and biomass composition of Botryococcus sudeticus (Chlorophyceae)," Cryptogamie Algologie 12, 109-119 (1991).
  36. L. M. Brownand and K. G. Zeiler, "Aquatic biomass and carbon dioxide trapping;" Energy Conversion and Management 34, 1005-1013 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  37. R. Westermeier and I. Gomez, "Biomass, energy contents and major organic compounds in the brown alga Lessonia nigrescens (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) from Mehuin, south Chile," Botanica Marina 39, 553-559 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  38. O. R. Zaborsky, BioHydrogen (Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, 1998).
  39. A. Melis, L. Zhang, M. Forestier, M. L. Ghirardi, and M. Seibert, "Sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production upon reversible inactivation of oxygen evolution in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii," Plant Physiol. 122, 127-136 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. L. Zhang, T. Happe, and A. Melis, "Biochemical and morphological characterization of sulfur-deprived and H2-producing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (green alga)," Planta 214, 552-561 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. J. A. Mulloney, "Mitigation of carbon dioxide releases from power production via sustainable agri-power - the synergistic combination of controlled environmental agriculture (large commercial greenhouses) and disbursed fuel cell," Energy Conversion and Management 34, 913-920 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  42. N. Nakicenovic, "Carbon dioxide mitigation measures and options," Environ. Sci. Technol. 27, 1986-1989 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  43. A. Tanaka, H. Ito, R. Tanaka, N. Tanaka, K. Yoshida, and K. Okada, "Chlorophyll a oxygenase (CAO) is involved in chlorophyll b formation from chlorophyll a," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 12719-12723 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  44. J. E. W. Polle, J. R. Benemann, A. Tanaka, and A. Melis, "Photosynthetic apparatus organization and function in wild type and a Chl b-less mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Dependence on carbon source," Planta 211, 335-344 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. T. Masuda, J. E. W. Polle, and A. Melis, "Biosynthesis and distribution of chlorophyll among the photosystems during recovery of the green alga Dunaliella salina from irradiance stress," Plant Physiol. 128, 603-614 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. K. K. Niyogi, O. Björkman, and GrossmanAR , "Chlamydomonas xanthophyll cycle mutants identified by video imaging of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching," Plant Cell 9, 1369-1380 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. J. E. W. Polle, K. K. Niyogi, and A. Melis, "Absence of lutein, violaxanthin and neoxanthin affects the functional chlorophyll antenna size of photosystem-II but not that of photosystem-I in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii," Plant Cell Physiol. 42, 482-491 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. O. Bjorkman, N. K. Boardman, J. M. Anderson, S. W. Thorne, D. J. Goodchild, and N. A. Puliotis, "Effect of light intensity during growth of Atriplex patula on the capacity of photosynthetic reactions, chloroplast components and structure," Carnegie Institution Yearbook 71,115-135 (1972).
  49. S. Tetali, M. Mitra, and A. Melis, "A Development of the light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is regulated by the novel Tla1 gene," Planta 225,813-829. (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  50. A. Zouni, H.T. Witt, J. Kern, P. Fromme, N. Krauss, W. Saenger, and P. Orth, "Crystal structure of photosystem II from Synechococcus elongatus at 3.8 angstrom resolution," Nature 409, 739-743(2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. P. Jordan, P. Fromme, H. T. Witt, O. Klukas, W. Saenger, and N. Krauss, "Three-dimensional structure of cyanobacterial photosystem I at 2.5 angstrom resolution;" Nature 411909-917 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. A. Sukenik, J. Bennett, and P. G. Falkowski, "Changes in the abundance of individual apoproteins of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complexes of photosystem I and II with growth irradiance in the marine chlorophyte," Dunaliella tertiolecta.Biochim. Biophys. Acta 932, 206-215 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  53. A.V. Ruban, M. Wentworth, A.E. Yakushevska, J. Andersson, P. J. Lee, W. Keegstra, J. P. Dekker, E. J. Boekema, S. Jansson, and P. Horton, "Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization," Nature 421, 648-652 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. J. H. Mussgnug, S. Thomas-Hall, J. Rupprecht, A. Foo, V. Klassen, A. McDowall,P. M. Schenk, O. Kruse, and B. Hankamer, "Engineering photosynthetic light capture: impacts on improved solar energy to biomass conversion," Plant Biotech. J. 5, 802- 814 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  55. M. H. Huesemann, T. S. Hausmann, R. Bartha, M. Aksoy, J. C. Weissman, and J. R. Benemann, "Biomass Productivities in Wild Type and Pigment Mutant of Cyclotella sp. (Diatom)," Appl.Biochem.Biotechnol DOI 10.1007/s12010-008-8298-9 (2008).
  56. J. H. Mussgnug, L. Wobbe, I. Elles, C. Claus, M. Hamilton, A. Fink, U. Kahmann, A. Kapazoglou, C. W. Mullineaux, M. Hippler, J. Nickelsen, P. J. Nixon, and O. Kruse, "NAB1 Is an RNA Binding Protein Involved in the Light-Regulated Differential Expression of the Light-Harvesting Antenna of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii,"Plant Cell 17, 3409-3421 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. H. Huesemann, T. S. Hausmann, R. Bartha, M. Aksoy, J. C. Weissman, and J. R. Benemann, "Biomass Productivities in Wild Type and Pigment Mutant of Cyclotella sp. (Diatom)," Appl.Biochem.Biotechnol DOI 10.1007/s12010-008-8298-9 (2008).

2007 (2)

J. H. Mussgnug, S. Thomas-Hall, J. Rupprecht, A. Foo, V. Klassen, A. McDowall,P. M. Schenk, O. Kruse, and B. Hankamer, "Engineering photosynthetic light capture: impacts on improved solar energy to biomass conversion," Plant Biotech. J. 5, 802- 814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Tetali, M. Mitra, and A. Melis, "A Development of the light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is regulated by the novel Tla1 gene," Planta 225,813-829. (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. H. Mussgnug, L. Wobbe, I. Elles, C. Claus, M. Hamilton, A. Fink, U. Kahmann, A. Kapazoglou, C. W. Mullineaux, M. Hippler, J. Nickelsen, P. J. Nixon, and O. Kruse, "NAB1 Is an RNA Binding Protein Involved in the Light-Regulated Differential Expression of the Light-Harvesting Antenna of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii,"Plant Cell 17, 3409-3421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. Elrad, and A. R. Grossman, "A genome's-eye view of the light-harvesting polypeptides of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii," Curr. Genetics 45, 61-75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

T. Masuda, A. Tanaka, and A. Melis, "Chlorophyll antenna size adjustments by irradiance in Dunaliella salina involve coordinate regulation of chlorophyll a oxygenase (CAO) and Lhcb gene expression," Plant Mol. Biol. 51, 757-771 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. W. Polle, S. Kanakagiri, and A. Melis, "tla1, a DNA insertional transformant of the antenna size," Planta 217, 49-59 (2003).
[PubMed]

A.V. Ruban, M. Wentworth, A.E. Yakushevska, J. Andersson, P. J. Lee, W. Keegstra, J. P. Dekker, E. J. Boekema, S. Jansson, and P. Horton, "Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization," Nature 421, 648-652 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

A. G. Yakovlev, A. S. Taisova, and Z. G. Fetisova, "Light control over the size of an antenna unit building block as an efficient strategy for light harvesting in photosynthesis," FEBS Lett. 512, 129-132 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, T. Happe, and A. Melis, "Biochemical and morphological characterization of sulfur-deprived and H2-producing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (green alga)," Planta 214, 552-561 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Masuda, J. E. W. Polle, and A. Melis, "Biosynthesis and distribution of chlorophyll among the photosystems during recovery of the green alga Dunaliella salina from irradiance stress," Plant Physiol. 128, 603-614 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

J. E. W. Polle, K. K. Niyogi, and A. Melis, "Absence of lutein, violaxanthin and neoxanthin affects the functional chlorophyll antenna size of photosystem-II but not that of photosystem-I in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii," Plant Cell Physiol. 42, 482-491 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zouni, H.T. Witt, J. Kern, P. Fromme, N. Krauss, W. Saenger, and P. Orth, "Crystal structure of photosystem II from Synechococcus elongatus at 3.8 angstrom resolution," Nature 409, 739-743(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Jordan, P. Fromme, H. T. Witt, O. Klukas, W. Saenger, and N. Krauss, "Three-dimensional structure of cyanobacterial photosystem I at 2.5 angstrom resolution;" Nature 411909-917 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. E. W. Polle, J. R. Benemann, A. Tanaka, and A. Melis, "Photosynthetic apparatus organization and function in wild type and a Chl b-less mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Dependence on carbon source," Planta 211, 335-344 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melis, L. Zhang, M. Forestier, M. L. Ghirardi, and M. Seibert, "Sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production upon reversible inactivation of oxygen evolution in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii," Plant Physiol. 122, 127-136 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

Y. Nakajima and R. Ueda, "Improvement of microalgal photosynthetic productivity by reducing the content of light harvesting pigment," J Appl. Phycol. 11, 195-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Melis, J. Neidhardt, and J. R. Benemann, "Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta) with small chlorophyll antenna sizes exhibit higher photosynthetic productivities and photon use efficiencies than normally pigmented cells," J. Appl. Phycol. 10, 515-52 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Melis, "Photosystem-II damage and repair cycle in chloroplasts: what modulates the rate of photodamage in vivo?," Trends Plant Sci. 4, 130-135 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

J. Neidhardt, J. R. Benemann, L. Zhang, and A. Melis, "Photosystem-II repair and chloroplast recovery from irradiance stress: relationship between chronic photoinhibition, light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size and photosynthetic productivity in Dunaliella salina (green algae)," Photosynth. Res. 56, 175-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Tanaka, H. Ito, R. Tanaka, N. Tanaka, K. Yoshida, and K. Okada, "Chlorophyll a oxygenase (CAO) is involved in chlorophyll b formation from chlorophyll a," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 12719-12723 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

K. K. Niyogi, O. Björkman, and GrossmanAR , "Chlamydomonas xanthophyll cycle mutants identified by video imaging of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching," Plant Cell 9, 1369-1380 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nakajima and R. Ueda, "Improvement of photosynthesis in dense microalgal suspension by reduction of light harvesting pigments," J Appl. Phycol. 9, 503-510 (1997).

Y. K. Lee, "Commercial production of microalgae in the Asia-Pacific rim," J Appl. Phycol. 9, 403-411 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Tanaka and A. Melis, "Irradiance-dependent changes in the size and composition of the chlorophyll a-b light-harvesting complex in the green alga Dunaliella salina," Plant Cell Physiol. 38, 17-24 (1997).

1996 (1)

R. Westermeier and I. Gomez, "Biomass, energy contents and major organic compounds in the brown alga Lessonia nigrescens (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) from Mehuin, south Chile," Botanica Marina 39, 553-559 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

E. Nakada, Y. Asada, T. Arai, and J. Miyake, "Light penetration into cell suspensions of photosynthetic bacteria and relation to hydrogen production," J Ferment.Bioengin. 80, 53-57 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Maxwell, S. Falk S, and N. P. A. Huner, "Photosystem II excitation pressure and development of resistance to photoinhibition (1. Light harvesting complex II abundance and zeaxanthin content in Chlorella vulgaris)," Plant Physiol. 107, 687-694 (1995).
[PubMed]

M. R. Webb and A. Melis, "Chloroplast response in Dunaliella salina to irradiance stress. Effect on thylakoid membrane assembly and function," Plant Physiol. 107, 885-893 (1995).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

K. L. Kindl, "High-frequency nuclear transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 1228-1232 (1990).N. J. Gumpel and S. Purton, "Playing tag with Chlamydomonas," Trends Cell Biol. 4, 299-301 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

L. M. Brownand and K. G. Zeiler, "Aquatic biomass and carbon dioxide trapping;" Energy Conversion and Management 34, 1005-1013 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Mulloney, "Mitigation of carbon dioxide releases from power production via sustainable agri-power - the synergistic combination of controlled environmental agriculture (large commercial greenhouses) and disbursed fuel cell," Energy Conversion and Management 34, 913-920 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Nakicenovic, "Carbon dioxide mitigation measures and options," Environ. Sci. Technol. 27, 1986-1989 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Jansson, E. Pichersky, R. Bassi, B. R. Green, M. Ikeuchi, A. Melis, D. J. Simpson, M. Spangfort, L. A. Staehelin, and J. P. Thornber, "A nomenclature for the genes encoding the chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of higher plants," Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 10, 242-253 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

R. Vazquezduhal, "Light-effect on neutral lipids accumulation and biomass composition of Botryococcus sudeticus (Chlorophyceae)," Cryptogamie Algologie 12, 109-119 (1991).

A. Melis, "Dynamics of photosynthetic membrane composition and function," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1058, 87-106 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Naus and A. Melis, "Changes of photosystem stoichiometry during cell growth in Dunaliella salina cultures," Plant Cell Physiol. 32, 569-575 (1991).

1990 (1)

A. Ben-Amotz and M. Avron, "The biotechnology of cultivating the halotolerant alga Dunalilella," TIBTECH 8,121-126 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

R. E. Glick and A. Melis, "Minimum photosynthetic unit size in system-I and system-II of barley chloroplasts," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 934, 151-155 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Sukenik, J. Bennett, and P. G. Falkowski, "Changes in the abundance of individual apoproteins of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complexes of photosystem I and II with growth irradiance in the marine chlorophyte," Dunaliella tertiolecta.Biochim. Biophys. Acta 932, 206-215 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. M. Anderson, "Photoregulation of the composition, function and structure of thylakoid membranes," Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 37, 93-136 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

S. Powles, "Photoinhibition of photosynthesis induced by visible light," Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 35, 15-44 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

A. C. Ley and D. Mauzerall, "Absolute absorption cross section of photosystem-II and the minimum quantum requirement for photosynthesis in Chlorella vulgaris," Biochim Biophys Acta 680, 95-106(1982).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

R. Radmer and B. Kok, "Photosynthesis: Limited yields, unlimited dreams," BioScience 29, 599-605 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

O. Bjorkman, N. K. Boardman, J. M. Anderson, S. W. Thorne, D. J. Goodchild, and N. A. Puliotis, "Effect of light intensity during growth of Atriplex patula on the capacity of photosynthetic reactions, chloroplast components and structure," Carnegie Institution Yearbook 71,115-135 (1972).

1961 (1)

L. N. M. Duysens, J. Amsez J, and B. M. Kamp, "Two photochemical systems in photosynthesis," Nature 190, 510-511 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1936 (1)

H. Gaffron and K. Wohl, "Zur theorie der assimilation," Naturwissenschaften 24, 81-90 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Aksoy, M.

M. H. Huesemann, T. S. Hausmann, R. Bartha, M. Aksoy, J. C. Weissman, and J. R. Benemann, "Biomass Productivities in Wild Type and Pigment Mutant of Cyclotella sp. (Diatom)," Appl.Biochem.Biotechnol DOI 10.1007/s12010-008-8298-9 (2008).

Anderson, J. M.

J. M. Anderson, "Photoregulation of the composition, function and structure of thylakoid membranes," Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 37, 93-136 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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J. E. W. Polle, K. K. Niyogi, and A. Melis, "Absence of lutein, violaxanthin and neoxanthin affects the functional chlorophyll antenna size of photosystem-II but not that of photosystem-I in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii," Plant Cell Physiol. 42, 482-491 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. W. Polle, J. R. Benemann, A. Tanaka, and A. Melis, "Photosynthetic apparatus organization and function in wild type and a Chl b-less mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Dependence on carbon source," Planta 211, 335-344 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melis, L. Zhang, M. Forestier, M. L. Ghirardi, and M. Seibert, "Sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production upon reversible inactivation of oxygen evolution in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii," Plant Physiol. 122, 127-136 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melis, "Photosystem-II damage and repair cycle in chloroplasts: what modulates the rate of photodamage in vivo?," Trends Plant Sci. 4, 130-135 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melis, J. Neidhardt, and J. R. Benemann, "Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta) with small chlorophyll antenna sizes exhibit higher photosynthetic productivities and photon use efficiencies than normally pigmented cells," J. Appl. Phycol. 10, 515-52 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Neidhardt, J. R. Benemann, L. Zhang, and A. Melis, "Photosystem-II repair and chloroplast recovery from irradiance stress: relationship between chronic photoinhibition, light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size and photosynthetic productivity in Dunaliella salina (green algae)," Photosynth. Res. 56, 175-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Tanaka and A. Melis, "Irradiance-dependent changes in the size and composition of the chlorophyll a-b light-harvesting complex in the green alga Dunaliella salina," Plant Cell Physiol. 38, 17-24 (1997).

M. R. Webb and A. Melis, "Chloroplast response in Dunaliella salina to irradiance stress. Effect on thylakoid membrane assembly and function," Plant Physiol. 107, 885-893 (1995).
[PubMed]

S. Jansson, E. Pichersky, R. Bassi, B. R. Green, M. Ikeuchi, A. Melis, D. J. Simpson, M. Spangfort, L. A. Staehelin, and J. P. Thornber, "A nomenclature for the genes encoding the chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of higher plants," Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 10, 242-253 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Melis, "Dynamics of photosynthetic membrane composition and function," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1058, 87-106 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Naus and A. Melis, "Changes of photosystem stoichiometry during cell growth in Dunaliella salina cultures," Plant Cell Physiol. 32, 569-575 (1991).

R. E. Glick and A. Melis, "Minimum photosynthetic unit size in system-I and system-II of barley chloroplasts," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 934, 151-155 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, M.

S. Tetali, M. Mitra, and A. Melis, "A Development of the light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is regulated by the novel Tla1 gene," Planta 225,813-829. (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, J.

E. Nakada, Y. Asada, T. Arai, and J. Miyake, "Light penetration into cell suspensions of photosynthetic bacteria and relation to hydrogen production," J Ferment.Bioengin. 80, 53-57 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mullineaux, C. W.

J. H. Mussgnug, L. Wobbe, I. Elles, C. Claus, M. Hamilton, A. Fink, U. Kahmann, A. Kapazoglou, C. W. Mullineaux, M. Hippler, J. Nickelsen, P. J. Nixon, and O. Kruse, "NAB1 Is an RNA Binding Protein Involved in the Light-Regulated Differential Expression of the Light-Harvesting Antenna of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii,"Plant Cell 17, 3409-3421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mulloney, J. A.

J. A. Mulloney, "Mitigation of carbon dioxide releases from power production via sustainable agri-power - the synergistic combination of controlled environmental agriculture (large commercial greenhouses) and disbursed fuel cell," Energy Conversion and Management 34, 913-920 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mussgnug, J. H.

J. H. Mussgnug, S. Thomas-Hall, J. Rupprecht, A. Foo, V. Klassen, A. McDowall,P. M. Schenk, O. Kruse, and B. Hankamer, "Engineering photosynthetic light capture: impacts on improved solar energy to biomass conversion," Plant Biotech. J. 5, 802- 814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Mussgnug, L. Wobbe, I. Elles, C. Claus, M. Hamilton, A. Fink, U. Kahmann, A. Kapazoglou, C. W. Mullineaux, M. Hippler, J. Nickelsen, P. J. Nixon, and O. Kruse, "NAB1 Is an RNA Binding Protein Involved in the Light-Regulated Differential Expression of the Light-Harvesting Antenna of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii,"Plant Cell 17, 3409-3421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakada, E.

E. Nakada, Y. Asada, T. Arai, and J. Miyake, "Light penetration into cell suspensions of photosynthetic bacteria and relation to hydrogen production," J Ferment.Bioengin. 80, 53-57 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, Y.

Y. Nakajima and R. Ueda, "Improvement of microalgal photosynthetic productivity by reducing the content of light harvesting pigment," J Appl. Phycol. 11, 195-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nakajima and R. Ueda, "Improvement of photosynthesis in dense microalgal suspension by reduction of light harvesting pigments," J Appl. Phycol. 9, 503-510 (1997).

Nakicenovic, N.

N. Nakicenovic, "Carbon dioxide mitigation measures and options," Environ. Sci. Technol. 27, 1986-1989 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Naus, J.

J. Naus and A. Melis, "Changes of photosystem stoichiometry during cell growth in Dunaliella salina cultures," Plant Cell Physiol. 32, 569-575 (1991).

Neidhardt, J.

A. Melis, J. Neidhardt, and J. R. Benemann, "Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta) with small chlorophyll antenna sizes exhibit higher photosynthetic productivities and photon use efficiencies than normally pigmented cells," J. Appl. Phycol. 10, 515-52 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Neidhardt, J. R. Benemann, L. Zhang, and A. Melis, "Photosystem-II repair and chloroplast recovery from irradiance stress: relationship between chronic photoinhibition, light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size and photosynthetic productivity in Dunaliella salina (green algae)," Photosynth. Res. 56, 175-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nickelsen, J.

J. H. Mussgnug, L. Wobbe, I. Elles, C. Claus, M. Hamilton, A. Fink, U. Kahmann, A. Kapazoglou, C. W. Mullineaux, M. Hippler, J. Nickelsen, P. J. Nixon, and O. Kruse, "NAB1 Is an RNA Binding Protein Involved in the Light-Regulated Differential Expression of the Light-Harvesting Antenna of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii,"Plant Cell 17, 3409-3421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nixon, P. J.

J. H. Mussgnug, L. Wobbe, I. Elles, C. Claus, M. Hamilton, A. Fink, U. Kahmann, A. Kapazoglou, C. W. Mullineaux, M. Hippler, J. Nickelsen, P. J. Nixon, and O. Kruse, "NAB1 Is an RNA Binding Protein Involved in the Light-Regulated Differential Expression of the Light-Harvesting Antenna of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii,"Plant Cell 17, 3409-3421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niyogi, K. K.

J. E. W. Polle, K. K. Niyogi, and A. Melis, "Absence of lutein, violaxanthin and neoxanthin affects the functional chlorophyll antenna size of photosystem-II but not that of photosystem-I in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii," Plant Cell Physiol. 42, 482-491 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Niyogi, O. Björkman, and GrossmanAR , "Chlamydomonas xanthophyll cycle mutants identified by video imaging of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching," Plant Cell 9, 1369-1380 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okada, K.

A. Tanaka, H. Ito, R. Tanaka, N. Tanaka, K. Yoshida, and K. Okada, "Chlorophyll a oxygenase (CAO) is involved in chlorophyll b formation from chlorophyll a," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 12719-12723 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Orth, P.

A. Zouni, H.T. Witt, J. Kern, P. Fromme, N. Krauss, W. Saenger, and P. Orth, "Crystal structure of photosystem II from Synechococcus elongatus at 3.8 angstrom resolution," Nature 409, 739-743(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pichersky, E.

S. Jansson, E. Pichersky, R. Bassi, B. R. Green, M. Ikeuchi, A. Melis, D. J. Simpson, M. Spangfort, L. A. Staehelin, and J. P. Thornber, "A nomenclature for the genes encoding the chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of higher plants," Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 10, 242-253 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Polle, J. E. W.

J. E. W. Polle, S. Kanakagiri, and A. Melis, "tla1, a DNA insertional transformant of the antenna size," Planta 217, 49-59 (2003).
[PubMed]

T. Masuda, J. E. W. Polle, and A. Melis, "Biosynthesis and distribution of chlorophyll among the photosystems during recovery of the green alga Dunaliella salina from irradiance stress," Plant Physiol. 128, 603-614 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. W. Polle, K. K. Niyogi, and A. Melis, "Absence of lutein, violaxanthin and neoxanthin affects the functional chlorophyll antenna size of photosystem-II but not that of photosystem-I in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii," Plant Cell Physiol. 42, 482-491 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. W. Polle, J. R. Benemann, A. Tanaka, and A. Melis, "Photosynthetic apparatus organization and function in wild type and a Chl b-less mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Dependence on carbon source," Planta 211, 335-344 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Powles, S.

S. Powles, "Photoinhibition of photosynthesis induced by visible light," Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 35, 15-44 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Puliotis, N. A.

O. Bjorkman, N. K. Boardman, J. M. Anderson, S. W. Thorne, D. J. Goodchild, and N. A. Puliotis, "Effect of light intensity during growth of Atriplex patula on the capacity of photosynthetic reactions, chloroplast components and structure," Carnegie Institution Yearbook 71,115-135 (1972).

Radmer, R.

R. Radmer and B. Kok, "Photosynthesis: Limited yields, unlimited dreams," BioScience 29, 599-605 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ruban, A.V.

A.V. Ruban, M. Wentworth, A.E. Yakushevska, J. Andersson, P. J. Lee, W. Keegstra, J. P. Dekker, E. J. Boekema, S. Jansson, and P. Horton, "Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization," Nature 421, 648-652 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rupprecht, J.

J. H. Mussgnug, S. Thomas-Hall, J. Rupprecht, A. Foo, V. Klassen, A. McDowall,P. M. Schenk, O. Kruse, and B. Hankamer, "Engineering photosynthetic light capture: impacts on improved solar energy to biomass conversion," Plant Biotech. J. 5, 802- 814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saenger, W.

A. Zouni, H.T. Witt, J. Kern, P. Fromme, N. Krauss, W. Saenger, and P. Orth, "Crystal structure of photosystem II from Synechococcus elongatus at 3.8 angstrom resolution," Nature 409, 739-743(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Jordan, P. Fromme, H. T. Witt, O. Klukas, W. Saenger, and N. Krauss, "Three-dimensional structure of cyanobacterial photosystem I at 2.5 angstrom resolution;" Nature 411909-917 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schenk, P. M.

J. H. Mussgnug, S. Thomas-Hall, J. Rupprecht, A. Foo, V. Klassen, A. McDowall,P. M. Schenk, O. Kruse, and B. Hankamer, "Engineering photosynthetic light capture: impacts on improved solar energy to biomass conversion," Plant Biotech. J. 5, 802- 814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seibert, M.

A. Melis, L. Zhang, M. Forestier, M. L. Ghirardi, and M. Seibert, "Sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production upon reversible inactivation of oxygen evolution in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii," Plant Physiol. 122, 127-136 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, D. J.

S. Jansson, E. Pichersky, R. Bassi, B. R. Green, M. Ikeuchi, A. Melis, D. J. Simpson, M. Spangfort, L. A. Staehelin, and J. P. Thornber, "A nomenclature for the genes encoding the chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of higher plants," Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 10, 242-253 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spangfort, M.

S. Jansson, E. Pichersky, R. Bassi, B. R. Green, M. Ikeuchi, A. Melis, D. J. Simpson, M. Spangfort, L. A. Staehelin, and J. P. Thornber, "A nomenclature for the genes encoding the chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of higher plants," Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 10, 242-253 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Staehelin, L. A.

S. Jansson, E. Pichersky, R. Bassi, B. R. Green, M. Ikeuchi, A. Melis, D. J. Simpson, M. Spangfort, L. A. Staehelin, and J. P. Thornber, "A nomenclature for the genes encoding the chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of higher plants," Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 10, 242-253 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sukenik, A.

A. Sukenik, J. Bennett, and P. G. Falkowski, "Changes in the abundance of individual apoproteins of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complexes of photosystem I and II with growth irradiance in the marine chlorophyte," Dunaliella tertiolecta.Biochim. Biophys. Acta 932, 206-215 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Taisova, A. S.

A. G. Yakovlev, A. S. Taisova, and Z. G. Fetisova, "Light control over the size of an antenna unit building block as an efficient strategy for light harvesting in photosynthesis," FEBS Lett. 512, 129-132 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, A.

T. Masuda, A. Tanaka, and A. Melis, "Chlorophyll antenna size adjustments by irradiance in Dunaliella salina involve coordinate regulation of chlorophyll a oxygenase (CAO) and Lhcb gene expression," Plant Mol. Biol. 51, 757-771 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. W. Polle, J. R. Benemann, A. Tanaka, and A. Melis, "Photosynthetic apparatus organization and function in wild type and a Chl b-less mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Dependence on carbon source," Planta 211, 335-344 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tanaka, H. Ito, R. Tanaka, N. Tanaka, K. Yoshida, and K. Okada, "Chlorophyll a oxygenase (CAO) is involved in chlorophyll b formation from chlorophyll a," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 12719-12723 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Tanaka and A. Melis, "Irradiance-dependent changes in the size and composition of the chlorophyll a-b light-harvesting complex in the green alga Dunaliella salina," Plant Cell Physiol. 38, 17-24 (1997).

Tanaka, N.

A. Tanaka, H. Ito, R. Tanaka, N. Tanaka, K. Yoshida, and K. Okada, "Chlorophyll a oxygenase (CAO) is involved in chlorophyll b formation from chlorophyll a," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 12719-12723 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, R.

A. Tanaka, H. Ito, R. Tanaka, N. Tanaka, K. Yoshida, and K. Okada, "Chlorophyll a oxygenase (CAO) is involved in chlorophyll b formation from chlorophyll a," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 12719-12723 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tetali, S.

S. Tetali, M. Mitra, and A. Melis, "A Development of the light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is regulated by the novel Tla1 gene," Planta 225,813-829. (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomas-Hall, S.

J. H. Mussgnug, S. Thomas-Hall, J. Rupprecht, A. Foo, V. Klassen, A. McDowall,P. M. Schenk, O. Kruse, and B. Hankamer, "Engineering photosynthetic light capture: impacts on improved solar energy to biomass conversion," Plant Biotech. J. 5, 802- 814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thornber, J. P.

S. Jansson, E. Pichersky, R. Bassi, B. R. Green, M. Ikeuchi, A. Melis, D. J. Simpson, M. Spangfort, L. A. Staehelin, and J. P. Thornber, "A nomenclature for the genes encoding the chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of higher plants," Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 10, 242-253 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thorne, S. W.

O. Bjorkman, N. K. Boardman, J. M. Anderson, S. W. Thorne, D. J. Goodchild, and N. A. Puliotis, "Effect of light intensity during growth of Atriplex patula on the capacity of photosynthetic reactions, chloroplast components and structure," Carnegie Institution Yearbook 71,115-135 (1972).

Ueda, R.

Y. Nakajima and R. Ueda, "Improvement of microalgal photosynthetic productivity by reducing the content of light harvesting pigment," J Appl. Phycol. 11, 195-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nakajima and R. Ueda, "Improvement of photosynthesis in dense microalgal suspension by reduction of light harvesting pigments," J Appl. Phycol. 9, 503-510 (1997).

Vazquezduhal, R.

R. Vazquezduhal, "Light-effect on neutral lipids accumulation and biomass composition of Botryococcus sudeticus (Chlorophyceae)," Cryptogamie Algologie 12, 109-119 (1991).

Webb, M. R.

M. R. Webb and A. Melis, "Chloroplast response in Dunaliella salina to irradiance stress. Effect on thylakoid membrane assembly and function," Plant Physiol. 107, 885-893 (1995).
[PubMed]

Weissman, J. C.

M. H. Huesemann, T. S. Hausmann, R. Bartha, M. Aksoy, J. C. Weissman, and J. R. Benemann, "Biomass Productivities in Wild Type and Pigment Mutant of Cyclotella sp. (Diatom)," Appl.Biochem.Biotechnol DOI 10.1007/s12010-008-8298-9 (2008).

Wentworth, M.

A.V. Ruban, M. Wentworth, A.E. Yakushevska, J. Andersson, P. J. Lee, W. Keegstra, J. P. Dekker, E. J. Boekema, S. Jansson, and P. Horton, "Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization," Nature 421, 648-652 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westermeier, R.

R. Westermeier and I. Gomez, "Biomass, energy contents and major organic compounds in the brown alga Lessonia nigrescens (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) from Mehuin, south Chile," Botanica Marina 39, 553-559 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Witt, H. T.

P. Jordan, P. Fromme, H. T. Witt, O. Klukas, W. Saenger, and N. Krauss, "Three-dimensional structure of cyanobacterial photosystem I at 2.5 angstrom resolution;" Nature 411909-917 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witt, H.T.

A. Zouni, H.T. Witt, J. Kern, P. Fromme, N. Krauss, W. Saenger, and P. Orth, "Crystal structure of photosystem II from Synechococcus elongatus at 3.8 angstrom resolution," Nature 409, 739-743(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wobbe, L.

J. H. Mussgnug, L. Wobbe, I. Elles, C. Claus, M. Hamilton, A. Fink, U. Kahmann, A. Kapazoglou, C. W. Mullineaux, M. Hippler, J. Nickelsen, P. J. Nixon, and O. Kruse, "NAB1 Is an RNA Binding Protein Involved in the Light-Regulated Differential Expression of the Light-Harvesting Antenna of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii,"Plant Cell 17, 3409-3421 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wohl, K.

H. Gaffron and K. Wohl, "Zur theorie der assimilation," Naturwissenschaften 24, 81-90 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, A. G.

A. G. Yakovlev, A. S. Taisova, and Z. G. Fetisova, "Light control over the size of an antenna unit building block as an efficient strategy for light harvesting in photosynthesis," FEBS Lett. 512, 129-132 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakushevska, A.E.

A.V. Ruban, M. Wentworth, A.E. Yakushevska, J. Andersson, P. J. Lee, W. Keegstra, J. P. Dekker, E. J. Boekema, S. Jansson, and P. Horton, "Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization," Nature 421, 648-652 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, K.

A. Tanaka, H. Ito, R. Tanaka, N. Tanaka, K. Yoshida, and K. Okada, "Chlorophyll a oxygenase (CAO) is involved in chlorophyll b formation from chlorophyll a," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 12719-12723 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zeiler, K. G.

L. M. Brownand and K. G. Zeiler, "Aquatic biomass and carbon dioxide trapping;" Energy Conversion and Management 34, 1005-1013 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, T. Happe, and A. Melis, "Biochemical and morphological characterization of sulfur-deprived and H2-producing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (green alga)," Planta 214, 552-561 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Melis, L. Zhang, M. Forestier, M. L. Ghirardi, and M. Seibert, "Sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production upon reversible inactivation of oxygen evolution in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii," Plant Physiol. 122, 127-136 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neidhardt, J. R. Benemann, L. Zhang, and A. Melis, "Photosystem-II repair and chloroplast recovery from irradiance stress: relationship between chronic photoinhibition, light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size and photosynthetic productivity in Dunaliella salina (green algae)," Photosynth. Res. 56, 175-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zouni, A.

A. Zouni, H.T. Witt, J. Kern, P. Fromme, N. Krauss, W. Saenger, and P. Orth, "Crystal structure of photosystem II from Synechococcus elongatus at 3.8 angstrom resolution," Nature 409, 739-743(2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. (2)

S. Powles, "Photoinhibition of photosynthesis induced by visible light," Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 35, 15-44 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Anderson, "Photoregulation of the composition, function and structure of thylakoid membranes," Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 37, 93-136 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl.Biochem.Biotechnol (1)

M. H. Huesemann, T. S. Hausmann, R. Bartha, M. Aksoy, J. C. Weissman, and J. R. Benemann, "Biomass Productivities in Wild Type and Pigment Mutant of Cyclotella sp. (Diatom)," Appl.Biochem.Biotechnol DOI 10.1007/s12010-008-8298-9 (2008).

Biochim Biophys Acta (1)

A. C. Ley and D. Mauzerall, "Absolute absorption cross section of photosystem-II and the minimum quantum requirement for photosynthesis in Chlorella vulgaris," Biochim Biophys Acta 680, 95-106(1982).
[CrossRef]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (3)

R. E. Glick and A. Melis, "Minimum photosynthetic unit size in system-I and system-II of barley chloroplasts," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 934, 151-155 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Melis, "Dynamics of photosynthetic membrane composition and function," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1058, 87-106 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Sukenik, J. Bennett, and P. G. Falkowski, "Changes in the abundance of individual apoproteins of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complexes of photosystem I and II with growth irradiance in the marine chlorophyte," Dunaliella tertiolecta.Biochim. Biophys. Acta 932, 206-215 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bioengin. (1)

E. Nakada, Y. Asada, T. Arai, and J. Miyake, "Light penetration into cell suspensions of photosynthetic bacteria and relation to hydrogen production," J Ferment.Bioengin. 80, 53-57 (1995).
[CrossRef]

BioScience (1)

R. Radmer and B. Kok, "Photosynthesis: Limited yields, unlimited dreams," BioScience 29, 599-605 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Botanica Marina (1)

R. Westermeier and I. Gomez, "Biomass, energy contents and major organic compounds in the brown alga Lessonia nigrescens (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) from Mehuin, south Chile," Botanica Marina 39, 553-559 (1996).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a genetic and molecular mechanism determining the Chl antenna size of photosynthesis. Within limits for the PSII and PSI Chl antenna size, defined by genetic and structural considerations, the Chl antenna size could vary in response to environmental, genetic, developmental or physiological conditions. The genetic determinants of the Chl antenna size are largely unknown.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic presentation of the fate of absorbed sunlight in fully pigmented (dark green) microalgae in a high-density culture. Individual cells at the surface of the culture over-absorb incoming sunlight (i.e., they absorb more than can be utilized by photosynthesis), and wastefully ‘heat dissipate’ most of it, limiting culture productivity (P). Note that a high probability of absorption by the first layer of cells would cause shading, i.e., would prevent cells deeper in the culture from being exposed to sunlight.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic presentation of sunlight penetration through cells with a truncated chlorophyll antenna size. Individual cells have a diminished probability of absorbing sunlight, thereby permitting greater penetration of irradiance and enhanced photosynthetic productivity (P) by cells deeper in the culture.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Light-saturation curves of photosynthesis in wild type (open circles) and the Chl b-less cbs3 mutant (closed circles) of the model microalga C. reinhardtii. Rates of oxygen evolution on a per chlorophyll basis were measured as a function of incident irradiance to a sample of the respective cells. Chlorophyll concentration for wild type and mutant in the oxygen electrode was 2 nmol/ml.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The light-saturation curve of photosynthesis in C. reinhardtii wild type (solid symbols) and npq2 lor1 mutant (open symbols) lacking lutein, violaxanthin and neoxanthin. Rates of oxygen evolution on a per chlorophyll basis were measured as a function of incident irradiance to a sample of the respective cells. Chlorophyll concentration for wild type and mutant in the oxygen electrode was 2 nmol/ml.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Light saturation curves of photosynthesis obtained with the wild type (solid symbols) and the tla1 mutant (open symbols) of C. reinhardtii. The initial linear slope of the curves, which is a measure of photon use efficiency of photosynthesis, is shown by a solid red line for the wild type and green line for the tla1 mutant. Note the similar initial slopes and the substantially greater steady-state rate (plateau) of photosynthesis in the tla1 mutant versus that of the wild type. Chlorophyll concentration for wild type and mutant in the oxygen electrode was 2 nmol/ml.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Photosynthetic productivity (O2 evolution) measurements were conducted in the greenhouse under mini-scale up mass culture conditions with wild type and the tla1 mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Productivity was measured as a function of chlorophyll concentration in the mass culture [33] from the rate of O2 accumulation at a solar incident intensity (photosynthetically active radiation) of about 1,500 µmol photons m-2 s-1. Note the greater cell density (10×106 cells/mL) but lighter coloration of the tla1 mass culture versus that of the wild type (6.36×106 cells/mL).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Photosynthetic O2-production measurements with C. reinhardtii wild type and tla1 mutant as a function of Chl concentration in the mini-scale up culture. Note the greater rates of O2-production in the tla1 than in the wild type under conditions of high cell density (high Chl concentration). Productivity measurements were conducted at a solar incident intensity (PAR) of about 1,500 µmol photons m-2 s-1.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Chlorophyll (Chl) antenna size of PSII and PSI in C. reinhardtii wild type, Chl b-less (cbs3) and lutein-less (npq2-lor1) mutants. Measurements show the Chl per cell, QA (PSII) and P700 (PSI) content, and the functional Chl antenna size, i.e., the number of Chl (a and b) molecules specifically associated with each photosystem, as determined by sensitive absorbance-difference kinetic spectrophotometric analysis. The PSII and PSI Chl antenna size values given have a ±10% SD of the mean. These measurements were corroborated by complementary biochemical analyses [44, 47].

Tables Icon

Table 2. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chl content and photosystem Chl antenna size in wild type and tla1 mutant. Measurements show the Chl per cell, QA (PSII) and P700 (PSI) content, and the functional Chl antenna size, i.e., the number of Chl (a and b) molecules specifically associated with each photosystem, as determined by sensitive absorbance-difference kinetic spectrophotometric analysis. The PSII and PSI Chl antenna size values given have a ±10% SD of the mean. These measurements were corroborated by complementary biochemical analyses [33]. The long-term goal of the research (limiting values of the Chl antenna size) is 37 Chl for PSII and 95 Chl for PSI, representing the minimal photosystem core Chl antenna [13, 50, 51].

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