Abstract

We present a technological approach to the realization of channeled optical waveguides, starting from reactively sputtered tellurite glass thin films, grown on silica-coated 4” Si wafers. In particular, optical lithographic process and etching recipes have been developed to overcome the solubility of TeO2 films in aqueous solutions, and to process them into high-index contrast structures with minimized post-etch roughness. Optical tests on preliminary rib waveguide geometries feature 6.3 dB/cm propagation loss for fundamental TE mode at λ = 1.5 μm.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  10. P. Nandi, G. Jose, C. Jayakrishnan, S. Debbarma, K. Chalapathi, K. Alti, A. K. Dharmadhikari, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, "Femtosecond laser written channel waveguides in tellurite glass," Opt. Express 14, 12145-12150 (2006).
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  13. A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2007 (3)

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. A. G. Rivera, E. Rodriguez, E. F. Chillcce, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, "Waveguide produced by fiber on glass method using Er3+-doped tellurite glass," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 353, 339-343 (2007).

N. Dewan, V. Gupta, K. Sreenicas, and R. S. Katiyar, "Growth of amorphous TeOx (2<x<3) thin film by radio frequency sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 084910-084916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (5)

K. Tikhomirov, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and M. Ferrari, "Intrinsic Defects and Glass Stability in Er3+-Doped TeO2 Glasses and the Implications for Er3+-Doped Tellurite Fiber Amplifiers," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 296-300 (2003).

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, "Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films," Thin Solid Films 445, 118-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, S. M. A. Durrani, E. E. Khawaja, and J. Shirokoff, "Effects of preparation conditions on the optical properties of thin films of tellurium oxide," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 910-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shaoxing-Xhen, A. Jha, Xiaobo-Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395 (2002).

1999 (1)

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, "Tellurite glasses for 1.3 μm optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 168, 369-373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187- 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

M. E. Lines, "Oxide glasses for fast photonic switching: A comparative study," J. Appl. Phys. 69,6876-6884 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Al-Kuhaili, M. F.

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, S. M. A. Durrani, E. E. Khawaja, and J. Shirokoff, "Effects of preparation conditions on the optical properties of thin films of tellurium oxide," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 910-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, R. M.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alti, K.

Banyasz, I.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barbosa, L. C.

V. A. G. Rivera, E. Rodriguez, E. F. Chillcce, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, "Waveguide produced by fiber on glass method using Er3+-doped tellurite glass," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 353, 339-343 (2007).

Berneschi, S.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brenci, M.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caricato, A. P.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cesar, C. L.

V. A. G. Rivera, E. Rodriguez, E. F. Chillcce, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, "Waveguide produced by fiber on glass method using Er3+-doped tellurite glass," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 353, 339-343 (2007).

Chalapathi, K.

Chillcce, E. F.

V. A. G. Rivera, E. Rodriguez, E. F. Chillcce, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, "Waveguide produced by fiber on glass method using Er3+-doped tellurite glass," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 353, 339-343 (2007).

Chung, P. S.

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, "Tellurite glasses for 1.3 μm optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 168, 369-373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Conçalves, M. C.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D’ Amore, F.

D’Amore, F.

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dawar, A. L.

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, "Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films," Thin Solid Films 445, 118-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Debbarma, S.

Dewan, N.

N. Dewan, V. Gupta, K. Sreenicas, and R. S. Katiyar, "Growth of amorphous TeOx (2<x<3) thin film by radio frequency sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 084910-084916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dharmadhikari, A. K.

Dharmadhikari, J. A.

Di Giulio, M.

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Durrani, S. M. A.

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, S. M. A. Durrani, E. E. Khawaja, and J. Shirokoff, "Effects of preparation conditions on the optical properties of thin films of tellurium oxide," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 910-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, M.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Tikhomirov, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and M. Ferrari, "Intrinsic Defects and Glass Stability in Er3+-Doped TeO2 Glasses and the Implications for Er3+-Doped Tellurite Fiber Amplifiers," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 296-300 (2003).

Fortes, L.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fried, M.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Furniss, D.

K. Tikhomirov, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and M. Ferrari, "Intrinsic Defects and Glass Stability in Er3+-Doped TeO2 Glasses and the Implications for Er3+-Doped Tellurite Fiber Amplifiers," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 296-300 (2003).

Gupta, V.

N. Dewan, V. Gupta, K. Sreenicas, and R. S. Katiyar, "Growth of amorphous TeOx (2<x<3) thin film by radio frequency sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 084910-084916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, "Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films," Thin Solid Films 445, 118-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).

Jayakrishnan, C.

Jose, G.

Katiyar, R. S.

N. Dewan, V. Gupta, K. Sreenicas, and R. S. Katiyar, "Growth of amorphous TeOx (2<x<3) thin film by radio frequency sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 084910-084916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khanh, N. Q.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khawaja, E. E.

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, S. M. A. Durrani, E. E. Khawaja, and J. Shirokoff, "Effects of preparation conditions on the optical properties of thin films of tellurium oxide," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 910-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leggieri, G.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lines, M. E.

M. E. Lines, "Oxide glasses for fast photonic switching: A comparative study," J. Appl. Phys. 69,6876-6884 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Man, S. Q.

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, "Tellurite glasses for 1.3 μm optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 168, 369-373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martino, M.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mathur, D.

Mattarelli, M.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Montagna, M.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nandi, P.

Nasi, L.

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nayak, R.

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, "Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films," Thin Solid Films 445, 118-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi Conti, G.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paszti, F.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, S.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pietralunga, S. M.

S. M. Pietralunga, F. D’ Amore, and A. Zappettini, "Optical properties of reactively Sputtered TeOx Thin films," Appl. Opt. 44,534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E. Y. B.

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, "Tellurite glasses for 1.3 μm optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 168, 369-373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Resta, V.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rigato, V.

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Righini, G. C.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rivera, V. A. G.

V. A. G. Rivera, E. Rodriguez, E. F. Chillcce, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, "Waveguide produced by fiber on glass method using Er3+-doped tellurite glass," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 353, 339-343 (2007).

Rodriguez, E.

V. A. G. Rivera, E. Rodriguez, E. F. Chillcce, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, "Waveguide produced by fiber on glass method using Er3+-doped tellurite glass," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 353, 339-343 (2007).

Saito, M.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).

Santos, L. F.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtchen, J.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Seddon, A. B.

K. Tikhomirov, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and M. Ferrari, "Intrinsic Defects and Glass Stability in Er3+-Doped TeO2 Glasses and the Implications for Er3+-Doped Tellurite Fiber Amplifiers," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 296-300 (2003).

Shaoxing-Xhen,

Shaoxing-Xhen, A. Jha, Xiaobo-Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395 (2002).

Shirokoff, J.

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, S. M. A. Durrani, E. E. Khawaja, and J. Shirokoff, "Effects of preparation conditions on the optical properties of thin films of tellurium oxide," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 910-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187- 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sreenicas, K.

N. Dewan, V. Gupta, K. Sreenicas, and R. S. Katiyar, "Growth of amorphous TeOx (2<x<3) thin film by radio frequency sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 084910-084916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sreenivas, K.

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, "Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films," Thin Solid Films 445, 118-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).

Tikhomirov, K.

K. Tikhomirov, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and M. Ferrari, "Intrinsic Defects and Glass Stability in Er3+-Doped TeO2 Glasses and the Implications for Er3+-Doped Tellurite Fiber Amplifiers," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 296-300 (2003).

Tokuda, Y.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).

Vogel, E.M.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187- 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. S.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187- 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).

Watterich, A.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).

Yoko, T.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).

Zampedri, L.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zappettini, A.

S. M. Pietralunga, F. D’ Amore, and A. Zappettini, "Optical properties of reactively Sputtered TeOx Thin films," Appl. Opt. 44,534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

Shaoxing-Xhen, A. Jha, Xiaobo-Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

M. E. Lines, "Oxide glasses for fast photonic switching: A comparative study," J. Appl. Phys. 69,6876-6884 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Dewan, V. Gupta, K. Sreenicas, and R. S. Katiyar, "Growth of amorphous TeOx (2<x<3) thin film by radio frequency sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 084910-084916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, S. M. A. Durrani, E. E. Khawaja, and J. Shirokoff, "Effects of preparation conditions on the optical properties of thin films of tellurium oxide," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 910-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mat. Sci. Eng. B (1)

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, "Tellurite glasses for 1.3 μm optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 168, 369-373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mat. (1)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187- 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sol. (3)

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).

K. Tikhomirov, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and M. Ferrari, "Intrinsic Defects and Glass Stability in Er3+-Doped TeO2 Glasses and the Implications for Er3+-Doped Tellurite Fiber Amplifiers," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 296-300 (2003).

V. A. G. Rivera, E. Rodriguez, E. F. Chillcce, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, "Waveguide produced by fiber on glass method using Er3+-doped tellurite glass," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 353, 339-343 (2007).

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, "Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films," Thin Solid Films 445, 118-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1992).

A. Melloni, R. Costa, G. Cusmai, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, "Waveguide index contrast: implications for passive integrated optical components," in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Workshop Fibres and Optical Passive Components, (IEEE, 2005) pp. 246 - 253.

E. Chierici, M. C. Didavide, A. Moro, O. Rossotto, L. Tallone, and E. Monchiero "Direct writing of waveguide on a tellurite glass using a focused ultraviolet laser beam," in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibre and Optical Passive Components, (IEEE, 2002), pp. 29-33.

R. A. H. El-MallawanyTellurite Glasses (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2002).

H. Bookey, K. Bindra, A. Kar, and B. Wherrett, "Telluride glass fibres for all optical switching: - nonlinear optical properties and fibre characterization," in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibre and Passive Optical Components, (IEEE, 2002) pp. 29 - 34.

R. Costa, G. Cusmai, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, "TE-TM coupling of a standard fiber to a Si-wire waveguide," in Proc. of 13th European Conference on Integrated Optics, 25-27 Apr. 2007, Copenhagen, Denmark, paper ThC3.

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