Abstract

Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) generally consist of transparent polymer sheets doped with luminescent species. Incident sunlight is absorbed by the luminescent species and emitted with high quantum efficiency, such that emitted light is trapped in the sheet and travels to the edges where it can be collected by solar cells. LSCs offer potentially lower cost per Wp. This paper reviews results mainly obtained within the framework of the Fullspectrum project. Two modeling approaches are presented, i.e., a thermodynamic and a ray-trace one, as well as experimental results, with a focus on LSC stability.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Loeper, A. Gombert, and G. Willeke, “Application of photonic structures on fluorescent concentrators,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds.(WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 177–181.

W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, G. W. Brandsen, M. Fleuster, and M. P. Hekkert, “Analysis of the silicon market: Will thin films profit?,” Energy Pol. 35, 3121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kinderman, L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, N. J. Bakker, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “I-V Performance and Stability of Dyes for Luminescent Plate Concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 129, 277–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

2005 (2)

R. Xie, U. Kolb, J. Li, T. Basche, and A. Mews, “Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Luminescent CdSe-Core CdS/Zn0.5Cd0.5S/ZnS Multishell Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7480–7488 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators,” Semiconductors 38, 609–617. (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Earp, G. B. Smith, P. D. Swift, and J. Franklin, “Maximising the light output of a Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” Sol. Energy 76, 655–667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Gallagher, P. C. Eames, and B. Norton, “Quantum dot solar concentrator behaviour predicted using a ray trace approach,” J. Ambient Energy 25, 47–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

U. Rau, F. Einsele, and G. C. Glaeser, “Efficiency limits of photovoltaic fluorescent collectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1668–1674 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Barnham, J. L. Marques, J. Hassard, and P. O’Brien, “Quantum-dot concentrator and thermodynamic model for the global redshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1197–1199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

X. Peng, M. C. Schlamp, A. V. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Epitaxial Growth of Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Photostability and Electronic Accessibility,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1197019–7029 (1997)
[CrossRef]

A. Luque and A. Marti, “Increasing the Efficiency of Ideal Solar Cells by Photon Induced Transitions at Intermediate Levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 5014–5017 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Seybold and G. Wagenblast, “New perylene and violanthrone dyestuffs for fluorescent collectors,” Dyes Pigm. 11, 303–317 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

W. Stahl and A. Zastrow, “Fluoreszenzkollektoren,” Physik in unserer Zeit 16, 167(1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

V. Wittwer, W. Stahl, and A. Goetzberger, “Fluorescent planar concentrators,” Sol. Energy Mater. 11, 187–197 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1977 (1)

A. Goetzberger and W. Greubel, “Solar Energy Conversion with Fluorescent Collectors,” Appl. Phys. 14, 123–139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1921 (1)

E. A. Milne, “Radiative Equilibrium in Outer Layers of a Star,” Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. London 81, 361–388. (1921)

‘t Hart, D. C.

R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Agullo-Lopez, F.

Algora, C.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

X. Peng, M. C. Schlamp, A. V. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Epitaxial Growth of Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Photostability and Electronic Accessibility,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1197019–7029 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Alonso, J.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, V. M.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, N. J.

R. Kinderman, L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, N. J. Bakker, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “I-V Performance and Stability of Dyes for Luminescent Plate Concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 129, 277–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barnham, K.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Barnham, J. L. Marques, J. Hassard, and P. O’Brien, “Quantum-dot concentrator and thermodynamic model for the global redshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1197–1199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barnham, K. W. J.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators,” Semiconductors 38, 609–617. (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “The Quantum Dot Concentrator: Theory and Results,” in Proceedings of Third World Congress on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WPEC-3).K. Kurokawa, L. Kazmerski, B. McNelis, M. Yamaguchi, C. Wronski, and W. C. Sinke, Eds. (WPEC-3, Osaka, Japan, 2003) pp. 2657–2660.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference.W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany; ETA, Florence, Italy, 2004), pp. 109–112.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006), pp. 315–319.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, R. Bose, M. G. Debije, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators With Reduced Top Surface Losses,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 349–353.

Basche, T.

R. Xie, U. Kolb, J. Li, T. Basche, and A. Mews, “Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Luminescent CdSe-Core CdS/Zn0.5Cd0.5S/ZnS Multishell Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7480–7488 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bastiaansen, C. W.

M. G. Debije, R. H. L. Van der Blom, D. J. Broer, and C. W. Bastiaansen, “Using selectively-reflecting organic mirrors to improve light output from a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress IX (2006).

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

M. G. Debije, D. J. Broer, and C. W. M. Bastiaansen, “Effect of dye alignment on the output of a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conferenc,. G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 87–89.

Benítez, P.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bett, A.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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Bitnar, B.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bose, R.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, R. Bose, M. G. Debije, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators With Reduced Top Surface Losses,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 349–353.

Brandsen, G. W.

W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, G. W. Brandsen, M. Fleuster, and M. P. Hekkert, “Analysis of the silicon market: Will thin films profit?,” Energy Pol. 35, 3121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Broer, D. J.

M. G. Debije, R. H. L. Van der Blom, D. J. Broer, and C. W. Bastiaansen, “Using selectively-reflecting organic mirrors to improve light output from a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress IX (2006).

M. G. Debije, D. J. Broer, and C. W. M. Bastiaansen, “Effect of dye alignment on the output of a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conferenc,. G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 87–89.

Büchtemann, A.

R. Kinderman, L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, N. J. Bakker, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “I-V Performance and Stability of Dyes for Luminescent Plate Concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 129, 277–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, R. Bose, M. G. Debije, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators With Reduced Top Surface Losses,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 349–353.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006), pp. 315–319.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

Burgers, A. R.

R. Kinderman, L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, N. J. Bakker, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “I-V Performance and Stability of Dyes for Luminescent Plate Concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 129, 277–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

A. R. Burgers, L. H. Slooff, and M. G. Debije, “Reduction of escape cone losses in luminescent concentrators with cholesteric mirrors,” Technical digest PVSEC-17 (PVSEC-17, Fukuoka, Japan, 2007).

A. R. Burgers, L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “Modeling of luminescent concentrators by ray-tracing,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 394–397.

Buxton, B. F.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators,” Semiconductors 38, 609–617. (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006), pp. 315–319.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference.W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany; ETA, Florence, Italy, 2004), pp. 109–112.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “The Quantum Dot Concentrator: Theory and Results,” in Proceedings of Third World Congress on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WPEC-3).K. Kurokawa, L. Kazmerski, B. McNelis, M. Yamaguchi, C. Wronski, and W. C. Sinke, Eds. (WPEC-3, Osaka, Japan, 2003) pp. 2657–2660.

Carbone, L.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1950).

Chatten, A. J.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators,” Semiconductors 38, 609–617. (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006), pp. 315–319.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, R. Bose, M. G. Debije, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators With Reduced Top Surface Losses,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 349–353.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “The Quantum Dot Concentrator: Theory and Results,” in Proceedings of Third World Congress on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WPEC-3).K. Kurokawa, L. Kazmerski, B. McNelis, M. Yamaguchi, C. Wronski, and W. C. Sinke, Eds. (WPEC-3, Osaka, Japan, 2003) pp. 2657–2660.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference.W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany; ETA, Florence, Italy, 2004), pp. 109–112.

Chiodo, L.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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Christofides, C.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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Cingolani, R.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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Conesa, J. C.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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B. S. Richards, A. Shalav, and R. P. Corkish, “A low escape-con-loss luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds., (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2004), pp. 113–116.

D. L.,

T. Markvart, D. L., P. Kittidachachan, and R. Greef, “Detailed balance efficiency of ideal single-stage fluorescent collectors,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 171–174.

Danz, R.

R. Kinderman, L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, N. J. Bakker, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “I-V Performance and Stability of Dyes for Luminescent Plate Concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 129, 277–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

De Giorgi, M.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
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Debije, M. G.

A. R. Burgers, L. H. Slooff, and M. G. Debije, “Reduction of escape cone losses in luminescent concentrators with cholesteric mirrors,” Technical digest PVSEC-17 (PVSEC-17, Fukuoka, Japan, 2007).

M. G. Debije, D. J. Broer, and C. W. M. Bastiaansen, “Effect of dye alignment on the output of a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conferenc,. G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 87–89.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, R. Bose, M. G. Debije, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators With Reduced Top Surface Losses,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 349–353.

M. G. Debije, R. H. L. Van der Blom, D. J. Broer, and C. W. Bastiaansen, “Using selectively-reflecting organic mirrors to improve light output from a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress IX (2006).

Doran, J.

M. Kennedy, S. J. McCormack, J. Doran, and B. Norton, “Modelling the effect of device geometry on concentration ratios of quantum dot solar concentrators,” in Proceedings of ISES World Solar Congress (Beijing, China, 2007).

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S. J. Gallagher, P. C. Eames, and B. Norton, “Quantum dot solar concentrator behaviour predicted using a ray trace approach,” J. Ambient Energy 25, 47–56 (2004).
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Earp, A. A.

A. A. Earp, G. B. Smith, P. D. Swift, and J. Franklin, “Maximising the light output of a Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” Sol. Energy 76, 655–667 (2004).
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Einsele, F.

U. Rau, F. Einsele, and G. C. Glaeser, “Efficiency limits of photovoltaic fluorescent collectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ekins-Daukes, N. J.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators,” Semiconductors 38, 609–617. (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference.W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany; ETA, Florence, Italy, 2004), pp. 109–112.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “The Quantum Dot Concentrator: Theory and Results,” in Proceedings of Third World Congress on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WPEC-3).K. Kurokawa, L. Kazmerski, B. McNelis, M. Yamaguchi, C. Wronski, and W. C. Sinke, Eds. (WPEC-3, Osaka, Japan, 2003) pp. 2657–2660.

Farrell, D.

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

Farrell, D. J.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, R. Bose, M. G. Debije, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators With Reduced Top Surface Losses,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 349–353.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006), pp. 315–319.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

Fiore, A.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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Fleuster, M.

W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, G. W. Brandsen, M. Fleuster, and M. P. Hekkert, “Analysis of the silicon market: Will thin films profit?,” Energy Pol. 35, 3121 (2007).
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L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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A. A. Earp, G. B. Smith, P. D. Swift, and J. Franklin, “Maximising the light output of a Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” Sol. Energy 76, 655–667 (2004).
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S. J. Gallagher, P. C. Eames, and B. Norton, “Quantum dot solar concentrator behaviour predicted using a ray trace approach,” J. Ambient Energy 25, 47–56 (2004).
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Glaeser, G. C.

U. Rau, F. Einsele, and G. C. Glaeser, “Efficiency limits of photovoltaic fluorescent collectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171101 (2003).
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Gombert, A.

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A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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Greef, R.

T. Markvart, D. L., P. Kittidachachan, and R. Greef, “Detailed balance efficiency of ideal single-stage fluorescent collectors,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 171–174.

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W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, G. W. Brandsen, M. Fleuster, and M. P. Hekkert, “Analysis of the silicon market: Will thin films profit?,” Energy Pol. 35, 3121 (2007).
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R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
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Hytch, M.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

Kadavanich, A. V.

X. Peng, M. C. Schlamp, A. V. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Epitaxial Growth of Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Photostability and Electronic Accessibility,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1197019–7029 (1997)
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M. Kennedy, S. J. McCormack, J. Doran, and B. Norton, “Modelling the effect of device geometry on concentration ratios of quantum dot solar concentrators,” in Proceedings of ISES World Solar Congress (Beijing, China, 2007).

Kenny, R.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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Kinderman, R.

R. Kinderman, L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, N. J. Bakker, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “I-V Performance and Stability of Dyes for Luminescent Plate Concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 129, 277–282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

A. R. Burgers, L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “Modeling of luminescent concentrators by ray-tracing,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 394–397.

Kittidachachan, P.

T. Markvart, D. L., P. Kittidachachan, and R. Greef, “Detailed balance efficiency of ideal single-stage fluorescent collectors,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 171–174.

Kolb, U.

R. Xie, U. Kolb, J. Li, T. Basche, and A. Mews, “Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Luminescent CdSe-Core CdS/Zn0.5Cd0.5S/ZnS Multishell Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7480–7488 (2005)
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L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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R. Xie, U. Kolb, J. Li, T. Basche, and A. Mews, “Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Luminescent CdSe-Core CdS/Zn0.5Cd0.5S/ZnS Multishell Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7480–7488 (2005)
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M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Loeper, A. Gombert, and G. Willeke, “Application of photonic structures on fluorescent concentrators,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds.(WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 177–181.

Luque, A.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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A. Luque and A. Marti, “Increasing the Efficiency of Ideal Solar Cells by Photon Induced Transitions at Intermediate Levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 5014–5017 (1997).
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A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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Malik, M. A.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators,” Semiconductors 38, 609–617. (2004).
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A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference.W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany; ETA, Florence, Italy, 2004), pp. 109–112.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “The Quantum Dot Concentrator: Theory and Results,” in Proceedings of Third World Congress on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WPEC-3).K. Kurokawa, L. Kazmerski, B. McNelis, M. Yamaguchi, C. Wronski, and W. C. Sinke, Eds. (WPEC-3, Osaka, Japan, 2003) pp. 2657–2660.

Manna, L.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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T. Markvart, D. L., P. Kittidachachan, and R. Greef, “Detailed balance efficiency of ideal single-stage fluorescent collectors,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 171–174.

Marques, J. L.

K. Barnham, J. L. Marques, J. Hassard, and P. O’Brien, “Quantum-dot concentrator and thermodynamic model for the global redshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1197–1199 (2000).
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A. Luque and A. Marti, “Increasing the Efficiency of Ideal Solar Cells by Photon Induced Transitions at Intermediate Levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 5014–5017 (1997).
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A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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M. Kennedy, S. J. McCormack, J. Doran, and B. Norton, “Modelling the effect of device geometry on concentration ratios of quantum dot solar concentrators,” in Proceedings of ISES World Solar Congress (Beijing, China, 2007).

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B. Richards and K. R. McIntosh, “Ray-tracing simulations of luminescent solar concentrators containing multiple luminescent species,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds., (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006) pp. 185–188.

Meijerink, A.

R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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Mews, A.

R. Xie, U. Kolb, J. Li, T. Basche, and A. Mews, “Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Luminescent CdSe-Core CdS/Zn0.5Cd0.5S/ZnS Multishell Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7480–7488 (2005)
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A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

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E. A. Milne, “Radiative Equilibrium in Outer Layers of a Star,” Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. London 81, 361–388. (1921)

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L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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S. J. Gallagher, P. C. Eames, and B. Norton, “Quantum dot solar concentrator behaviour predicted using a ray trace approach,” J. Ambient Energy 25, 47–56 (2004).
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M. Kennedy, S. J. McCormack, J. Doran, and B. Norton, “Modelling the effect of device geometry on concentration ratios of quantum dot solar concentrators,” in Proceedings of ISES World Solar Congress (Beijing, China, 2007).

O’Brien, P.

K. Barnham, J. L. Marques, J. Hassard, and P. O’Brien, “Quantum-dot concentrator and thermodynamic model for the global redshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1197–1199 (2000).
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Peng, X.

X. Peng, M. C. Schlamp, A. V. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Epitaxial Growth of Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Photostability and Electronic Accessibility,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1197019–7029 (1997)
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Peters, M.

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Loeper, A. Gombert, and G. Willeke, “Application of photonic structures on fluorescent concentrators,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds.(WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 177–181.

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P. Polishuk, “Plastic Optical Fibers Branch Out,” IEEE Commun. Mag.140 (September 2006).

Pompa, P.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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B. Richards and K. R. McIntosh, “Ray-tracing simulations of luminescent solar concentrators containing multiple luminescent species,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds., (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006) pp. 185–188.

Richards, B. S.

B. S. Richards, A. Shalav, and R. P. Corkish, “A low escape-con-loss luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds., (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2004), pp. 113–116.

Sala, F. D.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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Sala, G.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
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Schlamp, M. C.

X. Peng, M. C. Schlamp, A. V. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Epitaxial Growth of Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Photostability and Electronic Accessibility,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1197019–7029 (1997)
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Silvestre, A. F.

L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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A. R. Burgers, L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “Modeling of luminescent concentrators by ray-tracing,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 394–397.

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L. Carbone, C. Nobile, M. De Giorgi, F. D. Sala, G. Morello, P. Pompa, M. Hytch, E. Snoeck, A. Fiore, I. R. Franchini, M. Nadasan, A. F. Silvestre, L. Chiodo, S. Kudera, R. Cingolani, R. Krahne, and L. Manna, “Synthesis and Micrometer-Scale Assembly of Colloidal CdSe/CdS Nanorods Prepared by a Seeded Growth Approach,” Nano. Lett. 7, 2942–2950 (2007).
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Stolz, W.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Strobl, G.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Swift, P. D.

A. A. Earp, G. B. Smith, P. D. Swift, and J. Franklin, “Maximising the light output of a Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” Sol. Energy 76, 655–667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

THomas, P. A.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

Trupke, T.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1668–1674 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Unamuno, S.

Van Blaaderen, A.

R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van der Blom, R. H. L.

M. G. Debije, R. H. L. Van der Blom, D. J. Broer, and C. W. Bastiaansen, “Using selectively-reflecting organic mirrors to improve light output from a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress IX (2006).

Van Klink, G. P. M.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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R. Kinderman, L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, N. J. Bakker, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “I-V Performance and Stability of Dyes for Luminescent Plate Concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 129, 277–282 (2007).
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L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Burgers, L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “Modeling of luminescent concentrators by ray-tracing,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 394–397.

Van Sark, W. G. J. H. M.

W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, G. W. Brandsen, M. Fleuster, and M. P. Hekkert, “Analysis of the silicon market: Will thin films profit?,” Energy Pol. 35, 3121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Schooneveld, M.

R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wagenblast, G.

G. Seybold and G. Wagenblast, “New perylene and violanthrone dyestuffs for fluorescent collectors,” Dyes Pigm. 11, 303–317 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wahnon, P.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Willeke, G.

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Loeper, A. Gombert, and G. Willeke, “Application of photonic structures on fluorescent concentrators,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds.(WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 177–181.

Wittwer, V.

V. Wittwer, W. Stahl, and A. Goetzberger, “Fluorescent planar concentrators,” Sol. Energy Mater. 11, 187–197 (1984).
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T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1668–1674 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xie, R.

R. Xie, U. Kolb, J. Li, T. Basche, and A. Mews, “Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Luminescent CdSe-Core CdS/Zn0.5Cd0.5S/ZnS Multishell Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7480–7488 (2005)
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W. Stahl and A. Zastrow, “Fluoreszenzkollektoren,” Physik in unserer Zeit 16, 167(1985).
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A. Zastrow, “Physikalische Analyse der Energievelustmechanismen im Fluoreszenzkollektor,” Ph.D. Thesis, Freiburg, 1981.

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K. Barnham, J. L. Marques, J. Hassard, and P. O’Brien, “Quantum-dot concentrator and thermodynamic model for the global redshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1197–1199 (2000).
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R. Koole, M. Van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, C. De Mello Donegá, D. C. ‘t Hart, A. Van Blaaderen, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “On the Incorporation Mechanism of Hydrophobic Quantum Dots in Silica Spheres by a Reverse Microemulsion Method,” Chem. Mater. 20, 2503–2512 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dyes Pigm. (1)

G. Seybold and G. Wagenblast, “New perylene and violanthrone dyestuffs for fluorescent collectors,” Dyes Pigm. 11, 303–317 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Energy Pol. (1)

W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, G. W. Brandsen, M. Fleuster, and M. P. Hekkert, “Analysis of the silicon market: Will thin films profit?,” Energy Pol. 35, 3121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (1)

M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, P. Loeper, A. Gombert, and G. Willeke, “Application of photonic structures on fluorescent concentrators,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds.(WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 177–181.

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

R. Xie, U. Kolb, J. Li, T. Basche, and A. Mews, “Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Luminescent CdSe-Core CdS/Zn0.5Cd0.5S/ZnS Multishell Nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 7480–7488 (2005)
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X. Peng, M. C. Schlamp, A. V. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Epitaxial Growth of Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Photostability and Electronic Accessibility,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1197019–7029 (1997)
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T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1668–1674 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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R. Kinderman, L. H. Slooff, A. R. Burgers, N. J. Bakker, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “I-V Performance and Stability of Dyes for Luminescent Plate Concentrators,” J. Solar Energy Engin. 129, 277–282 (2007).
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W. Stahl and A. Zastrow, “Fluoreszenzkollektoren,” Physik in unserer Zeit 16, 167(1985).
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L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, A. R. Burgers, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, T. B. Meyer, A. J. Chatten, D. Farrell, K. W. J. Barnham, and J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, “The luminescent concentrator illuminated,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 1–8 (2006).

Semiconductors (1)

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators,” Semiconductors 38, 609–617. (2004).
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A. A. Earp, G. B. Smith, P. D. Swift, and J. Franklin, “Maximising the light output of a Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” Sol. Energy 76, 655–667 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. (1)

V. Wittwer, W. Stahl, and A. Goetzberger, “Fluorescent planar concentrators,” Sol. Energy Mater. 11, 187–197 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. van Roosmalen, J. Alonso, A. Räuber, G. Strobl, W. Stolz, C. Algora, B. Bitnar, A. Gombert, C. Stanley, P. Wahnon, J. C. Conesa, W. G. J. H. M. Van Sark, A. Meijerink, G. P. M. Van Klink, K. Barnham, R. Danz, T. Meyer, I. Luque-Heredia, R. Kenny, C. Christofides, G. Sala, and P. Benítez, “FULLSPECTRUM: a new PV wave making more efficient use of the solar spectrum,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467–479 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (20)

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, C. M. Jermyn, P. A. THomas, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, R. Danz, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of the Luminescent Solar Concentrator,” in Proceedings of 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, USA, 2005) pp. 82–85.

M. A. Green, Third Generation Photovoltaics, Advanced Solar Energy Conversion (Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 2003).

A. Martí and A. Luque, eds. “Next Generation Photovoltaics, High Efficiency through Full Spectrum Utilization,” in Series in Optics and Optoelectronics, R.G.W. Brown and E.R. Pike. eds. (Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol, UK, 2004).

T. Markvart, D. L., P. Kittidachachan, and R. Greef, “Detailed balance efficiency of ideal single-stage fluorescent collectors,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 171–174.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1950).

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, B. F. Buxton, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006), pp. 315–319.

A. J. Chatten, D. J. Farrell, R. Bose, M. G. Debije, A. Büchtemann, and K. W. J. Barnham, “Thermodynamic Modelling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators With Reduced Top Surface Losses,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 349–353.

M. G. Debije, R. H. L. Van der Blom, D. J. Broer, and C. W. Bastiaansen, “Using selectively-reflecting organic mirrors to improve light output from a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress IX (2006).

A. R. Burgers, L. H. Slooff, R. Kinderman, and J. A. M. van Roosmalen, “Modeling of luminescent concentrators by ray-tracing,” in Proceedings of Twentieth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2005) pp. 394–397.

P. Polishuk, “Plastic Optical Fibers Branch Out,” IEEE Commun. Mag.140 (September 2006).

A. Zastrow, “Physikalische Analyse der Energievelustmechanismen im Fluoreszenzkollektor,” Ph.D. Thesis, Freiburg, 1981.

B. Richards and K. R. McIntosh, “Ray-tracing simulations of luminescent solar concentrators containing multiple luminescent species,” in Proceedings of Twentyfirst European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, J. Poortmans, H. Ossenbrink, E. Dunlop, and P. Helm, Eds., (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2006) pp. 185–188.

A. R. Burgers, L. H. Slooff, and M. G. Debije, “Reduction of escape cone losses in luminescent concentrators with cholesteric mirrors,” Technical digest PVSEC-17 (PVSEC-17, Fukuoka, Japan, 2007).

B. S. Richards, A. Shalav, and R. P. Corkish, “A low escape-con-loss luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds., (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2004), pp. 113–116.

M. G. Debije, D. J. Broer, and C. W. M. Bastiaansen, “Effect of dye alignment on the output of a luminescent solar concentrator,” in Proceedings of Twenty Second European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conferenc,. G. Willeke, H. Ossenbrink, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany, 2007), pp. 87–89.

M. Kennedy, S. J. McCormack, J. Doran, and B. Norton, “Modelling the effect of device geometry on concentration ratios of quantum dot solar concentrators,” in Proceedings of ISES World Solar Congress (Beijing, China, 2007).

http://www.basf.de.

http://www.cup.uni-muenchen.de/oc/langhals/S-13/.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “The Quantum Dot Concentrator: Theory and Results,” in Proceedings of Third World Congress on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WPEC-3).K. Kurokawa, L. Kazmerski, B. McNelis, M. Yamaguchi, C. Wronski, and W. C. Sinke, Eds. (WPEC-3, Osaka, Japan, 2003) pp. 2657–2660.

A. J. Chatten, K. W. J. Barnham, B. F. Buxton, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and M. A. Malik, “Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators and Modules,” in Proceedings of 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference.W. Hoffmann, J.-L. Bal, H. Ossenbrink, W. Palz, and P. Helm, Eds. (WIP, Munich, Germany; ETA, Florence, Italy, 2004), pp. 109–112.

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