Abstract

Evanescent fields of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) above metal surfaces can reach 1-2 orders of magnitude higher, nearly atomic field strengths in comparison to the relatively weak exciting laser fields of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser oscillator. We used these high plasmonic fields to study the characteristic SPP phenomena of intense field optics experimentally. It was found that both the intensity and the angular distribution of SPP emitted light depend nonlinearly on the exciting laser intensity in the higher-intensity, non-perturbative range of the interactions. These results are supported by our theory. At these strong excitations, an additional, depolarized, diffuse spectrum also appeared which can be attributed either to the fluorescence of Au, or to the non-equlibrium Planck radiation, originating from the fast cooling of the conduction electron cloud of Au excited by the femtosecond laser pulse.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  28. P. Dombi, P. Antal, J. Fekete, R. Szipöcs, and Z. Várallyay, "Chirped-pulse supercontinuum generation with a long-cavity Ti:sapphire oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 88, 379 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y-I. Kim,Y-J. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, "High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement," Nature (London) 453, 757-760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. Qi, and H. Zeng, "Extreme-ultraviolet frequency combs by surface-enhanced optical fields with diatomic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Palomba and L. Novotny, "Nonlinear excitation of surface plasmon polaritons by four-wave mixing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

N. Kroo, S. Varró, G. Farkas, D. Oszetzky, A. Nagy, and A. Czitrovszky, "Quantum metal optics," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 2679-2688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond nanoplasmonic field microscope," Nature Photon. 1, 539-540 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Dombi and P. Antal, "Investigation of a 200-nJ chirped-pulse Ti:sapphire oscillator for white light generation," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 538-542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Dombi, P. Antal, J. Fekete, R. Szipöcs, and Z. Várallyay, "Chirped-pulse supercontinuum generation with a long-cavity Ti:sapphire oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 88, 379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. Liao, C. L. Nehl, and J. H. Hafner, "Biomedical applications of plasmon resonant metal nanoparticles," Nanomedicine 1, 201-208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Irvine, P. Dombi, G. Farkas, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Influence of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle pulses on ponderomotive surface-plasmon electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Ponderomotive electron acceleration using surface plasmon waves excited with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. Zawadzka, D. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130-2132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kupersztych, P. Monchicourt, and M. Raynaud, "Ponderomotive acceleration of photoelectrons in surface-plasmon-assisted multiphoton photoelectric emission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5180-5183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, and H. Walther, "Classical rescattering effects in 2-color above-threshold ionization," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4043-4053 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Aeschlimann, C.A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of surface-enhanced multiphoton photoemission from metal-surfaces in the short-pulse limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8813 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schaefer, and K. Kulander, "Theoretical aspect of intense field harmonic-generation," J. Phys. B. At. Mol.Opt. Phys. 24, 3315-3341 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsang, T. Srinivasan-Rao, and J. Fisher, "Surface-plasmon field-enhanced multiohoton photoelectric-emission from metal-films," Phys. Rev. B 43, 8870-8878 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, "Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and it enhancement on roughened surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 7923 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

M. B. Agranat, A. A. Benditskii, G. M. Gandel'man, P. S. Kondratenko, B. I. Makshantsev, G. I. Rukman, and B. M. Stepanov, "On the inertial glow of metals induced by psec laser pulses," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 79, 55 (1980), [Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 27 (1980)].

1978 (1)

D. G. Hall and A. J. Braundmeier, "Angular-dependence of roughness-assisted surface-plasmon radiation - comparison of theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. B 17, 1557-1562 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

E. Kretschmann, "The angular dependence and the polarization of light emitted by surface plasmons on metals due to roughness," Opt. Comm. 5, 331-337 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

R. Bruns and H. Raether, "Plasma resonance radiation from non-radiative plasmons," Z. Physik 237, 98-106 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

A. Mooradian, "Photoluminescence of metals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 185-187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aeschlimann, M.

M. Aeschlimann, C.A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of surface-enhanced multiphoton photoemission from metal-surfaces in the short-pulse limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8813 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Agranat, M. B.

M. B. Agranat, A. A. Benditskii, G. M. Gandel'man, P. S. Kondratenko, B. I. Makshantsev, G. I. Rukman, and B. M. Stepanov, "On the inertial glow of metals induced by psec laser pulses," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 79, 55 (1980), [Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 27 (1980)].

Antal, P.

P. Dombi and P. Antal, "Investigation of a 200-nJ chirped-pulse Ti:sapphire oscillator for white light generation," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 538-542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Dombi, P. Antal, J. Fekete, R. Szipöcs, and Z. Várallyay, "Chirped-pulse supercontinuum generation with a long-cavity Ti:sapphire oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 88, 379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, Ph.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, and H. Walther, "Classical rescattering effects in 2-color above-threshold ionization," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4043-4053 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Benditskii, A. A.

M. B. Agranat, A. A. Benditskii, G. M. Gandel'man, P. S. Kondratenko, B. I. Makshantsev, G. I. Rukman, and B. M. Stepanov, "On the inertial glow of metals induced by psec laser pulses," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 79, 55 (1980), [Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 27 (1980)].

Boyd, G. T.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, "Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and it enhancement on roughened surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 7923 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Braundmeier, A. J.

D. G. Hall and A. J. Braundmeier, "Angular-dependence of roughness-assisted surface-plasmon radiation - comparison of theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. B 17, 1557-1562 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bruns, R.

R. Bruns and H. Raether, "Plasma resonance radiation from non-radiative plasmons," Z. Physik 237, 98-106 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

M. Aeschlimann, C.A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of surface-enhanced multiphoton photoemission from metal-surfaces in the short-pulse limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8813 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Carey, J. J.

J. Zawadzka, D. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130-2132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czitrovszky, A.

N. Kroo, S. Varró, G. Farkas, D. Oszetzky, A. Nagy, and A. Czitrovszky, "Quantum metal optics," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 2679-2688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Kroo, S. Varró, G. Farkas, P. Dombi, D. Oszetzky, A. Nagy, and A. Czitrovszky, "Nonlinear plasmonics," J. Mod. Opt (to be published).

Dombi, P.

P. Dombi and P. Antal, "Investigation of a 200-nJ chirped-pulse Ti:sapphire oscillator for white light generation," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 538-542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Dombi, P. Antal, J. Fekete, R. Szipöcs, and Z. Várallyay, "Chirped-pulse supercontinuum generation with a long-cavity Ti:sapphire oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 88, 379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Irvine, P. Dombi, G. Farkas, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Influence of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle pulses on ponderomotive surface-plasmon electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kroo, S. Varró, G. Farkas, P. Dombi, D. Oszetzky, A. Nagy, and A. Czitrovszky, "Nonlinear plasmonics," J. Mod. Opt (to be published).

Elezzabi, A. Y.

S. E. Irvine, P. Dombi, G. Farkas, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Influence of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle pulses on ponderomotive surface-plasmon electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Ponderomotive electron acceleration using surface plasmon waves excited with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elsayed-Ali, H. E.

M. Aeschlimann, C.A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of surface-enhanced multiphoton photoemission from metal-surfaces in the short-pulse limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8813 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Farkas, G.

N. Kroo, S. Varró, G. Farkas, D. Oszetzky, A. Nagy, and A. Czitrovszky, "Quantum metal optics," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 2679-2688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Irvine, P. Dombi, G. Farkas, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Influence of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle pulses on ponderomotive surface-plasmon electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kroo, S. Varró, G. Farkas, P. Dombi, D. Oszetzky, A. Nagy, and A. Czitrovszky, "Nonlinear plasmonics," J. Mod. Opt (to be published).

Fekete, J.

P. Dombi, P. Antal, J. Fekete, R. Szipöcs, and Z. Várallyay, "Chirped-pulse supercontinuum generation with a long-cavity Ti:sapphire oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 88, 379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, J.

T. Tsang, T. Srinivasan-Rao, and J. Fisher, "Surface-plasmon field-enhanced multiohoton photoelectric-emission from metal-films," Phys. Rev. B 43, 8870-8878 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gandel'man, G. M.

M. B. Agranat, A. A. Benditskii, G. M. Gandel'man, P. S. Kondratenko, B. I. Makshantsev, G. I. Rukman, and B. M. Stepanov, "On the inertial glow of metals induced by psec laser pulses," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 79, 55 (1980), [Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 27 (1980)].

Hafner, J. H.

H. Liao, C. L. Nehl, and J. H. Hafner, "Biomedical applications of plasmon resonant metal nanoparticles," Nanomedicine 1, 201-208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

D. G. Hall and A. J. Braundmeier, "Angular-dependence of roughness-assisted surface-plasmon radiation - comparison of theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. B 17, 1557-1562 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Irvine, S. E.

S. E. Irvine, P. Dombi, G. Farkas, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Influence of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle pulses on ponderomotive surface-plasmon electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Ponderomotive electron acceleration using surface plasmon waves excited with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaroszynski, D.

J. Zawadzka, D. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130-2132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jin, J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y-I. Kim,Y-J. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, "High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement," Nature (London) 453, 757-760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y-I. Kim,Y-J. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, "High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement," Nature (London) 453, 757-760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y-I. Kim,Y-J. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, "High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement," Nature (London) 453, 757-760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y-I. Kim,Y-J. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, "High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement," Nature (London) 453, 757-760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y-I.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y-I. Kim,Y-J. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, "High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement," Nature (London) 453, 757-760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond nanoplasmonic field microscope," Nature Photon. 1, 539-540 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kling, M. F.

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond nanoplasmonic field microscope," Nature Photon. 1, 539-540 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kondratenko, P. S.

M. B. Agranat, A. A. Benditskii, G. M. Gandel'man, P. S. Kondratenko, B. I. Makshantsev, G. I. Rukman, and B. M. Stepanov, "On the inertial glow of metals induced by psec laser pulses," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 79, 55 (1980), [Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 27 (1980)].

Krausz, F.

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond nanoplasmonic field microscope," Nature Photon. 1, 539-540 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, "The angular dependence and the polarization of light emitted by surface plasmons on metals due to roughness," Opt. Comm. 5, 331-337 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kroo, N.

N. Kroo, S. Varró, G. Farkas, D. Oszetzky, A. Nagy, and A. Czitrovszky, "Quantum metal optics," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 2679-2688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Kroo, S. Varró, G. Farkas, P. Dombi, D. Oszetzky, A. Nagy, and A. Czitrovszky, "Nonlinear plasmonics," J. Mod. Opt (to be published).

Kulander, K.

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schaefer, and K. Kulander, "Theoretical aspect of intense field harmonic-generation," J. Phys. B. At. Mol.Opt. Phys. 24, 3315-3341 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kupersztych, J.

J. Kupersztych, P. Monchicourt, and M. Raynaud, "Ponderomotive acceleration of photoelectrons in surface-plasmon-assisted multiphoton photoelectric emission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5180-5183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schaefer, and K. Kulander, "Theoretical aspect of intense field harmonic-generation," J. Phys. B. At. Mol.Opt. Phys. 24, 3315-3341 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, H.

H. Liao, C. L. Nehl, and J. H. Hafner, "Biomedical applications of plasmon resonant metal nanoparticles," Nanomedicine 1, 201-208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Makshantsev, B. I.

M. B. Agranat, A. A. Benditskii, G. M. Gandel'man, P. S. Kondratenko, B. I. Makshantsev, G. I. Rukman, and B. M. Stepanov, "On the inertial glow of metals induced by psec laser pulses," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 79, 55 (1980), [Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 27 (1980)].

Mantell, D. A.

M. Aeschlimann, C.A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of surface-enhanced multiphoton photoemission from metal-surfaces in the short-pulse limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8813 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. J. D.

M. Aeschlimann, C.A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of surface-enhanced multiphoton photoemission from metal-surfaces in the short-pulse limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8813 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Monchicourt, P.

J. Kupersztych, P. Monchicourt, and M. Raynaud, "Ponderomotive acceleration of photoelectrons in surface-plasmon-assisted multiphoton photoelectric emission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5180-5183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mooradian, A.

A. Mooradian, "Photoluminescence of metals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 185-187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Nagy, A.

N. Kroo, S. Varró, G. Farkas, D. Oszetzky, A. Nagy, and A. Czitrovszky, "Quantum metal optics," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 2679-2688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Kroo, S. Varró, G. Farkas, P. Dombi, D. Oszetzky, A. Nagy, and A. Czitrovszky, "Nonlinear plasmonics," J. Mod. Opt (to be published).

Nehl, C. L.

H. Liao, C. L. Nehl, and J. H. Hafner, "Biomedical applications of plasmon resonant metal nanoparticles," Nanomedicine 1, 201-208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

S. Palomba and L. Novotny, "Nonlinear excitation of surface plasmon polaritons by four-wave mixing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oszetzky, D.

N. Kroo, S. Varró, G. Farkas, D. Oszetzky, A. Nagy, and A. Czitrovszky, "Quantum metal optics," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 2679-2688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Kroo, S. Varró, G. Farkas, P. Dombi, D. Oszetzky, A. Nagy, and A. Czitrovszky, "Nonlinear plasmonics," J. Mod. Opt (to be published).

Palomba, S.

S. Palomba and L. Novotny, "Nonlinear excitation of surface plasmon polaritons by four-wave mixing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y-J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y-I. Kim,Y-J. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, "High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement," Nature (London) 453, 757-760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, G. G.

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, and H. Walther, "Classical rescattering effects in 2-color above-threshold ionization," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4043-4053 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Qi, H.

J. Wu, H. Qi, and H. Zeng, "Extreme-ultraviolet frequency combs by surface-enhanced optical fields with diatomic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

R. Bruns and H. Raether, "Plasma resonance radiation from non-radiative plasmons," Z. Physik 237, 98-106 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Raynaud, M.

J. Kupersztych, P. Monchicourt, and M. Raynaud, "Ponderomotive acceleration of photoelectrons in surface-plasmon-assisted multiphoton photoelectric emission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5180-5183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rukman, G. I.

M. B. Agranat, A. A. Benditskii, G. M. Gandel'man, P. S. Kondratenko, B. I. Makshantsev, G. I. Rukman, and B. M. Stepanov, "On the inertial glow of metals induced by psec laser pulses," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 79, 55 (1980), [Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 27 (1980)].

Schaefer, K. J.

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schaefer, and K. Kulander, "Theoretical aspect of intense field harmonic-generation," J. Phys. B. At. Mol.Opt. Phys. 24, 3315-3341 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

M. Aeschlimann, C.A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of surface-enhanced multiphoton photoemission from metal-surfaces in the short-pulse limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8813 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, "Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and it enhancement on roughened surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 7923 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan-Rao, T.

T. Tsang, T. Srinivasan-Rao, and J. Fisher, "Surface-plasmon field-enhanced multiohoton photoelectric-emission from metal-films," Phys. Rev. B 43, 8870-8878 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, B. M.

M. B. Agranat, A. A. Benditskii, G. M. Gandel'man, P. S. Kondratenko, B. I. Makshantsev, G. I. Rukman, and B. M. Stepanov, "On the inertial glow of metals induced by psec laser pulses," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 79, 55 (1980), [Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 27 (1980)].

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond nanoplasmonic field microscope," Nature Photon. 1, 539-540 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Szipöcs, R.

P. Dombi, P. Antal, J. Fekete, R. Szipöcs, and Z. Várallyay, "Chirped-pulse supercontinuum generation with a long-cavity Ti:sapphire oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 88, 379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, T.

T. Tsang, T. Srinivasan-Rao, and J. Fisher, "Surface-plasmon field-enhanced multiohoton photoelectric-emission from metal-films," Phys. Rev. B 43, 8870-8878 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Várallyay, Z.

P. Dombi, P. Antal, J. Fekete, R. Szipöcs, and Z. Várallyay, "Chirped-pulse supercontinuum generation with a long-cavity Ti:sapphire oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 88, 379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Varró, S.

N. Kroo, S. Varró, G. Farkas, D. Oszetzky, A. Nagy, and A. Czitrovszky, "Quantum metal optics," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 2679-2688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Kroo, S. Varró, G. Farkas, P. Dombi, D. Oszetzky, A. Nagy, and A. Czitrovszky, "Nonlinear plasmonics," J. Mod. Opt (to be published).

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, and H. Walther, "Classical rescattering effects in 2-color above-threshold ionization," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4043-4053 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, H. Qi, and H. Zeng, "Extreme-ultraviolet frequency combs by surface-enhanced optical fields with diatomic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wynne, K.

J. Zawadzka, D. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130-2132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z. H.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, "Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and it enhancement on roughened surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 7923 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zawadzka, J.

J. Zawadzka, D. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130-2132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

J. Wu, H. Qi, and H. Zeng, "Extreme-ultraviolet frequency combs by surface-enhanced optical fields with diatomic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Dombi, P. Antal, J. Fekete, R. Szipöcs, and Z. Várallyay, "Chirped-pulse supercontinuum generation with a long-cavity Ti:sapphire oscillator," Appl. Phys. B 88, 379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Ponderomotive electron acceleration using surface plasmon waves excited with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zawadzka, D. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130-2132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Aeschlimann, C.A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of surface-enhanced multiphoton photoemission from metal-surfaces in the short-pulse limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8813 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt (1)

N. Kroo, S. Varró, G. Farkas, P. Dombi, D. Oszetzky, A. Nagy, and A. Czitrovszky, "Nonlinear plasmonics," J. Mod. Opt (to be published).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

N. Kroo, S. Varró, G. Farkas, D. Oszetzky, A. Nagy, and A. Czitrovszky, "Quantum metal optics," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 2679-2688 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B. At. Mol.Opt. Phys. (1)

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schaefer, and K. Kulander, "Theoretical aspect of intense field harmonic-generation," J. Phys. B. At. Mol.Opt. Phys. 24, 3315-3341 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Dombi and P. Antal, "Investigation of a 200-nJ chirped-pulse Ti:sapphire oscillator for white light generation," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 538-542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nanomedicine (1)

H. Liao, C. L. Nehl, and J. H. Hafner, "Biomedical applications of plasmon resonant metal nanoparticles," Nanomedicine 1, 201-208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y-I. Kim,Y-J. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, "High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement," Nature (London) 453, 757-760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photon. (1)

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond nanoplasmonic field microscope," Nature Photon. 1, 539-540 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comm. (1)

E. Kretschmann, "The angular dependence and the polarization of light emitted by surface plasmons on metals due to roughness," Opt. Comm. 5, 331-337 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

J. Wu, H. Qi, and H. Zeng, "Extreme-ultraviolet frequency combs by surface-enhanced optical fields with diatomic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 77, 053412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, and H. Walther, "Classical rescattering effects in 2-color above-threshold ionization," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4043-4053 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

D. G. Hall and A. J. Braundmeier, "Angular-dependence of roughness-assisted surface-plasmon radiation - comparison of theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. B 17, 1557-1562 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsang, T. Srinivasan-Rao, and J. Fisher, "Surface-plasmon field-enhanced multiohoton photoelectric-emission from metal-films," Phys. Rev. B 43, 8870-8878 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, "Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and it enhancement on roughened surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 7923 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. Palomba and L. Novotny, "Nonlinear excitation of surface plasmon polaritons by four-wave mixing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mooradian, "Photoluminescence of metals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 185-187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Kupersztych, P. Monchicourt, and M. Raynaud, "Ponderomotive acceleration of photoelectrons in surface-plasmon-assisted multiphoton photoelectric emission," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5180-5183 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Irvine, P. Dombi, G. Farkas, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Influence of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle pulses on ponderomotive surface-plasmon electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Physik (1)

R. Bruns and H. Raether, "Plasma resonance radiation from non-radiative plasmons," Z. Physik 237, 98-106 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

M. B. Agranat, A. A. Benditskii, G. M. Gandel'man, P. S. Kondratenko, B. I. Makshantsev, G. I. Rukman, and B. M. Stepanov, "On the inertial glow of metals induced by psec laser pulses," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 79, 55 (1980), [Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 27 (1980)].

Other (4)

M. A. Algatti, G. Farkas, and C. Tóth, "Experimental investigations on nonequilibrium electron and thermal light emission from metals induced by short laser pulses," Annual Report of the Central Research Institute for Physics, 66/D.E.F., Budapest (1987).

H. R. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, New York, 1988).

S. Varró, manuscript in preparation.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, "Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding," Nature Photon. 1, 641-648 (2007) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Scheme of the experimental setup (inset) and angular distribution of the SPP emitted light with 120-fs, p-polarized excitation pulses. The peak intensity was ~2×1010 W/cm2 (blue circles and dotted curve) and ~5×1011 W/cm2 (red squares and dashed curve). The distribution for s-polarization (stars) as well as a theoretical curve (thick solid line) are also shown. (b) Spectrum of the SPP emitted light for ~2×1010 W/cm2 (blue dotted curve) and ~5×1011 W/cm2 (red dashed curve).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity dependence of the SPP-emitted light with femtosecond SPP excitation (squares). Nonlinear deviation from the linear fit to the first points (dashed line) starting at 1.4×1011 W/cm2 focused intensity is observed.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Second harmonic (blue solid line) and continuum (green solid line) spectra scattered from the metal surface upon SPP excitation with 795-nm, 120-fs pulses.

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