Abstract

We present a technological approach to the realization of channeled optical waveguides, starting from reactively sputtered tellurite glass thin films, grown on silica-coated 4” Si wafers. In particular, optical lithographic process and etching recipes have been developed to overcome the solubility of TeO2 films in aqueous solutions, and to process them into high-index contrast structures with minimized post-etch roughness. Optical tests on preliminary rib waveguide geometries feature 6.3 dB/cm propagation loss for fundamental TE mode at λ=1.5 µm.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. A. H. El-MallawanyTellurite Glasses (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2002).
  2. M. E. Lines, "Oxide glasses for fast photonic switching: A comparative study," J. Appl. Phys. 69,6876-6884 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Bookey, K. Bindra, A. Kar, and B. Wherrett, "Telluride glass fibres for all optical switching: - nonlinear optical properties and fibre characterization," in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibre and Passive Optical Components, (IEEE, 2002) pp. 29 - 34.
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187- 203 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, "Tellurite glasses for 1.3 μm optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 168, 369-373 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Shaoxing-Xhen, A. Jha, Xiaobo-Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Tikhomirov, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and M. Ferrari, "Intrinsic Defects and Glass Stability in Er3+-Doped TeO2 Glasses and the Implications for Er3+-Doped Tellurite Fiber Amplifiers," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 296-300 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Chierici, M. C. Didavide, A. Moro, O. Rossotto, L. Tallone, and E. Monchiero "Direct writing of waveguide on a tellurite glass using a focused ultraviolet laser beam," in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibre and Optical Passive Components, (IEEE, 2002), pp. 29-33.
  9. Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Nandi, G. Jose, C. Jayakrishnan, S. Debbarma, K. Chalapathi, K. Alti, A. K. Dharmadhikari, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, "Femtosecond laser written channel waveguides in tellurite glass," Opt. Express 14, 12145-12150 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. A. G. Rivera, E. Rodriguez, E. F. Chillcce, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, "Waveguide produced by fiber on glass method using Er3+-doped tellurite glass," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 353, 339-343 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. M. Pietralunga, F. D’ Amore, and A. Zappettini, "Optical properties of reactively Sputtered TeOx Thin films," Appl. Opt. 44,534-537 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, "Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films," Thin Solid Films 445, 118-126 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. F. Al-Kuhaili, S. M. A. Durrani, E. E. Khawaja, and J. Shirokoff, "Effects of preparation conditions on the optical properties of thin films of tellurium oxide," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 910-915 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. Dewan, V. Gupta, K. Sreenicas, and R. S. Katiyar, "Growth of amorphous TeOx (2<x<3) thin film by radio frequency sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 084910-084916 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1992).
  20. A. Melloni, R. Costa, G. Cusmai, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, "Waveguide index contrast: implications for passive integrated optical components," in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Workshop Fibres and Optical Passive Components, (IEEE, 2005) pp. 246 - 253.
  21. R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Costa, G. Cusmai, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, "TE-TM coupling of a standard fiber to a Si-wire waveguide," in Proc. of 13th European Conference on Integrated Optics, 25-27 Apr. 2007, Copenhagen, Denmark, paper ThC3.

2007 (3)

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. A. G. Rivera, E. Rodriguez, E. F. Chillcce, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, "Waveguide produced by fiber on glass method using Er3+-doped tellurite glass," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 353, 339-343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Dewan, V. Gupta, K. Sreenicas, and R. S. Katiyar, "Growth of amorphous TeOx (2<x<3) thin film by radio frequency sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 084910-084916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (5)

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, "Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films," Thin Solid Films 445, 118-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Tikhomirov, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and M. Ferrari, "Intrinsic Defects and Glass Stability in Er3+-Doped TeO2 Glasses and the Implications for Er3+-Doped Tellurite Fiber Amplifiers," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 296-300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Shaoxing-Xhen, A. Jha, Xiaobo-Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, S. M. A. Durrani, E. E. Khawaja, and J. Shirokoff, "Effects of preparation conditions on the optical properties of thin films of tellurium oxide," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 910-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, "Tellurite glasses for 1.3 μm optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 168, 369-373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187- 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

M. E. Lines, "Oxide glasses for fast photonic switching: A comparative study," J. Appl. Phys. 69,6876-6884 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Al-Kuhaili, M. F.

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, S. M. A. Durrani, E. E. Khawaja, and J. Shirokoff, "Effects of preparation conditions on the optical properties of thin films of tellurium oxide," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 910-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, R. M.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alti, K.

Banyasz, I.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barbosa, L. C.

V. A. G. Rivera, E. Rodriguez, E. F. Chillcce, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, "Waveguide produced by fiber on glass method using Er3+-doped tellurite glass," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 353, 339-343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berneschi, S.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brenci, M.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caricato, A. P.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cesar, C. L.

V. A. G. Rivera, E. Rodriguez, E. F. Chillcce, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, "Waveguide produced by fiber on glass method using Er3+-doped tellurite glass," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 353, 339-343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chalapathi, K.

Chillcce, E. F.

V. A. G. Rivera, E. Rodriguez, E. F. Chillcce, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, "Waveguide produced by fiber on glass method using Er3+-doped tellurite glass," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 353, 339-343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chung, P. S.

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, "Tellurite glasses for 1.3 μm optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 168, 369-373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Conçalves, M. C.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D’ Amore, F.

D’Amore, F.

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dawar, A. L.

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, "Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films," Thin Solid Films 445, 118-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Debbarma, S.

Dewan, N.

N. Dewan, V. Gupta, K. Sreenicas, and R. S. Katiyar, "Growth of amorphous TeOx (2<x<3) thin film by radio frequency sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 084910-084916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dharmadhikari, A. K.

Dharmadhikari, J. A.

Di Giulio, M.

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Durrani, S. M. A.

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, S. M. A. Durrani, E. E. Khawaja, and J. Shirokoff, "Effects of preparation conditions on the optical properties of thin films of tellurium oxide," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 910-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, M.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Tikhomirov, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and M. Ferrari, "Intrinsic Defects and Glass Stability in Er3+-Doped TeO2 Glasses and the Implications for Er3+-Doped Tellurite Fiber Amplifiers," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 296-300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fortes, L.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fried, M.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Furniss, D.

K. Tikhomirov, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and M. Ferrari, "Intrinsic Defects and Glass Stability in Er3+-Doped TeO2 Glasses and the Implications for Er3+-Doped Tellurite Fiber Amplifiers," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 296-300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, V.

N. Dewan, V. Gupta, K. Sreenicas, and R. S. Katiyar, "Growth of amorphous TeOx (2<x<3) thin film by radio frequency sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 084910-084916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, "Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films," Thin Solid Films 445, 118-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jayakrishnan, C.

Jose, G.

Katiyar, R. S.

N. Dewan, V. Gupta, K. Sreenicas, and R. S. Katiyar, "Growth of amorphous TeOx (2<x<3) thin film by radio frequency sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 084910-084916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khanh, N. Q.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khawaja, E. E.

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, S. M. A. Durrani, E. E. Khawaja, and J. Shirokoff, "Effects of preparation conditions on the optical properties of thin films of tellurium oxide," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 910-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leggieri, G.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lines, M. E.

M. E. Lines, "Oxide glasses for fast photonic switching: A comparative study," J. Appl. Phys. 69,6876-6884 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Man, S. Q.

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, "Tellurite glasses for 1.3 μm optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 168, 369-373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martino, M.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mathur, D.

Mattarelli, M.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Montagna, M.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nandi, P.

Nasi, L.

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nayak, R.

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, "Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films," Thin Solid Films 445, 118-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi Conti, G.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paszti, F.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, S.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pietralunga, S. M.

S. M. Pietralunga, F. D’ Amore, and A. Zappettini, "Optical properties of reactively Sputtered TeOx Thin films," Appl. Opt. 44,534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E. Y. B.

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, "Tellurite glasses for 1.3 μm optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 168, 369-373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Resta, V.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rigato, V.

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Righini, G. C.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rivera, V. A. G.

V. A. G. Rivera, E. Rodriguez, E. F. Chillcce, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, "Waveguide produced by fiber on glass method using Er3+-doped tellurite glass," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 353, 339-343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, E.

V. A. G. Rivera, E. Rodriguez, E. F. Chillcce, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, "Waveguide produced by fiber on glass method using Er3+-doped tellurite glass," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 353, 339-343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Santos, L. F.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtchen, J.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Seddon, A. B.

K. Tikhomirov, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and M. Ferrari, "Intrinsic Defects and Glass Stability in Er3+-Doped TeO2 Glasses and the Implications for Er3+-Doped Tellurite Fiber Amplifiers," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 296-300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shaoxing-Xhen,

Shaoxing-Xhen, A. Jha, Xiaobo-Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shirokoff, J.

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, S. M. A. Durrani, E. E. Khawaja, and J. Shirokoff, "Effects of preparation conditions on the optical properties of thin films of tellurium oxide," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 910-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187- 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sreenicas, K.

N. Dewan, V. Gupta, K. Sreenicas, and R. S. Katiyar, "Growth of amorphous TeOx (2<x<3) thin film by radio frequency sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 084910-084916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sreenivas, K.

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, "Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films," Thin Solid Films 445, 118-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tikhomirov, K.

K. Tikhomirov, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and M. Ferrari, "Intrinsic Defects and Glass Stability in Er3+-Doped TeO2 Glasses and the Implications for Er3+-Doped Tellurite Fiber Amplifiers," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 296-300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tokuda, Y.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, E.M.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187- 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. S.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187- 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watterich, A.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoko, T.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zampedri, L.

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zappettini, A.

S. M. Pietralunga, F. D’ Amore, and A. Zappettini, "Optical properties of reactively Sputtered TeOx Thin films," Appl. Opt. 44,534-537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini: "Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121136-121138 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

Shaoxing-Xhen, A. Jha, Xiaobo-Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. J. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

M. E. Lines, "Oxide glasses for fast photonic switching: A comparative study," J. Appl. Phys. 69,6876-6884 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. D’Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 films: dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Dewan, V. Gupta, K. Sreenicas, and R. S. Katiyar, "Growth of amorphous TeOx (2<x<3) thin film by radio frequency sputtering," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 084910-084916 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, S. M. A. Durrani, E. E. Khawaja, and J. Shirokoff, "Effects of preparation conditions on the optical properties of thin films of tellurium oxide," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 910-915 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mat. Sci. Eng. B (1)

A. P. Caricato, M. Fernández, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, M. Martino, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, V. Resta, L. Zampedri, R. M. Almeida, M. C. Conçalves, L. Fortes, and L. F. Santos, "Er3+-doped tellurite waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Mat. Sci. Eng. B 105, 65-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, "Tellurite glasses for 1.3 μm optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 168, 369-373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mat. (1)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187- 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sol. (3)

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Tikhomirov, A. B. Seddon, D. Furniss, and M. Ferrari, "Intrinsic Defects and Glass Stability in Er3+-Doped TeO2 Glasses and the Implications for Er3+-Doped Tellurite Fiber Amplifiers," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 326-327, 296-300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. A. G. Rivera, E. Rodriguez, E. F. Chillcce, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, "Waveguide produced by fiber on glass method using Er3+-doped tellurite glass," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 353, 339-343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. Nayak, V. Gupta, A. L. Dawar, and K. Sreenivas, "Optical waveguiding in amorphous tellurium oxide thin films," Thin Solid Films 445, 118-126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1992).

A. Melloni, R. Costa, G. Cusmai, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, "Waveguide index contrast: implications for passive integrated optical components," in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Workshop Fibres and Optical Passive Components, (IEEE, 2005) pp. 246 - 253.

E. Chierici, M. C. Didavide, A. Moro, O. Rossotto, L. Tallone, and E. Monchiero "Direct writing of waveguide on a tellurite glass using a focused ultraviolet laser beam," in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibre and Optical Passive Components, (IEEE, 2002), pp. 29-33.

R. A. H. El-MallawanyTellurite Glasses (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2002).

H. Bookey, K. Bindra, A. Kar, and B. Wherrett, "Telluride glass fibres for all optical switching: - nonlinear optical properties and fibre characterization," in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibre and Passive Optical Components, (IEEE, 2002) pp. 29 - 34.
[CrossRef]

R. Costa, G. Cusmai, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, "TE-TM coupling of a standard fiber to a Si-wire waveguide," in Proc. of 13th European Conference on Integrated Optics, 25-27 Apr. 2007, Copenhagen, Denmark, paper ThC3.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Linear optical parameters for sputtered TeOx films (x~2) at different stoichiometric ratios as evaluated by spectroscopic ellipsometry; a): spectral dispersion of extinction coefficient (k); b): spectral dispersion of refractive index (n); the inset highlights results at λ=1550nm, with an estimated error about 0,15%.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)–(g): the technological process flow to define rib-waveguide structures in TeO2 films. In the sketches, the layers are numbered as follows: (1) is the SiO2 lower cladding, (2) is the TeO2 sputtered film, (3) is the SiO2 cap-layer, (4) is the photoresist, (5) is the lithographic mask. (a): the starting stacked structure, as grown on top of Si wafer; (b): the structure after resist spinning and masking; (c): the exposed photoresist; d): after resist development; e): after RIE of the SiO2 cap layer; f): after wet etching of the residual resist and definition of the SiO2 hard mask; g): the final rib structure after TeO2 dry etching to the required depth.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM pictures of the surface of sputtered tellurite films, after dry etching process steps of comparable depth, in dependence on the etching recipe. (a): after reactive dry etching in fluorine chemistry. The formation of a ‘grass’-like roughness of several tens of nm hinders effective optical propagation; (b): after non-reactive physical etching in Ar plasma.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Cross-sectional SEM pictures of tellurite rib structures, as obtained by the technological process outlined in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

experimental setup for waveguide characterization

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulated field patterns for fundamental TE and TM modes for the rib waveguide of Table 5.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a): simulated fiber-to-waveguide butt-coupling efficiency at λ=1570nm, as a function of the fiber MFD, for the rib of Fig. 5(a); (b): measured waveguide transmission loss.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1: Reactive sputtering of tellurite films from TeO2 targets: process parameters.

Tables Icon

Table 2: Dependence of TeOx films stoichiometry on oxygen flow during growth

Tables Icon

Table 3: empirical Cauchy parameters A, B and C for TeOx samples. The fitting function is n(λ)=A+ B λ 2 + C λ 4 .

Tables Icon

Table 4: Dry etching recipes for the reactive-ion

Tables Icon

Table 5: tellurite rib-waveguide structure in Fig. 5(a)

Metrics