Abstract

We numerically study the filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses at 2 µm carrier wavelength in noble gases (argon, xenon) and in air. Compared with filamentation in the near-visible domain (800 nm), mid-infrared optical sources with durations close to a single cycle can be generically produced at various pressures and powers near the self-focusing threshold. The mechanism by which self-compression takes place mainly involves optical self-focusing, pulse steepening and plasma defocusing. On-axis spectra and spectral phases are discussed. Delivering single-cycled pulses at long wavelengths has important applications in the generation of high-order harmonics and isolated attosecond pulses.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 20,73-75 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83,863-905 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 44,47-189 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70,1633-1713 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, "Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation," Opt. Express 16,466-493 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, "Femtosecond pulse compression in pressure-gas cells filled with argon," Phys. Rev. E 68,066603 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79,673-677 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament," Opt. Lett. 31,274-276 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, and L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations," Phys. Rev. E 74,056604 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Za¨ır, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, "Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation," Opt. Express 15,5394-5405 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. S. Uryupina, M. V. Kurilova, A. V. Mazhorova, A. B. Savel’ev, R. V. Volkov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air," Appl. Phys. B 91,35-43 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Bergé and S. Skupin, "Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,113902 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Couairon and H. S. Chakraborty and M. B. Gaarde, "From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases," Phys. Rev. A 77,053814 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Goulielmakis, S. Koehler, B. Reiter, M. Schultze, A. J. Verheof, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. M. Zheltikov, and F. Krausz, "Ultrabroadband, coherent light source based on self-channeling of few-cycle pulses in helium," Opt. Lett. 33,1407-1409 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Bergé and S. Skupin, "Sub-2 fs pulses generated by self-channeling in the deep ultraviolet," Opt. Lett. 33,750-752 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Nisoli, S. de Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szip¨oecs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, "Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs," Opt. Lett. 22,522-524 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Faccio, A. Lotti, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, S. Tzortzakis, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, "Spontaneous emergence of pulses with constant carrier-envelope phase in femtosecond filamentation," Opt. Express 16,11103-11114 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,5270-5273 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. Shan and Z. Chang, "Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field," Phys. Rev. A 65,011804(R) (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, J. Cryan, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. tate, J. Wheeler, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Strong field physics with long wavelength lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 54,1075-1085 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Sali`eres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,013901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, "Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2m from an optical filament," Opt. Lett. 32,868-870 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. Vozzi, C. Manzoni, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, "Characterization of a high-energy self-phase-stabilized near-infrared parametric source," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25,112-117 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Fuji and T. Suzuki, "Generation of sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in air," Opt. Lett. 32,3330-3332 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. D. Brida, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Sub-two-cycle light pulses at 1.6 m from an optical parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 33,741-743 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,3282-3285 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, "Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field," Sov. Phys. JETP 23,924-934 (1966).
  30. R. Nuter and L. Bergé, "Pulse chirping and ionization of O2 molecules for the filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in air," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23,874-884 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64,1191-1194 (1986).
  32. R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, "Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: Comparison between experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. A 67,063405 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  33. E. Cormier, P.-A. Hervieux, R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, and H. Helm, "ATI of complex systems: Ar and C60," Eur. Phys. J. D. 26,83-90 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. Dalgarno and A. E. Kingston, "The refractive indices and Verdet constants of the inert gases," Proc. Royal Soc. London A 259,424-429 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  35. E. R. Peck and K. Reeder, "Dispersion of Air," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62,958-962 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  36. D. P. Shelton, "Nonlinear-optical susceptibilities of gases measured at 1064 and 1319 nm," Phys. Rev. A 42,2578-2592 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. W. Liu and S. L. Chin, "Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Express 13,5750-5755 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. S. Skupin and L. Bergé, "Supercontinuum generation of ulrashort pulses in air at different central wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 280,173-182 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  39. S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, "(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments," Phys. Rev. E 77,036406 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  40. A. Talebpour, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, "Semi-empirical model for the rate of tunnel ionization of N2 and O2 molecule in an intense Ti:sapphire laser pulse," Opt. Commun. 163,29-32 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  41. D. Anderson and M. Lisak, "Nonlinear asymmetric self-phase modulation and self-steepening of pulses in long optical waveguides," Phys. Rev. A 27,1393-1398 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  42. N. Ak¨ozbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "White-light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 191,353-362 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  43. N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuška,W. Fuss, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8,177 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  44. S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, "Long-range multifilamentation of femtosecond laser pulses versus air pressure," Opt. Lett. 31,1301-1303 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Sauerbrey, "Pressure independence of intensity clamping during filamentation: theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. B 91,45-48 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  46. M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air," Opt. Lett. 23,382-384 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  47. J. K. Ranka and A. L. Gaeta, "Breakdown of the slowly varying envelope approximation in the self-focusing of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 23,534-536 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  48. G. G. Luther, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, and E. M. Wright, "Self-focusing threshold in normally dispersive media," Opt. Lett. 19,862-864 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. S. Uryupina, M. V. Kurilova, A. V. Mazhorova, A. B. Savel’ev, R. V. Volkov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air," Appl. Phys. B 91,35-43 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, "Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,113902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and H. S. Chakraborty and M. B. Gaarde, "From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases," Phys. Rev. A 77,053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, C. Manzoni, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, "Characterization of a high-energy self-phase-stabilized near-infrared parametric source," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25,112-117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, "(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments," Phys. Rev. E 77,036406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Sauerbrey, "Pressure independence of intensity clamping during filamentation: theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. B 91,45-48 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, "Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation," Opt. Express 16,466-493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Brida, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Sub-two-cycle light pulses at 1.6 m from an optical parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 33,741-743 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, "Sub-2 fs pulses generated by self-channeling in the deep ultraviolet," Opt. Lett. 33,750-752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, S. Koehler, B. Reiter, M. Schultze, A. J. Verheof, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. M. Zheltikov, and F. Krausz, "Ultrabroadband, coherent light source based on self-channeling of few-cycle pulses in helium," Opt. Lett. 33,1407-1409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, A. Lotti, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, S. Tzortzakis, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, "Spontaneous emergence of pulses with constant carrier-envelope phase in femtosecond filamentation," Opt. Express 16,11103-11114 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, "Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2m from an optical filament," Opt. Lett. 32,868-870 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Za¨ır, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, "Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation," Opt. Express 15,5394-5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji and T. Suzuki, "Generation of sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in air," Opt. Lett. 32,3330-3332 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Skupin and L. Bergé, "Supercontinuum generation of ulrashort pulses in air at different central wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 280,173-182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, J. Cryan, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. tate, J. Wheeler, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Strong field physics with long wavelength lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 54,1075-1085 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Sali`eres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 44,47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70,1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, and L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations," Phys. Rev. E 74,056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuška,W. Fuss, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8,177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament," Opt. Lett. 31,274-276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, "Long-range multifilamentation of femtosecond laser pulses versus air pressure," Opt. Lett. 31,1301-1303 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Nuter and L. Bergé, "Pulse chirping and ionization of O2 molecules for the filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in air," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23,874-884 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, "Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Express 13,5750-5755 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83,863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79,673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, "Femtosecond pulse compression in pressure-gas cells filled with argon," Phys. Rev. E 68,066603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, "Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: Comparison between experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. A 67,063405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Cormier, P.-A. Hervieux, R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, and H. Helm, "ATI of complex systems: Ar and C60," Eur. Phys. J. D. 26,83-90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

N. Ak¨ozbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "White-light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 191,353-362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Shan and Z. Chang, "Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field," Phys. Rev. A 65,011804(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,5270-5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, "Semi-empirical model for the rate of tunnel ionization of N2 and O2 molecule in an intense Ti:sapphire laser pulse," Opt. Commun. 163,29-32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

1995

1994

1990

D. P. Shelton, "Nonlinear-optical susceptibilities of gases measured at 1064 and 1319 nm," Phys. Rev. A 42,2578-2592 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64,1191-1194 (1986).

1983

D. Anderson and M. Lisak, "Nonlinear asymmetric self-phase modulation and self-steepening of pulses in long optical waveguides," Phys. Rev. A 27,1393-1398 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1972

1966

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, "Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field," Sov. Phys. JETP 23,924-934 (1966).

1960

A. Dalgarno and A. E. Kingston, "The refractive indices and Verdet constants of the inert gases," Proc. Royal Soc. London A 259,424-429 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, J. Cryan, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. tate, J. Wheeler, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Strong field physics with long wavelength lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 54,1075-1085 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Sali`eres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,5270-5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ak¨ozbek, N.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuška,W. Fuss, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8,177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Ak¨ozbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "White-light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 191,353-362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83,863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64,1191-1194 (1986).

Anderson, D.

D. Anderson and M. Lisak, "Nonlinear asymmetric self-phase modulation and self-steepening of pulses in long optical waveguides," Phys. Rev. A 27,1393-1398 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Auge, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auguste, T.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Sali`eres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, Ph.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuška,W. Fuss, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8,177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuška,W. Fuss, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8,177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83,863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, E.

C. Vozzi, C. Manzoni, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, "Characterization of a high-energy self-phase-stabilized near-infrared parametric source," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25,112-117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, "Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,113902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, "Sub-2 fs pulses generated by self-channeling in the deep ultraviolet," Opt. Lett. 33,750-752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, "(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments," Phys. Rev. E 77,036406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70,1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupin and L. Bergé, "Supercontinuum generation of ulrashort pulses in air at different central wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 280,173-182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Nuter and L. Bergé, "Pulse chirping and ionization of O2 molecules for the filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in air," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23,874-884 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, and L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations," Phys. Rev. E 74,056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, "Long-range multifilamentation of femtosecond laser pulses versus air pressure," Opt. Lett. 31,1301-1303 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, "Femtosecond pulse compression in pressure-gas cells filled with argon," Phys. Rev. E 68,066603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bernhardt, J.

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Sauerbrey, "Pressure independence of intensity clamping during filamentation: theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. B 91,45-48 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

A. Za¨ır, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, "Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation," Opt. Express 15,5394-5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79,673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blaga, C. I.

K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, J. Cryan, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. tate, J. Wheeler, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Strong field physics with long wavelength lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 54,1075-1085 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, "Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2m from an optical filament," Opt. Lett. 32,868-870 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloemer, M.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuška,W. Fuss, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8,177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bonora, S.

Bowden, C. M.

N. Ak¨ozbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "White-light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 191,353-362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,3282-3285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Breger, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brida, D.

Calegari, F.

C. Vozzi, C. Manzoni, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, "Characterization of a high-energy self-phase-stabilized near-infrared parametric source," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25,112-117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

C. Vozzi, C. Manzoni, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, "Characterization of a high-energy self-phase-stabilized near-infrared parametric source," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25,112-117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Brida, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Sub-two-cycle light pulses at 1.6 m from an optical parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 33,741-743 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chakraborty, H. S.

A. Couairon and H. S. Chakraborty and M. B. Gaarde, "From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases," Phys. Rev. A 77,053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Champeaux, S.

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, "(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments," Phys. Rev. E 77,036406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, "Long-range multifilamentation of femtosecond laser pulses versus air pressure," Opt. Lett. 31,1301-1303 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, "Femtosecond pulse compression in pressure-gas cells filled with argon," Phys. Rev. E 68,066603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

B. Shan and Z. Chang, "Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field," Phys. Rev. A 65,011804(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Sauerbrey, "Pressure independence of intensity clamping during filamentation: theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. B 91,45-48 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. S. Uryupina, M. V. Kurilova, A. V. Mazhorova, A. B. Savel’ev, R. V. Volkov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air," Appl. Phys. B 91,35-43 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, "Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Express 13,5750-5755 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83,863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Ak¨ozbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "White-light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 191,353-362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, "Semi-empirical model for the rate of tunnel ionization of N2 and O2 molecule in an intense Ti:sapphire laser pulse," Opt. Commun. 163,29-32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chirla, R.

K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, J. Cryan, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. tate, J. Wheeler, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Strong field physics with long wavelength lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 54,1075-1085 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, "Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2m from an optical filament," Opt. Lett. 32,868-870 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cirmi, G.

Colosimo, P.

C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, "Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2m from an optical filament," Opt. Lett. 32,868-870 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, J. Cryan, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. tate, J. Wheeler, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Strong field physics with long wavelength lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 54,1075-1085 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cormier, E.

E. Cormier, P.-A. Hervieux, R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, and H. Helm, "ATI of complex systems: Ar and C60," Eur. Phys. J. D. 26,83-90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, "Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: Comparison between experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. A 67,063405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

D. Faccio, A. Lotti, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, S. Tzortzakis, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, "Spontaneous emergence of pulses with constant carrier-envelope phase in femtosecond filamentation," Opt. Express 16,11103-11114 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and H. S. Chakraborty and M. B. Gaarde, "From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases," Phys. Rev. A 77,053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Za¨ır, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, "Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation," Opt. Express 15,5394-5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 44,47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79,673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cryan, J.

K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, J. Cryan, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. tate, J. Wheeler, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Strong field physics with long wavelength lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 54,1075-1085 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, "Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2m from an optical filament," Opt. Lett. 32,868-870 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalgarno, A.

A. Dalgarno and A. E. Kingston, "The refractive indices and Verdet constants of the inert gases," Proc. Royal Soc. London A 259,424-429 (1960).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

C. Vozzi, C. Manzoni, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, "Characterization of a high-energy self-phase-stabilized near-infrared parametric source," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25,112-117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Brida, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Sub-two-cycle light pulses at 1.6 m from an optical parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 33,741-743 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. de Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szip¨oecs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, "Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs," Opt. Lett. 22,522-524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64,1191-1194 (1986).

Di Trapani, P.

DiMauro, L. F.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Sali`eres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, "Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2m from an optical filament," Opt. Lett. 32,868-870 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, J. Cryan, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. tate, J. Wheeler, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Strong field physics with long wavelength lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 54,1075-1085 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,5270-5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Doumy, G.

Du, D.

Faccio, D.

Ferencz, K.

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

Fuji, T.

Fuss, W.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuška,W. Fuss, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8,177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaarde, M. B.

A. Couairon and H. S. Chakraborty and M. B. Gaarde, "From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases," Phys. Rev. A 77,053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,5270-5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Galegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gallmann, L.

Gordon, D.

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, "(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments," Phys. Rev. E 77,036406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, S. Koehler, B. Reiter, M. Schultze, A. J. Verheof, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. M. Zheltikov, and F. Krausz, "Ultrabroadband, coherent light source based on self-channeling of few-cycle pulses in helium," Opt. Lett. 33,1407-1409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuška,W. Fuss, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8,177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guandalini, A.

Hauri, C. P.

C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, "Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2m from an optical filament," Opt. Lett. 32,868-870 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79,673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, A.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79,673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79,673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

E. Cormier, P.-A. Hervieux, R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, and H. Helm, "ATI of complex systems: Ar and C60," Eur. Phys. J. D. 26,83-90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, "Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: Comparison between experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. A 67,063405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hervieux, P.-A.

E. Cormier, P.-A. Hervieux, R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, and H. Helm, "ATI of complex systems: Ar and C60," Eur. Phys. J. D. 26,83-90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holler, M.

Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83,863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. S. Uryupina, M. V. Kurilova, A. V. Mazhorova, A. B. Savel’ev, R. V. Volkov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air," Appl. Phys. B 91,35-43 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83,863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, "Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation," Opt. Express 16,466-493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70,1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

A. Za¨ır, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, "Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation," Opt. Express 15,5394-5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79,673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kingston, A. E.

A. Dalgarno and A. E. Kingston, "The refractive indices and Verdet constants of the inert gases," Proc. Royal Soc. London A 259,424-429 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Koehler, S.

Kolesik, M.

Korn, G.

Kornelis, W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79,673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. S. Uryupina, M. V. Kurilova, A. V. Mazhorova, A. B. Savel’ev, R. V. Volkov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air," Appl. Phys. B 91,35-43 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83,863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kosma, K.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuška,W. Fuss, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8,177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64,1191-1194 (1986).

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, S. Koehler, B. Reiter, M. Schultze, A. J. Verheof, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. M. Zheltikov, and F. Krausz, "Ultrabroadband, coherent light source based on self-channeling of few-cycle pulses in helium," Opt. Lett. 33,1407-1409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuška,W. Fuss, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8,177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. de Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szip¨oecs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, "Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs," Opt. Lett. 22,522-524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,3282-3285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kulander, K. C.

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,5270-5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kurilova, M. V.

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. S. Uryupina, M. V. Kurilova, A. V. Mazhorova, A. B. Savel’ev, R. V. Volkov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air," Appl. Phys. B 91,35-43 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, and L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations," Phys. Rev. E 74,056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lisak, M.

D. Anderson and M. Lisak, "Nonlinear asymmetric self-phase modulation and self-steepening of pulses in long optical waveguides," Phys. Rev. A 27,1393-1398 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Sauerbrey, "Pressure independence of intensity clamping during filamentation: theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. B 91,45-48 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83,863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, "Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Express 13,5750-5755 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Lopez-Martens, R. B.

Lotti, A.

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83,863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luther, G. G.

Manzoni, C.

C. Vozzi, C. Manzoni, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, "Characterization of a high-energy self-phase-stabilized near-infrared parametric source," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25,112-117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Brida, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Sub-two-cycle light pulses at 1.6 m from an optical parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 33,741-743 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

March, A. M.

C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, "Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2m from an optical filament," Opt. Lett. 32,868-870 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, J. Cryan, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. tate, J. Wheeler, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Strong field physics with long wavelength lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 54,1075-1085 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. D. D.

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,5270-5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mazhorova, A. V.

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. S. Uryupina, M. V. Kurilova, A. V. Mazhorova, A. B. Savel’ev, R. V. Volkov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air," Appl. Phys. B 91,35-43 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mlejnek, M.

Moloney, J. V.

Mourou, G.

Muller, H. G.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Sali`eres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 44,47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Za¨ır, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, "Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation," Opt. Express 15,5394-5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79,673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Newell, A. C.

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, C. Manzoni, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, "Characterization of a high-energy self-phase-stabilized near-infrared parametric source," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25,112-117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. de Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szip¨oecs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, "Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs," Opt. Lett. 22,522-524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70,1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Nuter and L. Bergé, "Pulse chirping and ionization of O2 molecules for the filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in air," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23,874-884 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panja, S.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuška,W. Fuss, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8,177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panov, N. A.

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. S. Uryupina, M. V. Kurilova, A. V. Mazhorova, A. B. Savel’ev, R. V. Volkov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air," Appl. Phys. B 91,35-43 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peck, E. R.

Peñano, J.

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, "(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments," Phys. Rev. E 77,036406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perelomov, A. M.

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, "Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field," Sov. Phys. JETP 23,924-934 (1966).

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Popov, V. S.

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, "Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field," Sov. Phys. JETP 23,924-934 (1966).

Power, E. P.

Ranka, J. K.

Reeder, K.

Reiter, B.

Roedig, C.

K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, J. Cryan, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. tate, J. Wheeler, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Strong field physics with long wavelength lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 54,1075-1085 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, "Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2m from an optical filament," Opt. Lett. 32,868-870 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sali`eres, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Sali`eres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

C. Vozzi, C. Manzoni, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, "Characterization of a high-energy self-phase-stabilized near-infrared parametric source," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25,112-117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sartania, S.

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Sauerbrey, "Pressure independence of intensity clamping during filamentation: theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. B 91,45-48 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Savel’ev, A. B.

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. S. Uryupina, M. V. Kurilova, A. V. Mazhorova, A. B. Savel’ev, R. V. Volkov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air," Appl. Phys. B 91,35-43 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuška,W. Fuss, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8,177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Ak¨ozbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "White-light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 191,353-362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K. J.

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,5270-5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schapper, F.

Schmid, W. E.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuška,W. Fuss, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8,177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schnürer, M.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, and L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations," Phys. Rev. E 74,056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83,863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, K. D.

C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, "Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2m from an optical filament," Opt. Lett. 32,868-870 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, J. Cryan, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. tate, J. Wheeler, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Strong field physics with long wavelength lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 54,1075-1085 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

Serebryannikov, E. E.

Shan, B.

B. Shan and Z. Chang, "Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field," Phys. Rev. A 65,011804(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sheehy, B.

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,5270-5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, D. P.

D. P. Shelton, "Nonlinear-optical susceptibilities of gases measured at 1064 and 1319 nm," Phys. Rev. A 42,2578-2592 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sistrunk, E.

C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, "Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2m from an optical filament," Opt. Lett. 32,868-870 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, J. Cryan, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. tate, J. Wheeler, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Strong field physics with long wavelength lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 54,1075-1085 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, "Sub-2 fs pulses generated by self-channeling in the deep ultraviolet," Opt. Lett. 33,750-752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, "Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,113902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Skupin and L. Bergé, "Supercontinuum generation of ulrashort pulses in air at different central wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 280,173-182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70,1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, and L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations," Phys. Rev. E 74,056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sokollik, T.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, and L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations," Phys. Rev. E 74,056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

Sprangle, P.

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, "(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments," Phys. Rev. E 77,036406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, C. Manzoni, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, "Characterization of a high-energy self-phase-stabilized near-infrared parametric source," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25,112-117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, and L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations," Phys. Rev. E 74,056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament," Opt. Lett. 31,274-276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stibenz, G.

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament," Opt. Lett. 31,274-276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, and L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations," Phys. Rev. E 74,056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

Svelto, O.

Szip¨oecs, R.

Talebpour, A.

A. Talebpour, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, "Semi-empirical model for the rate of tunnel ionization of N2 and O2 molecule in an intense Ti:sapphire laser pulse," Opt. Commun. 163,29-32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

tate, J.

K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, J. Cryan, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. tate, J. Wheeler, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Strong field physics with long wavelength lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 54,1075-1085 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, "Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2m from an optical filament," Opt. Lett. 32,868-870 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Sali`eres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terent’ev, M. V.

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, "Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field," Sov. Phys. JETP 23,924-934 (1966).

Théberge, F.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83,863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ting, A.

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, "(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments," Phys. Rev. E 77,036406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trushin, S. A.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuška,W. Fuss, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8,177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

Uiberacker, M.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuška,W. Fuss, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8,177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uryupina, D. S.

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. S. Uryupina, M. V. Kurilova, A. V. Mazhorova, A. B. Savel’ev, R. V. Volkov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air," Appl. Phys. B 91,35-43 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verheof, A. J.

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Brida, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Sub-two-cycle light pulses at 1.6 m from an optical parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 33,741-743 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkov, R. V.

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. S. Uryupina, M. V. Kurilova, A. V. Mazhorova, A. B. Savel’ev, R. V. Volkov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air," Appl. Phys. B 91,35-43 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, C. Manzoni, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, "Characterization of a high-energy self-phase-stabilized near-infrared parametric source," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25,112-117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wheeler, J.

C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, "Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2m from an optical filament," Opt. Lett. 32,868-870 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, J. Cryan, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. tate, J. Wheeler, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Strong field physics with long wavelength lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 54,1075-1085 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wiehle, R.

E. Cormier, P.-A. Hervieux, R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, and H. Helm, "ATI of complex systems: Ar and C60," Eur. Phys. J. D. 26,83-90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, "Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: Comparison between experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. A 67,063405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Witzel, B.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, "Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: Comparison between experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. A 67,063405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Cormier, P.-A. Hervieux, R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, and H. Helm, "ATI of complex systems: Ar and C60," Eur. Phys. J. D. 26,83-90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, "Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation," Opt. Express 16,466-493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70,1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

Yang, J.

A. Talebpour, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, "Semi-empirical model for the rate of tunnel ionization of N2 and O2 molecule in an intense Ti:sapphire laser pulse," Opt. Commun. 163,29-32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Za¨ir, A.

Zhavoronkov, N.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, and L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations," Phys. Rev. E 74,056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament," Opt. Lett. 31,274-276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheltikov, A. M.

Appl. Phys. B

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79,673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. S. Uryupina, M. V. Kurilova, A. V. Mazhorova, A. B. Savel’ev, R. V. Volkov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air," Appl. Phys. B 91,35-43 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Sauerbrey, "Pressure independence of intensity clamping during filamentation: theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. B 91,45-48 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83,863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D.

E. Cormier, P.-A. Hervieux, R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, and H. Helm, "ATI of complex systems: Ar and C60," Eur. Phys. J. D. 26,83-90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, J. Cryan, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. tate, J. Wheeler, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Strong field physics with long wavelength lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 54,1075-1085 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

C. Vozzi, C. Manzoni, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, "Characterization of a high-energy self-phase-stabilized near-infrared parametric source," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25,112-117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Nuter and L. Bergé, "Pulse chirping and ionization of O2 molecules for the filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in air," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23,874-884 (2006).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuška,W. Fuss, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8,177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

N. Ak¨ozbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "White-light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 191,353-362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupin and L. Bergé, "Supercontinuum generation of ulrashort pulses in air at different central wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 280,173-182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, "Semi-empirical model for the rate of tunnel ionization of N2 and O2 molecule in an intense Ti:sapphire laser pulse," Opt. Commun. 163,29-32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

T. Fuji and T. Suzuki, "Generation of sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in air," Opt. Lett. 32,3330-3332 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Brida, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Sub-two-cycle light pulses at 1.6 m from an optical parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 33,741-743 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, "Sub-2 fs pulses generated by self-channeling in the deep ultraviolet," Opt. Lett. 33,750-752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, S. Koehler, B. Reiter, M. Schultze, A. J. Verheof, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. M. Zheltikov, and F. Krausz, "Ultrabroadband, coherent light source based on self-channeling of few-cycle pulses in helium," Opt. Lett. 33,1407-1409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, "Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2m from an optical filament," Opt. Lett. 32,868-870 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament," Opt. Lett. 31,274-276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, "Long-range multifilamentation of femtosecond laser pulses versus air pressure," Opt. Lett. 31,1301-1303 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Luther, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, and E. M. Wright, "Self-focusing threshold in normally dispersive media," Opt. Lett. 19,862-864 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 20,73-75 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. de Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szip¨oecs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, "Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs," Opt. Lett. 22,522-524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air," Opt. Lett. 23,382-384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka and A. L. Gaeta, "Breakdown of the slowly varying envelope approximation in the self-focusing of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 23,534-536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 44,47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

A. Couairon and H. S. Chakraborty and M. B. Gaarde, "From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases," Phys. Rev. A 77,053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Shan and Z. Chang, "Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field," Phys. Rev. A 65,011804(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, "Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: Comparison between experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. A 67,063405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Anderson and M. Lisak, "Nonlinear asymmetric self-phase modulation and self-steepening of pulses in long optical waveguides," Phys. Rev. A 27,1393-1398 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Shelton, "Nonlinear-optical susceptibilities of gases measured at 1064 and 1319 nm," Phys. Rev. A 42,2578-2592 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E

S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, "(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments," Phys. Rev. E 77,036406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, "Femtosecond pulse compression in pressure-gas cells filled with argon," Phys. Rev. E 68,066603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, and L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations," Phys. Rev. E 74,056604 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, "Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,113902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,5270-5273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Sali`eres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,3282-3285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Royal Soc. London A

A. Dalgarno and A. E. Kingston, "The refractive indices and Verdet constants of the inert gases," Proc. Royal Soc. London A 259,424-429 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70,1633-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64,1191-1194 (1986).

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, "Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field," Sov. Phys. JETP 23,924-934 (1966).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Ionization rates plotted from the PPT formula Eq. (4) with ion charge Z=1 and angular momentum equal to 1 for atom gases and 0 for air [30] at central wavelengths (a) 800 nm and (b) 2 µm. The blue curves refer to ionization in argon; the red curves correspond to xenon, and the green curves show the ionization rate in air for O2 molecules.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Peak intensities at 800 nm (a) in Ar for p=1 bar (solid curve), p=0.5 bar (dashed curve) and p=2 bar (dash-dotted curve); (b) in Xe at 2 bar (dotted curve), 1 bar (dash-dotted curve), 0.5 bar (dashed curve), and in air at 1 bar pressure (solid curve). Power ratios are specified in the text. (c) Peak electron densities in the zoomed filamentation range 0.3≤z≤0.55 m for Ar at 1 bar (solid curve) and in Xe at 0.5 bar (dashed curve), 1 bar (dash-dotted curve) and 2 bar (dotted curve). (d) Filament waist for Ar at 1 bar (blue solid curve), Xe at 0.5 bar (dashed curve), 1 bar (dash-dotted curve) and 2 bar (dotted curve) in the same range. The green solid curve shows wfil for air at p=1 bar.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temporal evolution of 800 nm Gaussian pulses in the (t,z) plane for (a) argon and (b) air at 1 bar pressure, and for xenon at (c) 1 bar pressure and (d) 0.5 bar pressure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) On-axis temporal profiles and (b) on-axis spectra (left axis) with spectral phases (right axis) for argon at 1 bar pressure, z=0.9 m (solid curve, FWHM=6.5 fs) and xenon at 0.5 bar pressure, z=0.6 m (dashed curve, FWHM=7 fs). The dashed-dotted line in Fig. 4(a) illustrates the latter case when the self-steepening operators are artificially suppressed (T=T -1=1). The dotted curve of Fig. 4(b) refers to the spectrum in argon at z=0.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Peak intensities at 2 µm (a) in Ar for p=1 bar (dash-dotted curve), p=0.5 bar (dashed curve) with P in=1P cr, and for p=1 bar with P in=1.2P cr (solid curve); (b) in Xe at 1 bar (dash-dotted curve) and 0.5 bar (dashed curve) for P in=1.3P cr, and in air at 1 bar (solid curve) and 2 bar (dotted curve) for P in=2.2P cr. (c) Peak electron densities in Ar and air at different pressures with the same plotstyles as in Figs. 5(a)–5(b). (d) Filament waists for the previous cases. The red dash-dotted curve shows the filament waist in Xe at 1 bar.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Temporal evolution of 2 µm Gaussian pulses in the (t,z) plane for (a) Xe at p=0.5 bar and P in=1.3P cr; (b) air at p=1 bar and P in=2.2P cr; (c) Ar at 1 bar pressure and P in=1.2P cr, and (d) Ar at 0.5 bar pressure and P in=1P cr.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) On-axis temporal profiles for argon at 1 bar pressure, z=0.6 m with (solid curve, FWHM=6.5 fs) and without pulse steepening (dash-dotted curve, FWHM=7.5 fs), and at 0.5 bar pressure, z=0.8 m (dashed curve, FWHM=5.5 fs). (b) On-axis spectra (left axis) with spectral phases (right axis) in 1 bar argon and in the xenon case (dashed curves) shown in Fig. 6(a). The dotted curve represents the spectrum in argon at z=0.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

On-axis spectra of Gaussian pulses at distance of maximal compression (a) at 800 nm in 1 bar pressure Ar (blue solid curve), 0.5 bar Xe (red dashed curve) and in 1 bar air (green solid curve); (b) at 2 µm in 1 bar Ar with (blue solid curve) and without (blue dash-dotted curve) steepening terms [Fig. 7(a)], and in 0.5 bar Xe (red dashed curve).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Physical parameters for Ar, Xe and air at 800 nm and 2 µm for the pressure p=1 bar. ρ nt is equal to 2.7×1019 cm-3 for the noble gases, and to 5.4×1018 cm-3 for the 20% dioxygen molecules of air. The critical plasma density takes the value ρ cr≃1.11×1021/λ 2 0[µm]. The last line contains estimations of I max computed from Eq. (7).

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

z U = i 2 k 0 T 1 2 U + i D U + i ω 0 c n 2 T × [ ( 1 x K ) U 2 + x K t h ( t t ) U ( t ) 2 dt ] U
i k 0 2 n 0 2 ρ c T 1 ρ U σ 2 ρ U ( ρ nt ρ ) U i W ( I ) 2 I U ,
h ( t ) = τ 1 2 + τ 2 2 τ 1 τ 2 2 e t τ 2 sin ( t τ 1 ) ,
t ρ = W ( I ) ( ρ nt ρ ) + σ U i ρ I ,
W ( E p ) = 4 2 π C n * , l * 2 ( 2 E 0 E p 1 + γ 2 ) 2 n * 3 2 m f ( l , m ) m ! e 2 ν [ sinh 1 ( γ ) γ 1 + γ 2 1 + 2 γ 2 ]
× U i γ 2 1 + γ 2 κ ν 0 + e α ( κ ν ) Φ m ( β ( κ ν ) ) ,
C n * , l * 2 = 2 2 n * n * Γ ( n * + l * + 1 ) Γ ( n * l * ) , f ( l , m ) = ( 2 l + 1 ) ( l + m ) ! 2 m m ! ( l m ) !
U ( r , z = 0 , t ) = 2 P in π w 0 2 e r 2 w 0 2 t 2 t p 2 ,
I fil ρ fil 2 ρ c n 0 n ̅ 2 , ρ fil Δ T ρ nt W ( I fil ) , W fil 2 π ( 2 k 0 2 n ̅ 2 I fil n 0 ) 1 2 ,
n ̅ 2 = n 2 ( 1 x K ) + n 2 x K max t t h ( t t ) e 2 t 2 t p 2 dt
Δ ω k 0 Δ z t ( n ̅ 2 I ρ 2 n 0 ρ c ) ,

Metrics