Abstract

Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) generally consist of transparent polymer sheets doped with luminescent species. Incident sunlight is absorbed by the luminescent species and emitted with high quantum efficiency, such that emitted light is trapped in the sheet and travels to the edges where it can be collected by solar cells. LSCs offer potentially lower cost per Wp. This paper reviews results mainly obtained within the framework of the Fullspectrum project. Two modeling approaches are presented, i.e., a thermodynamic and a ray-trace one, as well as experimental results, with a focus on LSC stability.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Loeper, A. Gombert, and G. Willeke, “Application of photonic structures on fluorescent concentrators,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds.(WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 177–181.

W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, G. W. Brandsen, M. Fleuster, and M. P. Hekkert, “Analysis of the silicon market: Will thin films profit?,” Energy Pol. 35, 3121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kinderman, L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, N. J. Bakker, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “I-V Performance and Stability of Dyes for Luminescent Plate Concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 129, 277–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

2005 (2)

R. Xie, U. Kolb, J. Li, T. Basche, and A. Mews, “Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Luminescent CdSe-Core CdS/Zn0.5Cd0.5S/ZnS Multishell Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7480–7488 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators,” Semiconductors 38, 609–617. (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Earp, G. B. Smith, P. D. Swift, and J. Franklin, “Maximising the light output of a Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” Sol. Energy 76, 655–667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Gallagher, P. C. Eames, and B. Norton, “Quantum dot solar concentrator behaviour predicted using a ray trace approach,” J. Ambient Energy 25, 47–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

U. Rau, F. Einsele, and G. C. Glaeser, “Efficiency limits of photovoltaic fluorescent collectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1668–1674 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Barnham, J. L. Marques, J. Hassard, and P. O’Brien, “Quantum-dot concentrator and thermodynamic model for the global redshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1197–1199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

X. Peng, M. C. Schlamp, A. V. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Epitaxial Growth of Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Photostability and Electronic Accessibility,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1197019–7029 (1997)
[CrossRef]

A. Luque and A. Marti, “Increasing the Efficiency of Ideal Solar Cells by Photon Induced Transitions at Intermediate Levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 5014–5017 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Seybold and G. Wagenblast, “New perylene and violanthrone dyestuffs for fluorescent collectors,” Dyes Pigm. 11, 303–317 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

W. Stahl and A. Zastrow, “Fluoreszenzkollektoren,” Physik in unserer Zeit 16, 167(1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

V. Wittwer, W. Stahl, and A. Goetzberger, “Fluorescent planar concentrators,” Sol. Energy Mater. 11, 187–197 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1977 (1)

A. Goetzberger and W. Greubel, “Solar Energy Conversion with Fluorescent Collectors,” Appl. Phys. 14, 123–139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1921 (1)

E. A. Milne, “Radiative Equilibrium in Outer Layers of a Star,” Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. London 81, 361–388. (1921)

‘t Hart, D. C.

R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Agullo-Lopez, F.

Algora, C.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

X. Peng, M. C. Schlamp, A. V. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Epitaxial Growth of Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Photostability and Electronic Accessibility,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1197019–7029 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Alonso, J.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, V. M.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, N. J.

R. Kinderman, L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, N. J. Bakker, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “I-V Performance and Stability of Dyes for Luminescent Plate Concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 129, 277–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barnham, K.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Barnham, J. L. Marques, J. Hassard, and P. O’Brien, “Quantum-dot concentrator and thermodynamic model for the global redshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1197–1199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barnham, K. W. J.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators,” Semiconductors 38, 609–617. (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “The Quantum Dot Concentrator: Theory and Results,” in Proceedings of Third World Congress on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WPEC-3).K. Kurokawa, L. Kazmerski, B. McNelis, M. Yamaguchi, C. Wronski, and W. C. Sinke, Eds. (WPEC-3, Osaka, Japan, 2003) pp. 2657–2660.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference.W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany; ETA, Florence, Italy, 2004), pp. 109–112.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006), pp. 315–319.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, R. Bose, M. G. Debije, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators With Reduced Top Surface Losses,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 349–353.

Basche, T.

R. Xie, U. Kolb, J. Li, T. Basche, and A. Mews, “Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Luminescent CdSe-Core CdS/Zn0.5Cd0.5S/ZnS Multishell Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7480–7488 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bastiaansen, C. W.

M. G. Debije, R. H. L. Van der Blom, D. J. Broer, and C. W. Bastiaansen, “Using selectively-reflecting organic mirrors to improve light output from a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress IX (2006).

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

M. G. Debije, D. J. Broer, and C. W. M. Bastiaansen, “Effect of dye alignment on the output of a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conferenc,. G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 87–89.

Benítez, P.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bett, A.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bitnar, B.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bose, R.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, R. Bose, M. G. Debije, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators With Reduced Top Surface Losses,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 349–353.

Brandsen, G. W.

W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, G. W. Brandsen, M. Fleuster, and M. P. Hekkert, “Analysis of the silicon market: Will thin films profit?,” Energy Pol. 35, 3121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Broer, D. J.

M. G. Debije, R. H. L. Van der Blom, D. J. Broer, and C. W. Bastiaansen, “Using selectively-reflecting organic mirrors to improve light output from a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress IX (2006).

M. G. Debije, D. J. Broer, and C. W. M. Bastiaansen, “Effect of dye alignment on the output of a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conferenc,. G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 87–89.

Büchtemann, A.

R. Kinderman, L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, N. J. Bakker, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “I-V Performance and Stability of Dyes for Luminescent Plate Concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 129, 277–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006), pp. 315–319.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, R. Bose, M. G. Debije, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators With Reduced Top Surface Losses,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 349–353.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

Burgers, A. R.

R. Kinderman, L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, N. J. Bakker, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “I-V Performance and Stability of Dyes for Luminescent Plate Concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 129, 277–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

A. R. Burgers, L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “Modeling of luminescent concentrators by ray-tracing,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 394–397.

A. R. Burgers, L. H. Slooff, and M. G. Debije, “Reduction of escape cone losses in luminescent concentrators with cholesteric mirrors,” Technical digest PVSEC-17 (PVSEC-17, Fukuoka, Japan, 2007).

Buxton, B. F.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators,” Semiconductors 38, 609–617. (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference.W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany; ETA, Florence, Italy, 2004), pp. 109–112.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006), pp. 315–319.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “The Quantum Dot Concentrator: Theory and Results,” in Proceedings of Third World Congress on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WPEC-3).K. Kurokawa, L. Kazmerski, B. McNelis, M. Yamaguchi, C. Wronski, and W. C. Sinke, Eds. (WPEC-3, Osaka, Japan, 2003) pp. 2657–2660.

Carbone, L.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1950).

Chatten, A. J.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators,” Semiconductors 38, 609–617. (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006), pp. 315–319.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference.W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany; ETA, Florence, Italy, 2004), pp. 109–112.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “The Quantum Dot Concentrator: Theory and Results,” in Proceedings of Third World Congress on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WPEC-3).K. Kurokawa, L. Kazmerski, B. McNelis, M. Yamaguchi, C. Wronski, and W. C. Sinke, Eds. (WPEC-3, Osaka, Japan, 2003) pp. 2657–2660.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, R. Bose, M. G. Debije, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators With Reduced Top Surface Losses,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 349–353.

Chiodo, L.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christofides, C.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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Cingolani, R.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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Conesa, J. C.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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B. S. Richards, A. Shalav, and R. P. Corkish, “A low escape-con-loss luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds., (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2004), pp. 113–116.

D. L.,

T. Markvart, D. L., P. Kittidachachan, and R. Greef, “Detailed balance efficiency of ideal single-stage fluorescent collectors,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 171–174.

Danz, R.

R. Kinderman, L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, N. J. Bakker, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “I-V Performance and Stability of Dyes for Luminescent Plate Concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 129, 277–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

De Giorgi, M.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Mello Donegá, C.

R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
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Debije, M. G.

M. G. Debije, D. J. Broer, and C. W. M. Bastiaansen, “Effect of dye alignment on the output of a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conferenc,. G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 87–89.

A. R. Burgers, L. H. Slooff, and M. G. Debije, “Reduction of escape cone losses in luminescent concentrators with cholesteric mirrors,” Technical digest PVSEC-17 (PVSEC-17, Fukuoka, Japan, 2007).

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, R. Bose, M. G. Debije, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators With Reduced Top Surface Losses,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 349–353.

M. G. Debije, R. H. L. Van der Blom, D. J. Broer, and C. W. Bastiaansen, “Using selectively-reflecting organic mirrors to improve light output from a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress IX (2006).

Doran, J.

M. Kennedy, S. J. McCormack, J. Doran, and B. Norton, “Modelling the effect of device geometry on concentration ratios of quantum dot solar concentrators,” in Proceedings of ISES World Solar Congress (Beijing, China, 2007).

Eames, P. C.

S. J. Gallagher, P. C. Eames, and B. Norton, “Quantum dot solar concentrator behaviour predicted using a ray trace approach,” J. Ambient Energy 25, 47–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Earp, A. A.

A. A. Earp, G. B. Smith, P. D. Swift, and J. Franklin, “Maximising the light output of a Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” Sol. Energy 76, 655–667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Einsele, F.

U. Rau, F. Einsele, and G. C. Glaeser, “Efficiency limits of photovoltaic fluorescent collectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ekins-Daukes, N. J.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators,” Semiconductors 38, 609–617. (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “The Quantum Dot Concentrator: Theory and Results,” in Proceedings of Third World Congress on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WPEC-3).K. Kurokawa, L. Kazmerski, B. McNelis, M. Yamaguchi, C. Wronski, and W. C. Sinke, Eds. (WPEC-3, Osaka, Japan, 2003) pp. 2657–2660.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference.W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany; ETA, Florence, Italy, 2004), pp. 109–112.

Farrell, D.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

Farrell, D. J.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006), pp. 315–319.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, R. Bose, M. G. Debije, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators With Reduced Top Surface Losses,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 349–353.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

Fiore, A.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleuster, M.

W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, G. W. Brandsen, M. Fleuster, and M. P. Hekkert, “Analysis of the silicon market: Will thin films profit?,” Energy Pol. 35, 3121 (2007).
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Franchini, I. R.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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Franklin, J.

A. A. Earp, G. B. Smith, P. D. Swift, and J. Franklin, “Maximising the light output of a Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” Sol. Energy 76, 655–667 (2004).
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Gallagher, S. J.

S. J. Gallagher, P. C. Eames, and B. Norton, “Quantum dot solar concentrator behaviour predicted using a ray trace approach,” J. Ambient Energy 25, 47–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glaeser, G. C.

U. Rau, F. Einsele, and G. C. Glaeser, “Efficiency limits of photovoltaic fluorescent collectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171101 (2003).
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V. Wittwer, W. Stahl, and A. Goetzberger, “Fluorescent planar concentrators,” Sol. Energy Mater. 11, 187–197 (1984).
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Gombert, A.

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Loeper, A. Gombert, and G. Willeke, “Application of photonic structures on fluorescent concentrators,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds.(WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 177–181.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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Greef, R.

T. Markvart, D. L., P. Kittidachachan, and R. Greef, “Detailed balance efficiency of ideal single-stage fluorescent collectors,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 171–174.

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Hekkert, M. P.

W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, G. W. Brandsen, M. Fleuster, and M. P. Hekkert, “Analysis of the silicon market: Will thin films profit?,” Energy Pol. 35, 3121 (2007).
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Hilhorst, J.

R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hytch, M.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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Jaussaud, C.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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Jermyn, C. M.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

Kadavanich, A. V.

X. Peng, M. C. Schlamp, A. V. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Epitaxial Growth of Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Photostability and Electronic Accessibility,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1197019–7029 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, M.

M. Kennedy, S. J. McCormack, J. Doran, and B. Norton, “Modelling the effect of device geometry on concentration ratios of quantum dot solar concentrators,” in Proceedings of ISES World Solar Congress (Beijing, China, 2007).

Kenny, R.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kinderman, R.

R. Kinderman, L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, N. J. Bakker, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “I-V Performance and Stability of Dyes for Luminescent Plate Concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 129, 277–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

A. R. Burgers, L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “Modeling of luminescent concentrators by ray-tracing,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 394–397.

Kittidachachan, P.

T. Markvart, D. L., P. Kittidachachan, and R. Greef, “Detailed balance efficiency of ideal single-stage fluorescent collectors,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 171–174.

Kolb, U.

R. Xie, U. Kolb, J. Li, T. Basche, and A. Mews, “Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Luminescent CdSe-Core CdS/Zn0.5Cd0.5S/ZnS Multishell Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7480–7488 (2005)
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R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krahne, R.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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Kudera, S.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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Li, J.

R. Xie, U. Kolb, J. Li, T. Basche, and A. Mews, “Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Luminescent CdSe-Core CdS/Zn0.5Cd0.5S/ZnS Multishell Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7480–7488 (2005)
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Loeper, P.

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Loeper, A. Gombert, and G. Willeke, “Application of photonic structures on fluorescent concentrators,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds.(WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 177–181.

Luque, A.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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A. Luque and A. Marti, “Increasing the Efficiency of Ideal Solar Cells by Photon Induced Transitions at Intermediate Levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 5014–5017 (1997).
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Luque-Heredia, I.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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Malik, M. A.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators,” Semiconductors 38, 609–617. (2004).
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A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “The Quantum Dot Concentrator: Theory and Results,” in Proceedings of Third World Congress on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WPEC-3).K. Kurokawa, L. Kazmerski, B. McNelis, M. Yamaguchi, C. Wronski, and W. C. Sinke, Eds. (WPEC-3, Osaka, Japan, 2003) pp. 2657–2660.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference.W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany; ETA, Florence, Italy, 2004), pp. 109–112.

Manna, L.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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Markvart, T.

T. Markvart, D. L., P. Kittidachachan, and R. Greef, “Detailed balance efficiency of ideal single-stage fluorescent collectors,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 171–174.

Marques, J. L.

K. Barnham, J. L. Marques, J. Hassard, and P. O’Brien, “Quantum-dot concentrator and thermodynamic model for the global redshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1197–1199 (2000).
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Marti, A.

A. Luque and A. Marti, “Increasing the Efficiency of Ideal Solar Cells by Photon Induced Transitions at Intermediate Levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 5014–5017 (1997).
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Martí, A.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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McCormack, S. J.

M. Kennedy, S. J. McCormack, J. Doran, and B. Norton, “Modelling the effect of device geometry on concentration ratios of quantum dot solar concentrators,” in Proceedings of ISES World Solar Congress (Beijing, China, 2007).

McIntosh, K. R.

B. Richards and K. R. McIntosh, “Ray-tracing simulations of luminescent solar concentrators containing multiple luminescent species,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds., (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006) pp. 185–188.

Meijerink, A.

R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mews, A.

R. Xie, U. Kolb, J. Li, T. Basche, and A. Mews, “Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Luminescent CdSe-Core CdS/Zn0.5Cd0.5S/ZnS Multishell Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7480–7488 (2005)
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Meyer, T.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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Meyer, T. B.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

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E. A. Milne, “Radiative Equilibrium in Outer Layers of a Star,” Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. London 81, 361–388. (1921)

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L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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Nobile, C.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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S. J. Gallagher, P. C. Eames, and B. Norton, “Quantum dot solar concentrator behaviour predicted using a ray trace approach,” J. Ambient Energy 25, 47–56 (2004).
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M. Kennedy, S. J. McCormack, J. Doran, and B. Norton, “Modelling the effect of device geometry on concentration ratios of quantum dot solar concentrators,” in Proceedings of ISES World Solar Congress (Beijing, China, 2007).

O’Brien, P.

K. Barnham, J. L. Marques, J. Hassard, and P. O’Brien, “Quantum-dot concentrator and thermodynamic model for the global redshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1197–1199 (2000).
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Peng, X.

X. Peng, M. C. Schlamp, A. V. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Epitaxial Growth of Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Photostability and Electronic Accessibility,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1197019–7029 (1997)
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Peters, M.

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Loeper, A. Gombert, and G. Willeke, “Application of photonic structures on fluorescent concentrators,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds.(WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 177–181.

Polishuk, P.

P. Polishuk, “Plastic Optical Fibers Branch Out,” IEEE Commun. Mag.140 (September 2006).

Pompa, P.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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U. Rau, F. Einsele, and G. C. Glaeser, “Efficiency limits of photovoltaic fluorescent collectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171101 (2003).
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A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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Richards, B.

B. Richards and K. R. McIntosh, “Ray-tracing simulations of luminescent solar concentrators containing multiple luminescent species,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds., (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006) pp. 185–188.

Richards, B. S.

B. S. Richards, A. Shalav, and R. P. Corkish, “A low escape-con-loss luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds., (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2004), pp. 113–116.

Sala, F. D.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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Sala, G.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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Schlamp, M. C.

X. Peng, M. C. Schlamp, A. V. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Epitaxial Growth of Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Photostability and Electronic Accessibility,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1197019–7029 (1997)
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Silvestre, A. F.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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Slooff, L. H.

R. Kinderman, L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, N. J. Bakker, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “I-V Performance and Stability of Dyes for Luminescent Plate Concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 129, 277–282 (2007).
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L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

A. R. Burgers, L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “Modeling of luminescent concentrators by ray-tracing,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 394–397.

A. R. Burgers, L. H. Slooff, and M. G. Debije, “Reduction of escape cone losses in luminescent concentrators with cholesteric mirrors,” Technical digest PVSEC-17 (PVSEC-17, Fukuoka, Japan, 2007).

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L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, W.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Strobl, G.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Swift, P. D.

A. A. Earp, G. B. Smith, P. D. Swift, and J. Franklin, “Maximising the light output of a Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” Sol. Energy 76, 655–667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

THomas, P. A.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

Trupke, T.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1668–1674 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Unamuno, S.

Van Blaaderen, A.

R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van der Blom, R. H. L.

M. G. Debije, R. H. L. Van der Blom, D. J. Broer, and C. W. Bastiaansen, “Using selectively-reflecting organic mirrors to improve light output from a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress IX (2006).

Van Klink, G. P. M.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Roosmalen, J. A. M.

R. Kinderman, L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, N. J. Bakker, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “I-V Performance and Stability of Dyes for Luminescent Plate Concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 129, 277–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Burgers, L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “Modeling of luminescent concentrators by ray-tracing,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 394–397.

Van Sark, W. G. J. H. M.

W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, G. W. Brandsen, M. Fleuster, and M. P. Hekkert, “Analysis of the silicon market: Will thin films profit?,” Energy Pol. 35, 3121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Schooneveld, M.

R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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G. Seybold and G. Wagenblast, “New perylene and violanthrone dyestuffs for fluorescent collectors,” Dyes Pigm. 11, 303–317 (1989).
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A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Willeke, G.

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Loeper, A. Gombert, and G. Willeke, “Application of photonic structures on fluorescent concentrators,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds.(WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 177–181.

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V. Wittwer, W. Stahl, and A. Goetzberger, “Fluorescent planar concentrators,” Sol. Energy Mater. 11, 187–197 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1668–1674 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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R. Xie, U. Kolb, J. Li, T. Basche, and A. Mews, “Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Luminescent CdSe-Core CdS/Zn0.5Cd0.5S/ZnS Multishell Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7480–7488 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Stahl and A. Zastrow, “Fluoreszenzkollektoren,” Physik in unserer Zeit 16, 167(1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Zastrow, “Physikalische Analyse der Energievelustmechanismen im Fluoreszenzkollektor,” Ph.D. Thesis, Freiburg, 1981.

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R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, G. W. Brandsen, M. Fleuster, and M. P. Hekkert, “Analysis of the silicon market: Will thin films profit?,” Energy Pol. 35, 3121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1668–1674 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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R. Kinderman, L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, N. J. Bakker, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “I-V Performance and Stability of Dyes for Luminescent Plate Concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 129, 277–282 (2007).
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A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators,” Semiconductors 38, 609–617. (2004).
[CrossRef]

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A. A. Earp, G. B. Smith, P. D. Swift, and J. Franklin, “Maximising the light output of a Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” Sol. Energy 76, 655–667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. (1)

V. Wittwer, W. Stahl, and A. Goetzberger, “Fluorescent planar concentrators,” Sol. Energy Mater. 11, 187–197 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (20)

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

M. A. Green, Third Generation Photovoltaics, Advanced Solar Energy Conversion (Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 2003).

A. Martí and A. Luque, eds. “Next Generation Photovoltaics, High Efficiency through Full Spectrum Utilization,” in Series in Optics and Optoelectronics, R.G.W. Brown and E.R. Pike. eds. (Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol, UK, 2004).

T. Markvart, D. L., P. Kittidachachan, and R. Greef, “Detailed balance efficiency of ideal single-stage fluorescent collectors,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 171–174.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1950).

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006), pp. 315–319.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, R. Bose, M. G. Debije, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators With Reduced Top Surface Losses,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 349–353.

M. G. Debije, R. H. L. Van der Blom, D. J. Broer, and C. W. Bastiaansen, “Using selectively-reflecting organic mirrors to improve light output from a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress IX (2006).

A. R. Burgers, L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “Modeling of luminescent concentrators by ray-tracing,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 394–397.

P. Polishuk, “Plastic Optical Fibers Branch Out,” IEEE Commun. Mag.140 (September 2006).

A. Zastrow, “Physikalische Analyse der Energievelustmechanismen im Fluoreszenzkollektor,” Ph.D. Thesis, Freiburg, 1981.

B. Richards and K. R. McIntosh, “Ray-tracing simulations of luminescent solar concentrators containing multiple luminescent species,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds., (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006) pp. 185–188.

A. R. Burgers, L. H. Slooff, and M. G. Debije, “Reduction of escape cone losses in luminescent concentrators with cholesteric mirrors,” Technical digest PVSEC-17 (PVSEC-17, Fukuoka, Japan, 2007).

B. S. Richards, A. Shalav, and R. P. Corkish, “A low escape-con-loss luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds., (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2004), pp. 113–116.

M. G. Debije, D. J. Broer, and C. W. M. Bastiaansen, “Effect of dye alignment on the output of a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conferenc,. G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 87–89.

M. Kennedy, S. J. McCormack, J. Doran, and B. Norton, “Modelling the effect of device geometry on concentration ratios of quantum dot solar concentrators,” in Proceedings of ISES World Solar Congress (Beijing, China, 2007).

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A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “The Quantum Dot Concentrator: Theory and Results,” in Proceedings of Third World Congress on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WPEC-3).K. Kurokawa, L. Kazmerski, B. McNelis, M. Yamaguchi, C. Wronski, and W. C. Sinke, Eds. (WPEC-3, Osaka, Japan, 2003) pp. 2657–2660.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference.W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany; ETA, Florence, Italy, 2004), pp. 109–112.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic 3D view of a luminescent concentrator. AM1.5 light is incident from the top. The light is absorbed by a luminescent particle. The luminescence from the particle is randomly emitted. Part of the emission falls within the escape cone (determined by the angle (θc)) and is lost from the luminescent concentrator at the surfaces (1). The other part of the luminescence is guided to the solar cell by total internal reflection (2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Quantum efficiency (spectral response) of the GaInP cell used in modelling the idealized LSC together with the modelled luminescence escaping the right-hand surface (RHS) of the LSC that would be coupled into the cell. (b) Absorption of the LSC material used in the calculations for the idealised system together with the flux incident on the top surface and the predicted concentrated average luminescent flux escaping the right-hand surface of the idealised LSC.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Measured absorption coefficient together with the normalized predicted and observed luminescence escaping the right-hand surfaces of the 5mm thick test LSCs doped with red and yellow CdSe/ZnS QDs. (b) Reflectivity of one right-handed cholesteric coating at normal incidence and averaged over the escape cone.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured and predicted short-circuit currents, JSC, for the red dye doped test LSC.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Different mirror configurations that are used in the ray-tracing simulation. (a) no mirrors, (b) direct mirrors, and (c) air-gap mirrors.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Influence of the background absorption of the polymer LC plate on the current collected from the mc-Si solar cell.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Absorption and emission spectra of the Red 305 dye, together with the desired transmission and reflection spectrum of the selective mirror; (b) reflection of a cholesteric layer for different angles of incidence. With increasing angle of incidence the centre wavelength of the high reflection region moves to shorter wavelengths.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Schematic view of the different regions the emitted fluorescence of the dye is facing when a cholesteric mirror with a center wavelength of 680 nm is applied. Light that falls perpendicularly on the top surface faces a reflector with a center wavelength of 680 nm, whereas light that falls in at roughly 45o faces a reflector with a center wavelength of 600 nm. At even larger angles total internal reflection will take place. (b) Calculated short circuit current from the mc-Si cell connected to the LSC plate as a function of the center wavelength of the cholesteric top mirror as compared to the situation where no top mirror is applied. Calculations are shown for a diffuse air-gap bottom mirror, and a direct specular bottom mirror (100% spec).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Predicted concentration ratios (C) for devices of varying geometry and top surface aperture (Aconc). The device thickness was fixed at 0.3 cm.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Predicted relative costs per unit power output for square, triangular and hexagonal QDSC geometries of increasing top surface aperture. The predictions for square QDSCs with PV attached at all four sides [35] are also shown.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

External quantum efficiency of an LSC with mc-Si solar cell, with one or two dyes dispersed in the polymer matrix.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Absorption and emission spectra of the Red305 dye, together with the transmission and reflection spectrum of the LOT-ORIEL mirror.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

External quantum efficiency of LSC solar cell combinations comparing the case with and without mirror.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Absorbance (a,b,c) and External Quantum Efficiency (d,e,f) spectra of Red305 doped LSC plates, taken at various intervals during (a,d) storage in the dark, (b,e) continuous illumination under a sulphur lamp, and (c,f) outdoor conditions.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Calculated Isc at various intervals during aging.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

(a) Absorbance spectra of CRS040/RED305 doped LSC plates, taken at various intervals during (a) storage in the dark, (b) continuous illumination under a sulphur lamp.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Absorbance spectra of a CRS040/Red305 (dashed lines) doped LSC plate and Red305 only (solid lines) doped LSC plate before and after monochromatic light illumination at (a) 470 nm and (b) 589 nm.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Relative absorbances in band maxima as a function of time of out-door storage and polymer matrix.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Calculated efficiencies (in %) for the LSC based on experimentally determined parameters and subsequently using optimized parameters based on realistic estimates

Tables Icon

Table 2. Ray-tracing results for a stack of two LSC plates with a low FQE IR dye in one plate and the Red305+CRS040 dyes in the other, compared to all dyes in a single LSC plate

Tables Icon

Table 3. Measured and predicted short-circuit current densities (Jsc) of the four LSC devices

Tables Icon

Table 4. Overview of used dyes, their absorption and luminescent emission peak wavelengths and luminescent quantum yields

Tables Icon

Table 5. Calculated AM 1.5 short circuit current (Isc) and power conversion efficiency, together with the measured efficiency using the ECN solar simulator. The efficiency of the used bare Si cell was 18.6%.

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