Abstract

A scheme for mitigating patterning effects in wavelength conversion by using a concatenated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and electroabsorption modulator (EAM) is proposed. The optimization of the parameters of the semiconductor devices and receiver electronics is theoretically investigated. The bit error ratio (BER) of the output signals in both the co-propagating and the counter-propagating configurations is quantitatively evaluated. The simulation results indicate that the patterning effect in wavelength conversion due to the slow recovery of the carrier density in the SOA can be well compensated by a concatenated EAM. The simulation results are confirmed by preliminary pump-probe experiment using a 10Gb/s clock pulse train.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Inoue, "Technique to compensate waveform distortion in a gain-saturated semiconductor optical amplifier using a semiconductor saturable absorber," Electron. Lett. 34, 376-378 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Vivero, N. Calabretta, I. T. Monroy, G. CarvalhoKassar, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. Mørk, "10 Gb/s-NRZ Optical 2R-Regeneration in Two-Section SOA-EA Chip," in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2007. LEOS 2007. The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE, 806-807 (2007).
  3. F. Öhman and J. Mørk, "Modeling of bit error rate in cascaded 2R regenerators," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1057-1063 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Öhman, R. Kjær, L. J. Christiansen, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, "Steep and Adjustable Transfer Functions of Monolithic SOA-EA 2R Regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 18, 1067C1069 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. L. Hansen, M. V. Poel, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, "Experimental Observation of Pulse Delay and Speed-up in Cascaded QuantumWell Gain and Absorber Media," in Slow and Fast Light, (Optical Society of America, 2008), JMB11.
  6. M. J. R. Heck, A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Monolithic Semiconductor Waveguide Device Concept for Picosecond Pulse Amplification, Isolation, and Spectral Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 910-922 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. J. R. Heck, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, A. Fryda, J. Hyun-Do, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Characterization of a Monolithic Concatenated SOA/SA Waveguide Device for Picosecond Pulse Amplification and Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 360-369 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. J. Manning, X. Yang, R. P. Webb, R. Giller, F. C. Garcia Gunning, and A. D. Ellis, "The turbo-switch -a novel technique to increase the high-speed response of SOAs for wavelength conversion," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006 and the 2006 National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference. OFC 2006, (2006).
  9. A. Mecozzi and J. Mørk, "Saturation induced by picosecond pulses in semiconductor optical amplifiers " J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 761 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Uskov, J. Mørk, and J. Mark, "Theory of short-pulse gain saturation in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 443-446 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Mørk and J. Mark, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of semiconductor laser devices: experiments and modeling," Proceedings of SPIE.Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices III, Marek Osinski, Weng W. Chow, Editors 2399, 146-159 (1995).
  12. M. L. Nielsen, J. Mørk, R. Suzuki, J. Sakaguchi, and Y. Ueno, "Experimental and theoretical investigation of the impact of ultra-fast carrier dynamics on high-speed SOA-based all-optical switches," Opt. Express 14, 331-347 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-1-331
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Francis Romstad, "Absorption and refractive index dynamics in waveguide semiconductor electroabsorbers," PhD thesis, Research Center COM, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark, 84-86 (2002).
  14. J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, "Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676-678 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Højfeldt, S. Bischoff, and J. Mørk, "All-optical wavelength conversion and signal regeneration using an electroabsorption modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1121-1127 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Mørk, R. Kjær, M. van der Poel, and K. Yvind, "Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide at gigahertz frequencies," Opt. Express 13, 8136-8145 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8136
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. F. Öhman, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, "Voltage-controlled slow light in an integrated semiconductor structure with net gain," Opt. Express 14, 9955-9962 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-21-9955
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Pauer, P. J. Winter, and W. R. Leeb, "Bit error probability reduction in direct detection optical receivers using RZ coding," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1255-1262 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. J. R. Heck, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, A. Fryda, J. Hyun-Do, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Characterization of a Monolithic Concatenated SOA/SA Waveguide Device for Picosecond Pulse Amplification and Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 360-369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. J. R. Heck, A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Monolithic Semiconductor Waveguide Device Concept for Picosecond Pulse Amplification, Isolation, and Spectral Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 910-922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

K. Inoue, "Technique to compensate waveform distortion in a gain-saturated semiconductor optical amplifier using a semiconductor saturable absorber," Electron. Lett. 34, 376-378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, "Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676-678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Uskov, J. Mørk, and J. Mark, "Theory of short-pulse gain saturation in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 443-446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Allin, D. S.

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, "Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676-678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barbarin, Y.

M. J. R. Heck, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, A. Fryda, J. Hyun-Do, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Characterization of a Monolithic Concatenated SOA/SA Waveguide Device for Picosecond Pulse Amplification and Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 360-369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. R. Heck, A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Monolithic Semiconductor Waveguide Device Concept for Picosecond Pulse Amplification, Isolation, and Spectral Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 910-922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bente, A. J. M.

M. J. R. Heck, A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Monolithic Semiconductor Waveguide Device Concept for Picosecond Pulse Amplification, Isolation, and Spectral Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 910-922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bente, E. A. J. M.

M. J. R. Heck, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, A. Fryda, J. Hyun-Do, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Characterization of a Monolithic Concatenated SOA/SA Waveguide Device for Picosecond Pulse Amplification and Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 360-369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bischoff, S.

Bowers, J. E.

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, "Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676-678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Christiansen, L. J.

F. Öhman, R. Kjær, L. J. Christiansen, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, "Steep and Adjustable Transfer Functions of Monolithic SOA-EA 2R Regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 18, 1067C1069 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Derickson, D. J.

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, "Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676-678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fryda, A.

M. J. R. Heck, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, A. Fryda, J. Hyun-Do, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Characterization of a Monolithic Concatenated SOA/SA Waveguide Device for Picosecond Pulse Amplification and Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 360-369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heck, M. J. R.

M. J. R. Heck, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, A. Fryda, J. Hyun-Do, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Characterization of a Monolithic Concatenated SOA/SA Waveguide Device for Picosecond Pulse Amplification and Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 360-369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. R. Heck, A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Monolithic Semiconductor Waveguide Device Concept for Picosecond Pulse Amplification, Isolation, and Spectral Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 910-922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Helkey, R. J.

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, "Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676-678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Højfeldt, S.

Hyun-Do, J.

M. J. R. Heck, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, A. Fryda, J. Hyun-Do, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Characterization of a Monolithic Concatenated SOA/SA Waveguide Device for Picosecond Pulse Amplification and Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 360-369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, "Technique to compensate waveform distortion in a gain-saturated semiconductor optical amplifier using a semiconductor saturable absorber," Electron. Lett. 34, 376-378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karin, J. R.

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, "Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676-678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kjær, R.

F. Öhman, R. Kjær, L. J. Christiansen, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, "Steep and Adjustable Transfer Functions of Monolithic SOA-EA 2R Regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 18, 1067C1069 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mørk, R. Kjær, M. van der Poel, and K. Yvind, "Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide at gigahertz frequencies," Opt. Express 13, 8136-8145 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8136
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leeb, W. R.

Lenstra, D.

M. J. R. Heck, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, A. Fryda, J. Hyun-Do, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Characterization of a Monolithic Concatenated SOA/SA Waveguide Device for Picosecond Pulse Amplification and Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 360-369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. R. Heck, A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Monolithic Semiconductor Waveguide Device Concept for Picosecond Pulse Amplification, Isolation, and Spectral Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 910-922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mark, J.

A. Uskov, J. Mørk, and J. Mark, "Theory of short-pulse gain saturation in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 443-446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mecozzi, A.

Mørk, J.

F. Öhman and J. Mørk, "Modeling of bit error rate in cascaded 2R regenerators," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1057-1063 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Öhman, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, "Voltage-controlled slow light in an integrated semiconductor structure with net gain," Opt. Express 14, 9955-9962 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-21-9955
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Öhman, R. Kjær, L. J. Christiansen, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, "Steep and Adjustable Transfer Functions of Monolithic SOA-EA 2R Regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 18, 1067C1069 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Nielsen, J. Mørk, R. Suzuki, J. Sakaguchi, and Y. Ueno, "Experimental and theoretical investigation of the impact of ultra-fast carrier dynamics on high-speed SOA-based all-optical switches," Opt. Express 14, 331-347 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-1-331
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mørk, R. Kjær, M. van der Poel, and K. Yvind, "Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide at gigahertz frequencies," Opt. Express 13, 8136-8145 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8136
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Højfeldt, S. Bischoff, and J. Mørk, "All-optical wavelength conversion and signal regeneration using an electroabsorption modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1121-1127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Mecozzi and J. Mørk, "Saturation induced by picosecond pulses in semiconductor optical amplifiers " J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 761 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Uskov, J. Mørk, and J. Mark, "Theory of short-pulse gain saturation in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 443-446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nagarajan, R.

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, "Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676-678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M. L.

Notzel, R.

M. J. R. Heck, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, A. Fryda, J. Hyun-Do, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Characterization of a Monolithic Concatenated SOA/SA Waveguide Device for Picosecond Pulse Amplification and Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 360-369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Öhman, F.

Pauer, M.

Sakaguchi, J.

Smit, M. K.

M. J. R. Heck, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, A. Fryda, J. Hyun-Do, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Characterization of a Monolithic Concatenated SOA/SA Waveguide Device for Picosecond Pulse Amplification and Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 360-369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. R. Heck, A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Monolithic Semiconductor Waveguide Device Concept for Picosecond Pulse Amplification, Isolation, and Spectral Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 910-922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, R.

Thornton, R. L.

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, "Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676-678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, Y.

Uskov, A.

A. Uskov, J. Mørk, and J. Mark, "Theory of short-pulse gain saturation in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 443-446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

van der Poel, M.

Winter, P. J.

Yok-Siang, O.

M. J. R. Heck, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, A. Fryda, J. Hyun-Do, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Characterization of a Monolithic Concatenated SOA/SA Waveguide Device for Picosecond Pulse Amplification and Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 360-369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yvind, , K.

Yvind, K.

F. Öhman, R. Kjær, L. J. Christiansen, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, "Steep and Adjustable Transfer Functions of Monolithic SOA-EA 2R Regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 18, 1067C1069 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mørk, R. Kjær, M. van der Poel, and K. Yvind, "Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide at gigahertz frequencies," Opt. Express 13, 8136-8145 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8136
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. R. Karin, R. J. Helkey, D. J. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. S. Allin, J. E. Bowers, and R. L. Thornton, "Ultrafast dynamics in field-enhanced saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676-678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Inoue, "Technique to compensate waveform distortion in a gain-saturated semiconductor optical amplifier using a semiconductor saturable absorber," Electron. Lett. 34, 376-378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. J. R. Heck, A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Monolithic Semiconductor Waveguide Device Concept for Picosecond Pulse Amplification, Isolation, and Spectral Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 910-922 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. R. Heck, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. Barbarin, A. Fryda, J. Hyun-Do, O. Yok-Siang, R. Notzel, D. Lenstra, and M. K. Smit, "Characterization of a Monolithic Concatenated SOA/SA Waveguide Device for Picosecond Pulse Amplification and Shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 360-369 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

F. Öhman, R. Kjær, L. J. Christiansen, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, "Steep and Adjustable Transfer Functions of Monolithic SOA-EA 2R Regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 18, 1067C1069 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Uskov, J. Mørk, and J. Mark, "Theory of short-pulse gain saturation in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 443-446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Other (5)

J. Mørk and J. Mark, "Time-resolved spectroscopy of semiconductor laser devices: experiments and modeling," Proceedings of SPIE.Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices III, Marek Osinski, Weng W. Chow, Editors 2399, 146-159 (1995).

Francis Romstad, "Absorption and refractive index dynamics in waveguide semiconductor electroabsorbers," PhD thesis, Research Center COM, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark, 84-86 (2002).

T. Vivero, N. Calabretta, I. T. Monroy, G. CarvalhoKassar, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, and J. Mørk, "10 Gb/s-NRZ Optical 2R-Regeneration in Two-Section SOA-EA Chip," in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2007. LEOS 2007. The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE, 806-807 (2007).

P. L. Hansen, M. V. Poel, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, "Experimental Observation of Pulse Delay and Speed-up in Cascaded QuantumWell Gain and Absorber Media," in Slow and Fast Light, (Optical Society of America, 2008), JMB11.

R. J. Manning, X. Yang, R. P. Webb, R. Giller, F. C. Garcia Gunning, and A. D. Ellis, "The turbo-switch -a novel technique to increase the high-speed response of SOAs for wavelength conversion," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006 and the 2006 National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference. OFC 2006, (2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of (a) the gain of the probe light in the SOA in response of a short pump pulse, (b) the gain in the EAM and (c) the superposition of the combined output. (d) shows the normalized measured output power for a single SOA (red curve) and the SOA+EAM configuration (green curve). The pump signal is a 10GHz clock pulse train.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental set-up for wavelength conversion using cascaded SOA and EAM in (a) co-propagating configuration and (b) counter-propagating configuration.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a)The power penalty estimated at the output attributed to a concatenated SOAEAM at a BER of 10-9 is compared to a single SOA and (b) the pulse gain response versus the sweep-out time of the EAM for different propagating configurations and lengths of the EAM. The SOA length is fixed at 1000µm and the bitrate is 40Gb/s. The inset in (b) shows how the normalized combined output varies with time in the counter-propagating configuration in a well compensated situation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The BER of the output probe light versus the bitrate for different configurations. The eye-diagrams are corresponding to the co-propagating configuration (co.), counter-propagating configuration (count.) and without EAM (W/O) at the bitrate of 10Gb/s, 80Gb/s and 160Gb/s, respectively.

Equations (1)

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BER = 1 2 m 1 { j = 1 2 m 1 1 2 erfc [ i 1 j i th 2 σ 1 , j ] + j = 1 2 m 1 1 1 2 erfc [ i th i 0 , j 2 σ 0 , j ] }

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